COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH
ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Chair) was Vice President of Research and Development and later Science and Technology for the Quaker Oats Company. He retired in 1983 and was Vice President of Science and Technology and President of the Advanced HealthCare Division of Avadyne, Inc. before his retirement in 1992. During World War II, he served as a Captain in the U.S. Army. Dr. Nesheim has served on the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), chairing the Committee on Food Consumption Patterns and serving as a member of several other committees. He also was active in the Biosciences Information Service (as Board Chairman), American Medical Association, American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and Food Reviews International editorial board. Dr. Nesheim's academic services included Professor and Head of the Department of Animal Science at the University of Illinois, Urbana. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Nutrition and American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of several
professional organizations. Dr. Nesheim received a B.S. in agriculture, M.S. in animal science, and Ph.D. in nutrition and animal science from the University of Illinois.
WILLIAM R. BEISEL is Adjunct Professor in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. He held several positions at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, including in turn, Chief of the Physical Sciences Division, Scientific Advisor, and Deputy for Science. He then became Special Assistant for Biotechnology to the Surgeon General. After serving in the U.S. military during the Korean War, Dr. Beisel was the Chief of Medicine at the U.S. Army Hospital in Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, before becoming the Chief of the Department of Metabolism at the Walter Reed Army Hospital. He was awarded a Commendation Ribbon, Bronze Star for the Korean War, Hoff Gold Medal at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, B. L. Cohen Award of the American Society for Microbiology, the Robert Herman Award from the American Association for Clinical Nutrition, and Department of Army Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service. He was named a Diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine and a Fellow of the American College of Physicians. In addition to his many professional memberships, Dr. Beisel is a Clinical Nutrition contributing editor and Journal of Nutritional Immunology associate editor. He received his A.B. from Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and M.D. from the Indiana University School of Medicine.
GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD is Director of Nutrition Research, Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System in California. Concurrently, she is Lecturer in the Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School; Visiting Assistant Professor in the Program of Human Biology, Stanford University; and Director of Nutrition in the Program in Sports Medicine, Stanford University Medical School. Her previous academic appointments were at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Butterfield belongs to the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Physiological Society. As a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, she serves as Chair of the Pronouncements Committee and is on the Board of Trustees; she also was President and Executive Director of the Southwest Chapter of that organization. She is a member of the Respiratory and Applied Physiology Study Section of the NIH and is on the editorial boards of the following journals: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Health and Fitness Journal of ACSM, Canadian Journal of Clinical Sports Medicine, and International Journal of Sports Nutrition. Dr. Butterfield received her A.B. in biological sciences, M.A. in anatomy, and M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition from
the University of California, Berkeley. Her current research interests include nutrition in exercise, effect of growth factors on protein metabolism in the elderly, and metabolic fuel use in women exposed to high altitude.
WANDA L. CHENOWETH (from September 18, 1996) is Professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University. Previously, she held positions as Teaching Associate at the University of Iowa and University of California, Berkeley. Other work experience includes positions as Research Dietitian and Head Clinical Dietitian at University of Iowa Hospitals and as Research Dietitian at Mayo Clinic. She is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, American Dietetic Association, and Institute of Food Technology. She serves as a reviewer for several journals, including Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Journal of Nutrition, and is a member of the associate editorial board of Plant Foods for Human Nutrition . She has served on a technical review committee for the Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Program of the National Cancer Institute and as a Site Evaluator, Commission on Evaluation of Dietetic Education of the American Dietetic Association. Her research interests are in the area of mineral bioavailability and clinical nutrition. Dr. Chenoweth completed a B.S. in dietetics from the University of Iowa, dietetic internship and M.S. in nutrition at the University of Iowa, and Ph.D. in nutrition at the University of California, Berkeley.
