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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acknowledgments." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5776.
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B

Acknowledgments

The Panel on Calcium and Related Nutrients, the Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Food and Nutrition Board staff are grateful for the time and effort of the many contributors to the report and the workshops and meetings leading up to the report. Through openly sharing their considerable expertise and different outlooks, these individuals and organizations brought clarity and focus to the challenging task of setting calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride requirements for humans. The list below mentions those individuals who we worked closely with, but many others also deserve our heartfelt thanks. Those individuals, whose names we do not know, made important contributions to the report by offering suggestions and opinions at the many professional meetings and workshops the committee members attended. The panel, subcommittee, and committee members, as well as the FNB staff thank the following named (as well as unnamed) individuals and organizations:

INDIVIDUALS

Richard Allison

Burton Altura

Harvey Anderson

John Anderson

Sue Anderson

Mark B. Andon

Laura Baird

Lewis A. Barness

George Beaton

Norman Bell

Bernice Berg

Douglas Buck

Albert W. Burgstahler

David Burmaster

Elsworth Buskirk

Doris Calloway

Mona Calvo

Alicia Carriquiry

Florian Cerkelwski

Kevin Cockell

Olwen Collins

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acknowledgments." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5776.
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Richard J. Deckelbaum

Hector DeLuca

Annette Dickinson

Kevin Dodd

Michael Dourson

Harold Draper

Jacqueline Dupont

Ronald J. Elin

Mark Epstein

Nancy Ernst

Richard Foulkes

Susan Fourt

Kay Franz

David Gaylor

Sheila Gibson

Michael Glade

George Glasser

Jay Goodman

Peter Greenwald

Janet Greger

Raj K. Gupta

Jean Pierre Habicht

Charles Halsted

Alfred Harper

Suzanne Harris

John Hathcock

Daniel Hatton

J.G.A.J. Hautvast

Mark Hegsted

James Heimbach

Charles Hennekens

Steven Heymsfield

Mark Horwitt

Lyn Howard

Curtiss Hunt

Howard Jacobson

Maureen Jones

Ruth Kavo

Carl Keen

Eileen Kennedy

Chor San Khoo

Anita Knight

Raymond Koteras

David Kritchevsky

John Lee

Sidney Lees

Orville Levander

Richard Levine

Christine Lewis

Bonnie Liebman

Fimo Lifshitz

David Lineback

Alberta Long

Anne Looker

Marjolaine Mailhot

Bernadette Marriott

Paul Mason

Alexander Mauskop

George McCabe

Donald McCormick

Linda Meyers

Gregory Miller

Curtis Morris

Alanna Moshfegh

Jerry Nadler

Malden Nesheim

Forrest Nielsen

Jeri Nieves

Charles Pak

Joyce Pekula

Roy Pitkin

Daniel Raiten

John Repke

Lawrence Resnick

Richard Rivlin

Robert Russell

L. Saldanho

Brittmarie Sandström

Mildred Seelig

Christopher Sempos

Jay Shapiro

Arleen B. Tate

Richard Troiano

John Vanderveen

William Waddell

Julie Walko

Roger Whitehead

Susan J. Whiting

John Wilson

Richard Wood

Jacqueline Wright

Elizabeth Yetley

Steven Zeisel

Stanley H. Zlotkin

ORGANIZATIONS

American Dental Association

American Institute of Nutrition

American Medical Association

American Society for Bone Mineral Research

Canadian Paediatric Society

Council for Responsible Nutrition

Dietary Reference Intakes Steering Committee

Federation of American Scientists for Experimental Biology

Health Canada

Institute of Food Technologists

Interagency Human Nutrition Research Council

Life Sciences Research Organization

National Dairy Council

National Osteoporosis Foundation

Osteoporosis Society of Canada

Researchers Against Deadly Water

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acknowledgments." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5776.
×
Page 381
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acknowledgments." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5776.
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Page 382
Next: Appendix C Options for Dealing with Uncertainties »
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Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach--the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.

This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

The first volume of Dietary Reference Intakes includes calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. The second book in the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.

Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group--from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.

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