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ah Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Count NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1 997 · 1
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sci- ences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 59-32U4-5-6, by the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, under Cooperative Agreement No. FD-U-000006-10, and by the American Feed Industry Association. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authoring committee and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06354-X Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-80669 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Av- enue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION DONALD C. BEITZ, Chair, Iowa State University GEORGE C. FAHEY, University of Illinois DELBERT GATLIN III, Texas A&M University RONALD L. HORST, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa TERRY KLOPFENSTEIN, University of Nebraska AUSTIN J. LEWIS, University of Nebraska CARL PARSONS, University of Illinois ALICE N. FELL, Cornell University GARY D. POTTER, Texas A&M University KARIN M. WITTENBERG, University of Manitoba, Canada STEERING COMMITTEE ON THE ROLE OF CHROMIUM IN ANIMAL NUTRITION JERRY L. SELL, Chair, Iowa State University DONALD C. BEITZ, Iowa State University GEORGE C. FAHEY, University of Illinois DELBERT GATLIN III, Texas A & M University RONALD L. HORST, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa KARIN M. WITTENBERG, University of Manitoba, Canada Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Program Officer MELINDA SIMONS, Project Assistant . . .
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE DALE E. BAUMAN, Chair, Cornell University JOHN M. ANTLE, Montana State University SANDRA S. BATIK, Michigan State University MAY R. BERENBAUM, University of Illinois LEONARD S. BULL, North Carolina State University WILLIAM B. DELAUDER, Delaware State University ANTHONY S. EARL, Quarles & Brady Law Firm, Madison, Wisconsin ESSEX E. FINNEY, JR., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Mitchellville, Maryland CORNELIA FLORA, Iowa State University GEORGE R. HALLBERG, University of Iowa RICHARD R. HARWOOD, Michigan State University T. KENT KIRK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin HARLEY W. MOON, Iowa State University WILLIAM L. OGREN, University of Illinois GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR., Colorado State University JOHN W. SUTTIE, University of Wisconsin JOHN R. WELSER, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, Michigan JAMES J. ZUICHES, Washington State University Staff J. PAUL OILMAN, Executive Director MICHAEL J. PHILLIPS, Director V
Preface The United States feed industry manufactures thousands of tons of supple- ments and feed additives each year. It has been suggested that chromium should become a constituent in certain nutritional supplements for animals. Chromium sources, other than chromium picolinate (CrPic) for swine, however, have not been approved officially as feed additives for food-producing animals in the United States mainly because there has been a lack of consensus among animal nutritionists that chromium is an essential nutrient and because scientifically based dietary requirements for chromium have not been established for food- producing animals. Chromium is active biologically as a component of glucose tolerance factor (GTF), which enhances tissue sensitivity to insulin and glucose utilization. Re- sults of research and clinical investigations have shown that human patients who receive parenteral nutrition and those who are type II diabetics respond favorably to chromium supplementation. There also is evidence showing that dietary chro- mium is beneficial for people undergoing physical or metabolic stress. Although definitive data showing the effects of dietary chromium on me- tabolism, health, end performance of food-producing animals are relatively mea- ger, sufficient evidence is available which, when taken together with observa- tions made with humans, indicates that chromium may be an essential nutrient for animals. Some research results also indicate that chromium supplementation of practical diets of food-producing animals is beneficial. Because of the uncertain- ties associated with the role of supplemental chromium in animal diets, the Board on Agriculture' s Committee on Animal Nutrition of the National Research Coun- cil conducted a review and an evaluation of the scientific literature on the use of v
v! PREFACE supplemental chromium in diets of livestock and laboratory animals. The committee's charge was to conduct a thorough review of the scientific literature on chromium, determine whether chromium should be classified as an essential nutrient, and analyze the effects of chromium as a supplement of practical animal diets. A steering committee, composed of members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, was formed in April 1996. The following individuals were responsible for the respective sections of the report: Donald C. Beitz and Ronald L. Horst, introduction and metabolic role of chromium; Karin M. Wittenberg, ruminants and horses; Jerry L. Sell, swine and poultry; George C. Fahey, laboratory animals and rabbits; and Delbert Gatlin III, fish. The report begins with a discussion of the absorption, transport, and deposi- tion of chromium in humans and animals in Chapter 1. Current knowledge of the role of chromium in metabolism of humans and animals is described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive review of data describing the effects of supplemental dietary chromium on cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, horses, rats, rabbits, and fish. The information reviewed for each species is summarized from the perspective of whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that chromium is an essential nutrient and whether supplementation of practical animal diets with chromium is needed. Jerry L. Sell, Chair Steering Committee
Acknowledgments The Committee acknowledges many scientists who provided input during the report preparation process. Numerous individuals supplied information and materials that were used during the Committee' s deliberations. We extend spe- cial thanks to Nancy Arth for her assistance with preparation of the report manu- script. In addition, the secretarial assistance of Ann Shuey and Mary Cochran, Iowa State University, is gratefully acknowledged. . . vat
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ruminants, 2 Nonruminants, 3 Conclusions, 4 1 INTRODUCTION Absorption, Transport, and Content in Animal Tissues, 7 CHROMIUM AND METABOLISM Carbohydrate Metabolism, 11 Lipid Metabolism, 12 Protein Metabolism, 13 Nucleic Acid Metabolism, 13 Stress, 13 Chromium Toxicity, 13 CHROMIUM IN ANIMAL NUTRITION Ruminants, 15 Lactating Cows, 15 Preweaned Calves, 17 Growing-Finishing Cattle, 22 Sheep, 32 Summary, 33 Nonruminants, 36 Growing-Finishing Swine, 36 Fix 1 6 10 15
x Sows, 42 Summary, 42 Poultry, 43 Summary, 62 Horses, 62 Rats, 63 Summary, 65 Rabbits, 65 Summary, 66 Fish, 66 Summary, 68 Conclusions, 68 REFERENCES AUTHORS TABLES 2-1 Signs and Symptoms of Chromium Deficiency, 11 COME 70 79 3-1 Influence of Supplemental Dietary Chromium on Lactating Dairy Cows, 18 3-2 Influence of Supplemental Dietary Chromium on Cattle, 24 3-3 Influence of Supplemental Dietary Chromium on Sheep, 34 3-4 Influence of Supplemental Dietary Chromium on Swine, 44 3-5 Influence of Supplemental Dietary Chromium on Young Poultry, 56 3-6 Influence of Supplemental Dietary Chromium on Laying Hens, 60