JOHN D. FERNSTROM is Professor of Psychiatry, Pharmacology, and Behavioral Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Director, Basic Neuroendocrinology Program at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. He received his S.B. in biology and his Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.). He was a Postdoctoral Fellow in Neuroendocrinology at the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology in Nutley, New Jersey. Before coming to the University of Pittsburgh, Dr. Fernstrom was an Assistant and then Associate Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at M.I.T. He has served on numerous governmental advisory committees. He presently is a member of the National Advisory Council of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, Chair of the Neurosciences Section of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (ASNS), and a member of the ASNS Council. He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Physiological Society, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, American Society for Neurochemistry, Society for Neuroscience, and Endocrine Society. Among other awards, Dr. Fernstrom received the Mead-Johnson Award of the American Institute of Nutrition, a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, a Wellcome Visiting Professorship in the Basic Medical
Sciences, and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Neurochemistry. His current major research interest concerns the influence of the diet and drugs on the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
G. RICHARD JANSEN is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University, where he was Head of the department from 1969 to 1990. He was a Research Fellow at the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research and Senior Research Biochemist in the Electrochemical Department at E. I. DuPont de Nemours. Prior to his stint in private industry, he served in the U.S. Air Force. Dr. Jansen is a past member of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Board of Scientific Counselors and the Journal of Nutrition, Nutrition Reports International, and Plant Foods for Human Nutrition editorial boards. His research interests deal with protein energy relationships during lactation and new foods for LDCs based on low-cost extrusion cooking. He received the Babcock-Hart Award of the Institute of Food Technologists and a Certificate of Merit from the USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development for his work on low-cost extrusion cooking, and he is an IFT Fellow. He is a member of the American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology among others. Dr. Jansen holds a B.A. in chemistry and Ph.D. in biochemistry from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.
ROBIN B. KANAREK is Professor of Psychology and of Nutrition at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, where she also is the Chair of Psychology. Her prior experience includes Research Fellow, Division of Endocrinology, UCLA School of Medicine and Research Fellow in Nutrition at Harvard University. In addition to reviewing for several journals, including Science, Brain Research Bulletin, Journal of Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Annals of Internal Medicine, she is an editorial board member of Physiology and Behavior and the Tufts Diet and Nutrition Newsletter and is a past editor-in-chief of Nutrition and Behavior. Dr. Kanarek has served on ad hoc review committees for the National Science Foundation, NIH, and USDA Nutrition Research, as well as the Member Program Committee of the Eastern Psychological Association. She is a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and her other professional memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, and Society for Neurosciences. Dr. Kanarek received a B.A. in biology from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio and M.S. and Ph.D. in psychology from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
ORVILLE A. LEVANDER is Research Leader for USDA Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. He was Research Chemist at the USDA's Human Nutrition Research Center, Resident Fellow in Biochemistry at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Research Associate at Harvard University's School of Public Health. Dr. Levander served on the Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on the Dietary Allowances. He also served on panels of the National Research Council's Committee on Animal Nutrition and Committee on the Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants. He was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Nutrition Scientists and temporary advisor to the World Health Organization's Environmental Health Criteria Document on Selenium. Dr. Levander was awarded the Osborne and Mendel Award for the American Institute of Nutrition. His society memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, American Chemical Society, and American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Dr. Levander received his B.A. from Cornell University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
GILBERT A. LEVEILLE (through December 31, 1996) recently retired as Vice President for Research and Technical Services at the Nabisco Foods Group in East Hanover, New Jersey. His other industry experience was as the Director of Nutrition and Health Science for the General Foods Corporation. He was Chair and Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University, Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry at the University of Illinois-Urbana, and a Biochemist at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory in Colorado. Dr. Leveille was a member of the Committee on International Nutrition, a joint Food and Nutrition Board-Board on International Health project. He won a research award from the Poultry Science Association, the Mead Johnson Research Award from the American Institute of Nutrition, the Distinguished Faculty Award from Michigan State University, and the Carl R. Fellers Award from the Institute of Food Technologists. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Institute of Nutrition (Past President), American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Chemical Society, Institute of Food Technologists (Past President), and Sigma Xi. Dr. Leveille received his B.V.A. from the University of Massachusetts and M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition and biochemistry from Rutgers University, New Jersey.
