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NOTES AND REFERENCES 48 National Civilian Technology Promotion Programs As innovation-related activities become more global, issues of access to publicly-funded national technology programs by foreign entities will continue to spark policy debates, and will likely be a topic for negotiation in future multilateral trade talks.1 In addition to continued exploration of these issues, the Joint Task Force believes that an international effort, perhaps led by the United States and Japan, to exchange perspectives aimed at improving the effectiveness of national civilian technology programs, including development of new mechanisms for evaluation, would improve the international base of knowledge in this area. Such an effort could also eventually contribute to expanded, mutually beneficial collaboration in research. NOTES AND REFERENCES 1 National Academy of Engineering, Foreign Participation in U.S. Research and Development: Asset or Liability? (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996).