National Academies Press: OpenBook

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence (1997)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5812.
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NRL STRATEGIC SERIES

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence

Panel on Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5812.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This work was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-93-C-0089 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.

The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do.

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Copies available from:

Naval Studies Board

National Research Council

2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20418

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5812.
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PANEL ON COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Ruth M. Davis,

Pymatuning Group, Inc.,

Chair


Walter R. Beam,

Alexandria, Virginia


George Cybenko,

Dartmouth College


Steven K. Feiner,

Columbia University


W. Michael McCracken,

Georgia Institute of Technology


Brian P. McCune,

McCune & Associates


Raj Reddy,

Carnegie Mellon University


Victor Vyssotsky,

Digital Equipment Corporation


Navy Liaison Representatives

Paul G. Blatch,

Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (N911T1)


Ronald N. Kostoff,

Office of Naval Research


Consultant

Sidney G. Reed, Jr.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5812.
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NAVAL STUDIES BOARD

David R. Heebner,

Science Applications International Corporation (retired),

Chair


George M. Whitesides,

Harvard University,

Vice Chair


Albert J. Baciocco, Jr.,

The Baciocco Group, Inc.


Alan Berman,

Center for Naval Analyses


Norman E. Betaque,

Logistics Management Institute


Norval L. Broome,

Mitre Corporation


Gerald A. Cann,

Raytheon Company


Seymour J. Deitchman,

Institute for Defense Analyses (retired)


Anthony J. DeMaria,

DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc.


John F. Egan,

Lockheed Martin Corporation


Robert Hummel,

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University


David W. McCall,

AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired)


Robert J. Murray,

Center for Naval Analyses


Robert B. Oakley,

National Defense University


William J. Phillips,

Northstar Associates


Mara G. Prentiss,

Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University


Herbert Rabin,

University of Maryland


Julie JCH Ryan,

Booz, Allen and Hamilton


Harrison Shull,

Naval Postgraduate School (retired)


Keith A. Smith,

U.S. Marine Corps (retired)


Robert C. Spindel,

Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington


David L. Stanford,

Science Applications International Corporation


H. Gregory Tornatore,

Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University


J. Pace VanDevender,

Prosperity Institute


Vincent Vitto,

Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Bruce Wald,

Arlington Education Consultants


Navy Liaison Representatives

Paul G. Blatch,

Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (N911T1)


Ronald N. Kostoff,

Office of Naval Research


Staff

Ronald D. Taylor, Director

Peter W. Rooney, Program Officer

Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant

Mary (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer

Christopher A. Hanna, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5812.
×

COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS

Robert J. Hermann,

United Technologies Corporation,

Co-Chair


W. Carl Lineberger,

University of Colorado,

Co-Chair


Peter M. Banks,

Environmental Research Institute of Michigan


Lawrence D. Brown,

University of Pennsylvania


Ronald G. Douglas,

Texas A&M University


John E. Estes,

University of California at Santa Barbara


L. Louis Hegedus,

Elf Atochem North America, Inc.


John E. Hopcroft,

Cornell University


Rhonda J. Hughes,

Bryn Mawr College


Shirley A. Jackson,

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission


Kenneth H. Keller,

University of Minnesota


Kenneth I. Kellermann,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory


Margaret G. Kivelson,

University of California at Los Angeles


Daniel Kleppner,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


John Kreick,

Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company


Marsha I. Lester,

University of Pennsylvania


Thomas A. Prince,

California Institute of Technology


Nicholas P. Samios,

Brookhaven National Laboratory


L.E. Scriven,

University of Minnesota


Shmuel Winograd,

IBM T.J. Watson Research Center


Charles A. Zraket,

Mitre Corporation (retired)


Norman Metzger, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5812.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5812.
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Preface

The Panel on Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence was established in early 1992 by the Naval Studies Board (NSB) of the National Research Council in response to a request from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The NRL called on the NSB to establish a panel of experts in the fields of computer science and artificial intelligence to interact informally with the laboratory's research staff regarding plans, facilities, capabilities, prospects, and problems faced by the represented communities (government, academia, and industry) and to address the tasks contained in the formal terms of reference. Those tasks delineated the following priority topics:

  • Software production. Provide a critical examination of the scientific issues that could be pursued (as opposed to commercial developments that are likely to evolve without fundamental R&D activities).
  • Adaptive software (machine learning). What opportunities are envisioned in this area?
  • Interface technology. What are the scientific issues that are to be examined over the next decade and which hold the potential for providing an improved base for sound developments in this field? What centers of activity worldwide are currently active leaders in such activities?
  • Speech synthesis/recognition. What fundamental pursuits are likely to lead to further principles in this field (as opposed to commercial developments, which will indeed provide more sophisticated systems under many conditions)?
  • Neural networks. Which scientific pursuits are required to place the behavior of these systems on a firm basis? Where are the leadership roles associated with this set of issues?
  • Facilities. What facilities are the highest priority to emphasize in furthering the unique strengths that a government laboratory brings to this field? Which facilities are most appropriate at a university?

In addition, communications between Timothy Coffey, Director of Research at the Naval Research Laboratory, and the panel's chair, Ruth M. Davis, provided further clarification concerning the terms of reference and the objectives of the panel: The panel was to provide an outside perspective on key scientific and technical topics and to highlight technical opportunities for NRL. In particular, the panel was asked for such perspectives in the areas of artificial intelligence (AI) and human-computer interface (HCI). The panel was also requested to assess industrial interest in recommended opportunity areas.

The panel was not asked to conduct a critical review of NRL's current research program in computer science and AI/HCI and did not do so.

The panel performed its task in the course of four meetings: March 26-27, 1992, at which discussions were held with Timothy Coffey and presentations were made by NRL's Information Technology Division and Human-Computer Interface Laboratory; June 24-25 and September 28-29, 1992, at which presentations were made by government and academic experts on computer science and AI research programs; and October 21-22, 1992, which included further discussions with Timothy Coffey.

NRL has a considerable investment in computer science and is a node of the U.S. High Performance Computing Consortium. Its AI research laboratory was established some 20 years ago and is the only government laboratory of its kind.

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The focus of this report is on artificial intelligence (AI) and human-computer interface (HCI) technology. Observations, conclusions, and recommendations regarding AI and HCI are presented in terms of six grand challenge areas which serve to identify key scientific and engineering issues and opportunities. Chapter 1 presents the panel's definitions of these and related terms. Chapter 2 presents the panel's general observations and recommendations regarding AI and HCI. Finally, Chapter 3 discusses computer science, AI, and HCI in terms of the six selected "grand challenge" areas and three time horizons, that is, short term (within the next 2 years), midterm (2 to 6 years), and long term (more than 6 years from now) and presents additional recommendations in these areas.

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