JOHN E. VANDERVEEN is the Director of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages in Washington, D.C. His previous position at the FDA was Director of the Division of Nutrition, at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He also served in various capacities at the U.S. Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine at
Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has received accolades for service from the FDA and the USAF. Dr. Vanderveen is a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Institute of Nutrition, Aerospace Medical Association, American Dairy Science Association, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Chemical Society. In the past, he was the Treasurer of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and a member of the Institute of Food Technology, National Academy of Sciences Advisory Committee. Dr. Vanderveen holds a B.S. in agriculture from Rutgers University, New Jersey and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of New Hampshire.
DOUGLAS W. WILMORE, the Frank Sawyer Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, is a Senior Staff Scientist and Surgeon at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Concurrently, he is also a consultant for the Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, the BI-Deaconess Hospital, Wrentham State School, and Youville Hospital and Rehabilitation Center. Dr. Wilmore's main interests are related to metabolic and nutritional means to support critically ill patients and enhance recovery. His basic research has been applied to patients with thermal and accidental injury, patients with infectious complications, and those with multiple organ failure. He worked with the team that developed the current method of intravenous nutrition used for patients throughout the world. This technique has been improved in Dr. Wilmore's laboratory, and new amino acid solutions have been developed utilizing the amino acid glutamine, and anabolic factors such as growth hormone have been incorporated in this new feeding program with dramatic therapeutic results. Dr. Wilmore serves on the advisory board of the Tufts Pediatric Trauma Center, international editorial committee of the Chinese Nutritional Sciences Journal of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and editorial boards of Annals of Surgery and Journal of the American College of Surgeons. He is senior editor of Scientific American Surgery , the surgical text published by the American College of Surgeons that serves as the basis for care of general surgical patients. He also has published over 300 scientific papers and 4 books. Among his professional memberships, Dr. Wilmore includes the American College of Surgeons, American Surgical Association, American Medical Association, Society of University Surgeons, and American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition. He holds a B.A. and honorary Ph.D. from Washburn University of Topeka, M.D. from the University of Kansas School of Medicine in Kansas City, and honorary M.S. from Harvard University.
JOHANNA T. DWYER (FNB Liaison) is the Director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center and Professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Community Health at the Tufts Medical School and School of Nutrition Science and Policy in Boston. She is also Senior Scientist at the Jean Mayer/USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging
at Tufts. Dr. Dwyer is the author or coauthor of more than 100 research articles and 185 review articles published in scientific journals. Her work centers on life-cycle related concerns such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adolescents and maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. She also has a longstanding interest in vegetarian and other alternative lifestyles.
Dr. Dwyer is a past President of the American Institute of Nutrition, past Secretary of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and past President and current Fellow of the Society for Nutrition Education. She served on the Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association from 1989 to 1992 and is a member of the Food and Nutrition Board, the Technical Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Screening Initiative, and the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Wine and Food. As a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow (1980–1981), she served on the personal staffs of Senator Richard Lugar (R-Indiana) and Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Maryland).
Dr. Dwyer has received numerous honors and awards for her work in the field of nutrition, including the 1996 W. O. Atwater Award of the USDA and J. Harvey Wiley Award from the Society for Nutrition Education. She gave the Lenna Frances Cooper Lecture at the annual meeting of the American Dietetic Association in 1990. Dr. Dwyer is currently on the editorial board for Family Economics and Nutrition Review and advisory board for Clinics in Applied Nutrition, and is a contributing editor for Nutrition Reviews, as well as a reviewer for the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and American Journal of Public Health. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and completed her undergraduate degree with distinction from Cornell University.
