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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5825.
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Page 72
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5825.
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Page 73
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5825.
×
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5825.
×
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5825.
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Page 76

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REFERENCES 72 References Bramwell, E.C.B., W.S.S. Ladell, and R.J. Shephard. 1963. Human Exposure to VX Vapour. Porton Technical Paper No. 830, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. Unclassified report. Callaway, S., and J.W. Blackburn. 1954. A Comparative Assessment of the Vapour Toxicities of GB, GD, GF, T.2132, T.2137, and T.2146 to male and female rats. Porton Technical Paper No. 404, Chemical Defense Establishment, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. February 1954. Unclassified report. Callaway, S. and P. Dirnhuber. 1971. Estimation of the Concentrations of Nerve Agent Vapour Required to Produce Measured Degrees of Miosis in Rabbit and Human Eyes. CDE TP 64, Chemical Defence Establishment, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. July 1971. Unclassified report. CDEPAT (Chemical Defense Equipment Process Action Team), U.S. Army. 1994. Review of Existing Toxicity Data and Human Estimates for Selected Chemical Agents and Recommended Human Toxicity Estimates Appropriate for Defending the Soldier. Report No. ERDEC-5P-018. Prepared by S.A. Reutter and J.V. Wade, U.S. Army, Edgewood Research Development and Emergency Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Classified report.

REFERENCES 73 Cullumbine, H., S. Callaway, W.K. Berry, J.W. Blackburn, and J. Rutland. 1954. Percutaneous Toxicity of G-compounds. Porton Technical Paper No. 399, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. Unclassified report. Cresthull, P., W. S. Koon, and F. W. Oberst. 1957. Inhalation Effects (Incapacitation and Mortality) for Monkeys Exposed to GA, GB, and GF Vapors. CWLR 2179, US Army Chemical Warfare Laboratories Technical Report, Army Chemical Center, Md. Unclassified report. Cresthull, P., C. Graf, N. Montarelli, Jr., and F.W. Oberst. 1963. The Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity of VX to Unclothed and Clothed Rabbits. CRDL Technical Memorandum 24–70, U.S. Army Chemical Research and Development Laboratories, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. November 1963. Unclassified report. Guild, W.J.F., K.P. Harrison, A. Fairley, and A.E. Childs. 1941. The Effect of Mustard Gas Vapour on the Eyes. Porton Report 2297. Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. November 1941. Unclassified report. HEC (Human Estimates Committee). 1960. Minutes of meeting of U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Laboratories. February 4 (minutes dated March 1, 1960). Confidential report. Heinen, J.H., H.W. Carhart, W.H. Taylor, B.N. Stolep, J.C. Conners, and N.M. Clauson. 1945. Chamber Tests with Human Subjects IX, Basic Tests with H Vapor. Report P-2579. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. August 1945. Unclassified report. Henry, M.C. 1989. Literature Review of GD Toxicity (U). U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Fort Detrick, Md. July 1989. Secret report. Henry, M.C. 1991. Literature Review of Sulfur Mustard Toxicity. USAMRICD-TR-91-01. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Fort Detrick, Md. Unclassified report. Howd, R.A., C.E. Green, and A.J. Valdes. 1986. Agent Toxicity Review (U). CDREC-CR-86001, U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. April 1986. Confidential report. Koon, W.S., J.W. Crook, and F.W. Oberst. 1960. Progress Report on the Toxicity of VX Vapor to Mice and Goats. CWL TM 24–37, U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Laboratories, Army Chemical Center, Md. April 1960. Unclassified report.

REFERENCES 74 Krackow, E.H. and I. Fuhr. 1949. Toxicity of GA Vapor by Cutaneous Absorption for Monkey and Man, MDR 179, Chemical Corps, Medical Division Reports, Army Chemical Center, Md. Unclassified report. Krackow, E.H. 1956. Toxicology of V Agents. CWLR 2065, Chemical Corps Research and Development Command, Chemical Warfare Laboratories, Army Chemical Center, Md. September 1956. Unclassified report. Landahl, H.D. 1945. A Formal Analysis of the Action of Liquid Vesicants on Bare Skin. OSRD 5032, Division 9, National Defense Research Committee, Office of Scientific Research and Development. May 1945. Unclassified report. Manthei, J.H., J.J. James, and S.P. Liebenberg. 1988. A Comparison of Acute Toxicity, Clinical Chemistry, and Pathological Changes in Two Strains of Swine after Percutaneous Exposure to GD. CRDEC-TR-88159, U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. September 1988. Unclassified report. Manthei, J.H. and J. Callahan. 1991. Comparison of the Penetration and Red Blood Inhibition Rates of VX Applied to Various Anatomical Sites of the Rabbit. CRDEC-TR-88159, U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Md. September 1991. Unclassified report. Marquand, C.B., and T.W. Kethley. 1946. The Toxicity of GA to Dogs and Rabbits by Body Exposure. MDRR 88, War Department, Office of the Chief, Chemical Warfare Service, Washington, D.C. August 1946. Unclassified report. Marrs, T.C., R.C. Maynard, and F.R. Sidell. 1996. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 243 pp. Marzulli, F.N., R.G. Horton, H. Elrod, M.R. Williams, R. Oliver, and J. Wiles. 1952. Relative Percutaneous Toxicities of Liquid GB and GF. MLRR 119, Chemical Corps, Medical Laboratories Research Report, Army Chemical Center, Md. Unclassified report. McGrath, F.P., C.W. Dutreau, and E.H. Bray, Jr. 1951. Toxicity of GB Vapors by Cutaneous Absorption in Monkey and Man (U). MDRR 49, Chemical Corps, Medical Division Research Reports, Army Chemical Center, MD. April 1951. Confidential report. McGrath, F.P., V.J. Von Berg, F.W. Oberst, J.N. Carter, and N.G. Marions. 1953. The Percutaneous LCt50 of GF Vapor to Monkeys Protected by Permeable Clothing Materials. MLRR 214, Chemical Corps,

