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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dispelling the Myths About Addiction: Strategies to Increase Understanding and Strengthen Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5802.
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G Recent Advances in Pharmacotherapy

GENERAL ISSUES

  • Creation of National Institute on Drug Abuse Medications Development Division to evaluate new treatments for opioid and cocaine addiction in animals and humans.

NICOTINE

  • Food and Drug Administration focuses on nicotine as an addictive drug; characterization of tobacco withdrawal syndrome.

  • Demonstration that nicotine replacement is an effective treatment modality for a small but significant population of smokers.

  • Nicotine chewing gum and transdermal nicotine patches approved for over-the-counter sale in 1996; nicotine nasal spray approved for prescription use in 1996; advances in other preparations.

  • Increased research on nicotine replacement therapies for extending nicotine abstinence and reducing craving.

  • Development of precise and practical measurements of nicotine metabolites, thus allowing better characterization of drug intake, dependence, and treatment outcome.

  • Demonstration that addicted smokers regulate intake of nicotine to maintain specific levels in the body.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dispelling the Myths About Addiction: Strategies to Increase Understanding and Strengthen Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5802.
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OPIOIDS

  • Approval of LAAM (levomethadyl acetate, Orlaam®) as 2 to 3 times per week treatment for opioid dependence.

  • Evaluation of long-term methadone or LAAM therapy in reducing illicit opioid drug use in many patients.

  • Evaluation of buprenorphine and other partial agonist compounds as safer replacements for methadone treatment.

STIMULANTS

  • Evaluation of catalytic antibodies for degrading or inactivating cocaine.

  • Expanded evaluation of selective dopamine, serotonin, and opioid agonists and antagonists for cocaine addiction.

  • Expanded examination of the concept of agonist replacement strategies and specific medications.

ALCOHOL

  • Naltrexone (ReVia™) approved for treatment of alcoholism in the United States.

  • Acamprosate (Aotal®) approved for treatment of alcoholism in Europe, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate approved for treatment of alcoholism in Italy.

  • Expanded research into use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists, serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drug combinations, and other pharmacological treatments.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dispelling the Myths About Addiction: Strategies to Increase Understanding and Strengthen Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5802.
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Page 199
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dispelling the Myths About Addiction: Strategies to Increase Understanding and Strengthen Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5802.
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Page 200
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Every year about half a million men, women, and children in the United States die from the effects of using nicotine, alcohol, and illegal drugs: one of every four American deaths. Yet research to solve this terrible problem is often perceived as less important than other types of biomedical investigation.

Focusing on four major classes of drugs with the greatest social and economic impact--nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and stimulants--Dispelling the Myths About Addiction examines what is known about addiction and what is needed to develop a talented cadre of investigators and to educate the public about addiction research. The committee explores these areas:

  • Economic costs of addiction.
  • What has been learned about addiction from research into basic neurobiology and the brain, psychosocial and behavioral factors, and epidemiology.
  • Education and training of researchers and the research infrastructure.
  • Public perceptions and their impact on public policy in this field.

This volume outlines the challenges and opportunities in addiction research today and makes recommendations to educators, treatment professionals, public and private institutions, and others for how to build support for addiction research and treatment.

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