REBECCA B. COSTELLO (FNB Staff, Project Director from July 15, 1996) is Project Director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) and Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH). Prior to joining the FNB staff, she served as Research Associate and Program Director for the Risk Factor Reduction Center, a referral center for the detection, modification, and prevention of cardiovascular disease through dietary and/or drug interventions at the Washington Adventist Hospital in Takoma Park, Maryland. She received her B.S. and M.S. in biology from the American University, Washington, D.C., and a Ph.D. in clinical nutrition from the University of Maryland at College Park. She has active membership in the American Institute of Nutrition, American College of Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology. Dr. Costello's areas of research interest include mineral nutrition, dietary intake methodology, and chronic disease epidemiology.
SYDNE J. CARLSON-NEWBERRY (FNB Staff, Program Officer) is Program Officer for the CMNR and BCNH. Prior to joining the FNB staff, she served as Project Director for the Women's Health Project and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Family Medicine, Wright State University School of Medicine; as a behavioral health educator for a hospital-based weight management program in Dayton, Ohio; and as a research associate at The Ohio State University Biotechnology Center. She received her B.A. from Brandeis University and her Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry and metabolism from M.I.T. and completed a NIH postdoctoral fellowship in the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at Ohio State. Dr. Carlson-Newberry's areas of research interest include eating disorders and diabetes management.
BERNADETTE M. MARRIOTT (FNB Staff, Project Director through November 22, 1995) is Director of the Office of Dietary Supplements Research at NIH and was Project Director for the CMNR and Deputy Director of the FNB. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and B.Sc. in biochemistry/immunology and postdoctoral laboratory training in comparative medicine and trace mineral nutrition. She serves on the Scientific Advisory board for the Diagon Corporation and the American Health Foundation. She serves as scientific reviewer for the NIH, National Science Foundation, and National Geographic. Prior to joining the Institute of Medicine staff, she held university and medical school faculty positions at the Johns Hopkins University, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, and Goucher College. Her areas of research interest include bioenergetic modeling, trace mineral nutrition, and ingestive behavior in human and nonhuman primates.
NATHANIEL M. ALPERT received a B.S. and Ph.D. in physics from Northeastern University. After postdoctoral training at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in the application of physics to nuclear medicine, he joined the research staff of the Department of Radiology at MGH. His research interests include tracer kinetic modeling and image processing techniques for positron emission tomography (PET). Currently, he is Director of the MGH PET Imaging Laboratory and Associate Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School.
ARTHUR O. ANDERSON is presently Chief, Department of Clinical Pathology, Diagnostics Systems Division at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland. Formerly, he was Chief, Department of Respiratory and Mucosal Immunity. His
additional duties at USAMRIID include serving as the Office of Human Use and Ethics Chair of the USAMRIID IRB, referred to as the Human Use Committee.
COL Anderson earned his B.S. in biology at Wagner College, Staten Island, New York and an M.D. at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. He completed his training as a pathologist at The Johns Hopkins Hospital concomitantly with performing a postdoctoral fellowship in transplantation immunology at The Johns Hopkins University. As a Berry Plan Army reserve medical officer, COL Anderson entered active duty in 1974 at USAMRIID. It was during the period of 1974–1980 that he worked closely with committee member William R. Beisel, who was the Scientific Advisor for USAMRIID.
This 6-year period was very productive as COL Anderson studied cellular phenomena in lymphatic tissues that were responding to vaccines and adjuvants. While searching for safe and effective biological response modifiers that could be used to replace adjuvants that had unacceptable toxicity, he used lymphocyte chemotaxis and ability to affect lymphocyte recirculation rate as hypothetical indicators of adjuvant activity. This work proved insightful and revealed the complex physiology of effective immune responses.
COL Anderson was attracted away from USAMRIID in 1980 when he joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia as an Assistant Professor of Pathology and Biology. His mentor, John J. Cebra, stimulated an interest in mucosal immunity that resulted in his searching for adjuvants that selectively stimulated development of secretory IgA. In 1982 COL Anderson presented the first study of an adjuvant that successfully enhanced secretory IgA in the intestines at the 1982 meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences meeting on the secretory immune system.