REFERENCES 75 Medical Laboratories Research Report, Army Chemical Center, Md. Unclassified report. Mumford, S.A. 1950. Physiological Assessment of Nerve Gases. Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. August 1950. Unclassified report. NDRC (National Defense Research Committee of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Division 9). 1943a. Informal Monthly Progress Report on Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents. Informal Report No. 9-4-1-10. November 1943. Unclassified report. NDRC (National Defense Research Committee of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Division 9). 1943b. Progress Report on Toxic Effects of Compounds Related to Mustard 1. Toxic Effects of Mustard, Mustard Sulfone, Sesquimustard and Sesquimustard Analogues. OSRD 1391. May 1943. Unclassified report. NDRC (National Defense Research Committee of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Division 9). 1943c. Informal Monthly Progress Report on Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents. Informal Report No. 9-4-1-6. July 1943. Unclassified report. NDRC (National Defense Research Committee of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Division 9). 1944. Informal Monthly Progress Report on Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents. Informal Report No. 9-4-1-12. January 1944. Unclassified report. PCS (Project Coordination Staff). 1946. Technical Aspects of Chemical Warfare in the Field, Part 2, p 19. Unclassified report. Oberst, F.W., F.P. McGrath, and I.A. DeArmon. 1952. The Protective Action of Standard Clothing Materials Against Percutaneous Exposure of Monkeys to GB Vapor. MLRR 147, Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories Research Report, Army Chemical Center, Md. November 1952. Unclassified report. Reed, C.I. 1920. The minimum concentration of dichloroethylsulphide (mustard gas) effective for the eyes of man. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 6:77. Unclassified report. Reutter, S.A., H. Salem, L.L. Miller, Jr., and Manthei, J.H. 1992. Documentation of the human toxicity estimates provided by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Human Estimates Committee in support of the conflict in Southwest Asia (U), CRDEC-SP-052, U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. September 1992. Confidential report. Schoene, K., D. Hochrainer, H. Oldiges, M. Krugel, N. Franzes, and J.J.

REFERENCES 76 Bruckert. 1985. The protective effect of oxime pretreatment upon inhalative toxicity of sarin and soman in rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 5:84–88. Unclassified report. Silver, S.D. 1953. The Estimation of the Toxicity of GB to Man (U), MLRR 23, Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories Research Report, Army Chemical Center, Md., June 1953. Confidential report. Sim, V.M. 1962. Variability of Different Intact Human Skin Sites to the Penetration of VX. CRDLR 3122. U.S. Army Chemical Research and Development Laboratories, Army Chemical Center, Md. February 1962. Unclassified report. Somani, S.M. 1994. Chemical Warfare Agents. San Diego, Calif.: Academic. 239 pp. Uhde, G.I., and R.F. Moore. 1945. Eye Effects of T.2104, Priority Programme Note M. 219, Item 81 (i), Porton Report 2698, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. Unclassified report. Van de Wal, A., Jr. and B.M. Zeffert. 1970. A Technical Summary of the Intermediate Volatility Agents Program, Part II, FY 1970 (U), EASP 600-8, Department of the Army, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. December 1970. Confidential report. Welchman, R.M.A. 1946. Preliminary Report on the Potential Value of Nerve Gases as C.W. Agents, Porton Report 2747, Chemical Defence Establishment, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, U.K. Unclassified report . Wiles, J.S., and A.G. Shaw. 1960. Comparative Toxicity Study of EA 2276 and VX (U). CRDLR 3027. U.S. Army Chemical Research and Development Laboratories, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. September 1960. Confidential report. Wills, J.H., and I.A. DeArmon. 1954. A Statistical Study of the Adamek Report. MLSR No. 54, Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories Special Report, Army Chemical Center, Md. Unclassified report. Wood, J.R. 1949. Chemical Warfare Agents, Toxicological and Medical Considerations. MDR 201, Chemical Corps, Medical Division Reports, Army Chemical Center, Md. Unclassified report.

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No reliable acute-exposure1 standards have been established for the particular purpose of protecting soldiers from toxic exposures to chemical warfare (CW) agents. Some human-toxicity estimates are available for the most common CW agents--organophosphorus nerve agents and vesicants; however, most of those estimates were developed for offensive purposes (that is, to kill or incapacitate the enemy) and were intended to be interim values only. Because of the possibility of a chemical attack by a foreign power, the Army's Office of the Surgeon General asked the Army's Chemical Defense Equipment Process Action Team (CDEPAT) to review the toxicity data for the nerve agents GA (tabun), GB(sarin), GD (soman), GF, and VX, and the vesicant agent sulfur mustard (HD) and to establish a set of exposure limits that would be useful in protecting soldiers from toxic exposures to those agents. This report is an independent review of the CDEPAT report to determine the scientific validity of the proposed estimates.

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