As the same time, COL Edward Stephenson at USAMRIID was discovering that parenteral immunization regimens, which completely protected mice from parenteral challenge with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, failed to protect similarly immunized mice from aerosol challenge. A colleague suggested that this was a problem that could be solved by a mucosal immunologist, and COL Anderson returned to set up USAMRIID's first laboratory of mucosal immunology. The review for this workshop and report represents the fruits of this department and provides insights into future adaptations of these vaccine technologies.
JOHN W. BABICH received his B.S. in pharmaceutical science from St. John's University, an M.S. in radiopharmacy from the University of Southern California, and a Ph.D. from the University of London in radiopharmaceutical chemistry. He has worked in radiopharmaceutical research at Brookhaven National Labs, the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Methodist Hospital, and Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, and in 1984 moved to England to work at the Institute of Cancer Research. In 1990 he returned to the United States to take up his current position as Principal Nuclear Pharmacist and Assistant in
Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry (Radiology) at Massachusetts General Hospital and Instructor in Radiology at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Babich has been actively involved in the clinical investigation of new radiodiagnostic agents for cancer and infection, as well as the application of positron emission tomography in drug development. His current research interests include investigations into the use of peptides and peptide mimetics for diagnosis and drug delivery.
DENNIS M. BIER is Professor of Pediatrics, Director of the USDA Children's Nutrition Research Center, and Program Director of the Pediatric Clinical Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine. He is also a Trustee of the International Pediatric Research Foundation, a Councilor of the American Pediatric Society, Associate Editor of the Annual Review of Nutrition, and Chair of the USDA Human Studies Review Committee. Previously, Dr. Bier was Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, where he was Director of the Mass Spectrometry Facility and Co-Director of the Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Division. He has been Editor-in-Chief of Pediatric Research, Chair of the NIH Nutrition Study Section, Chair of the NIH General Clinical Research Centers Committee, Chair of the NIH/NICHD Expert Panel Five-Year Plan for Nutrition Research and Training, and President of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. He also has served as a member of the various additional scientific advisory panels, including the HHS/USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, the FNB, the FDA Food Advisory Committee, the Medical Science Advisory Board of the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation, the Steering Committee of the Pediatric Scientist Development Program, and the Advisory Board of the National Stable Isotopes Resource at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
RAYMOND K. BLANCHARD is a Postoctoral Research Associate in Nutritional Biochemistry at the Center for Nutritional Sciences and the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, where his research has focused on the regulation of genes by dietary zinc. He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of California, Riverside for research on the gene regulation of one of the components for the biosynthesis of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. During that time, he received a Young Investigator Award from the 8th International Workshop on Vitamin D. Dr. Blanchard is also a member of Sigma Xi and an associate member of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
DONALD BODENNER graduated from Harvard University. He then received his Ph.D. in chemistry, M.D., and residency training in internal medicine from the University of Minnesota. This was followed by a fellowship in endocrinology at the NIH, leading to his present position as Assistant
Professor of Medicine and Biochemistry at the University of Rochester. Dr. Bodenner currently belongs to the Endocrine Society, American Federation of Clinical Research, and American Association for the Advancement of Science.
WM. CAMERON CHUMLEA is Fels Professor of Community Health at Wright State University School of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio. His expertise is in the development of methods for nutritional assessment and measures of body composition across the age range. Dr. Chumlea is the principal investigator of numerous research projects funded by the NIH and by industry. Dr. Chumlea is the anthropometry consultant to the National Center for Health Statistics for the Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. He also serves as a consultant for government committees and universities in the United States and Europe. Dr. Chumlea received a B.S. in pre-medicine from Washington & Lee University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in physical anthropology from the University of Texas.
BRYAN P. COFFEY is currently a member of the research staff at Riverside Research Institute, Boston Research Office, where he does research on radar systems and national defense. He has 5 years experience working on human performance and nutritional issues at the Military Performance and Neuroscience Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), Natick, Massachusetts. He is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, Boston University. He received a B.E. in electrical engineering and a M.S. in computer science from Stevens Institute of Technology.
ROBERT J. COUSINS has been the Boston Family Professor of Nutrition in the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department at the University of Florida since 1982 and Director of the Center for Nutritional Sciences since 1986. From 1971 to 1982, Dr. Cousins was a Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry at Rutgers University. His research interests focus on the molecular and cell biology of zinc metabolism and function. He is the author of over 140 refereed papers in nutrition, physiology, and biochemistry journals. He has received the Mead Johnson Award (1979) and the Osborne and Mendel Award (1989) from the American Institute of Nutrition and a MERIT Award from NIH. He was Associate Editor of The Journal of Nutrition from 1990–1996. He was President of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1991–1992 and of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (AIN), 1996–1997. He is a member of several professional organizations and honorary societies. Dr. Cousins received a B.A. in zoology/chemistry from the University of Vermont, a Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from the University of Connecticut, and was an NIH Postdoctoral Fellow in Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin.
JAMES P. DeLANY is an Associate Professor at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University. He has been Director of the Stable Isotope Lab since 1989 and is involved in many studies of human metabolism, primarily in the areas of obesity and heart disease, using stable isotope tracers. He has been involved in the measurement of energy expenditure in military nutrition studies since his work as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Chicago in 1987. Dr. DeLany received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in human nutrition from The Ohio State University.
CANDACE R. ENOCKSON is the Laboratory Technologist in the Clinical Laboratory of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Medical University of South Carolina. Previously, she was the Chief Technologist of the Clinical Immunology Laboratory at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas and has worked as a technologist in hematology and chemistry laboratories since 1972. Ms. Enockson received a B.S. in medical technology from North Dakota State University and an M.A. in religious studies from the North American Baptist Seminary and is registered by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists.
ALAN J. FISCHMAN received a B.S. in chemistry from Brooklyn College, a Ph.D. in physical biochemistry from Rockefeller University, and an M.D. from Yale University. After residency training in internal medicine at Tulane University and fellowship training in nuclear medicine at the MGH, he joined the clinical and research staff of the Department of Radiology at MGH. Currently, he is Chief of Nuclear Medicine at MGH and the Shriners Burns Institute, Director of the MGH PET Center, and Associate Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School. Although Dr. Fischman has maintained a broad clinical interest in general nuclear medicine, many of his clinical responsibilities have focused on infection imaging and the noninvasive evaluation of alterations in metabolism, hemodynamics, and receptor physiology in patients with neurological and cardiac disease and traumatic injuries. These clinical activities have complimented his scientific research interests, which involve the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for identifying sites of infection and inflammation, noninvasive evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of new therapeutic agents, and the design and synthesis of new and novel probes for studying the alterations in normal physiological and biochemical function that occur in a variety of diseases.
DAVID FRAGER is currently the Deputy Director of the Department of Radiology at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York; he was formerly Section Chief of Body CT and MRI Imaging. A graduate of the University of
Pennsylvania School of Medicine, he was formerly an Associate Professor of Radiology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Frager currently holds a similar appointment at the Columbia University School of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.
KARL E. FRIEDL is Deputy Director of the Army Operational Medicine Research Program at the U.S. Amy Medical Research and Material Command (USAMRMC), Fort Detrick, Maryland. Prior to this assignment, he was an Army Research Physiologist in the Occupational Physiology Division at USARIEM, where he specialized in physical and biochemical limits of prolonged, intensive military training. Previously, LTC Friedl worked in the Department of Clinical Investigation at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington performing studies in endocrine physiology. He received his Ph.D. in physiology in 1984 from the Institute of Environmental Stress at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
SHUMEI S. GUO is Professor of Community Health at Wright State University School of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio. Her expertise is in the development of statistical models for longitudinal data related to growth, body composition, nutritional assessment, and cardiovascular disease. Dr. Guo is the principal investigator of numerous research projects funded by the NIH and by industry. She serves on the Epidemiology and Disease Control Study Section and is the statistical consultant to the National Center for Health Statistics for the Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and other government committees and universities. Dr. Guo received a B.S. in public health from the National Taiwan University, an M.S. in applied mathematics and statistics form SUNY, Stony Brook, and a Ph.D. in biostatistics form the University of Pittsburgh.
JAMES S. HAYES is a Clinical Research Scientist at Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories. His research interests include methods for the determination of nutritional status, measurement of the electrical activity or the GI tract, and gastrointestinal pacing.
STEVEN B. HEYMSFIELD is Professor of Medicine at Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. He also currently serves as Deputy Director of the New York Obesity Research Center and is Director of the Human Body Composition Laboratory. Dr. Heymsfield is currently President of the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and is an active member of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and the North American Society for the Study of Obesity. He was recently made and
honorary member of the American Dietetic Association, and he serves on the BCNH. Dr. Heymsfield received a B.S. in chemistry from Hunter College-City University of New York and an M.D. degree from Mount Sinai School of Medicine, also in New York.
REED W. HOYT is a Research Physiologist in the Altitude Physiology and Medicine Division of USARIEM. He received his Ph.D. in physiology from the University of New Mexico in 1981, and spent 5 years at the University of Pennsylvania, first as a Postdoctoral Fellow and then as a Research Assistant Professor. In 1986 he joined USARIEM. He is a member of the American Physiological Society and the American Institute of Nutrition. His research focuses on the effects of exercise and the environment on human energy, water, and fuel metabolism.
HONGBING HSU received his Ph.D. in physics from Rice University, M.A. in physics from Rice University, and a B.S. from the University of Science and Technology of China. After completing his training at Rice University, Dr. Hsu began a fellowship in medical physics at the MGH.
WENDY M. KOHRT is a Research Associate Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Applied Physiology, Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. She received her Ph.D. in exercise physiology from Arizona State University and completed a postdoctoral research fellowship at Washington University. Her major research efforts are directed toward identifying, characterizing, and determining, the physiological basis for adaptations to exercise that can be applied to maintenance of functional capacity and prevention of disease in middle and old age. She is currently investigating (1) the role of abdominal obesity in the glucose intolerance and insulin resistance of aging, and the extent to which exercise can restore normal glucose tolerance and insulin action, and (2) the effects of exercise and/or hormone replacement therapy on the prevention or reversal of osteoporosis.
MARIANO LA VIA is Professor Emeritus of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. He received an M.D. from the University of Messina in Italy, and after a pathology residency at the University of Chicago School of Medicine, was appointed an instructor at that institution. His academic career progressed with appointments as Assistant and then Associate Professor at the University of Colorado Medical Center, Professor at the Bowman Grey School of Medicine and at Emory University School of Medicine, and Professor and Director of Diagnostic Immunology at
the Medical University of South Carolina. His research has dealt with cellular mechanisms of immune responses and their regulation. In the last 15 years, Dr. La Via has undertaken the investigation of the effect of stress on immunocompetence and morbidity and of its mechanism(s). He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, member of several professional societies, Past President of the Clinical Cytometry Society, and Editor on Communications in Clinical Cytometry. He also serves on the editorial boards of several scientific journals.
HARRIS R. LIEBERMAN is currently Deputy Chief, Military Nutrition and Biochemical Division, USARIEM. He joined the civilian research staff at USARIEM in 1990. Dr. Lieberman received his Ph.D. in physiological psychology from the University of Florida. Upon completing his graduate training, he conducted postdoctoral research a the Department o Psychology and Brain Science at M.I.T. While at M.I.T., he established an interdisciplinary research program at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Science to examine the effects of various food constituents on human behavior and brain function. Key accomplishments f the laboratory included the development of appropriate methods for assessing the effects of food constituents and other subtle environmental factors on human brain function and the determination that specific foods and hormones reliably alter human behavior. He has continued this work at USARIEM, focusing on the behavioral and physiological effects of various nutritional factors on brain function and cognitive performance. He is an internationally recognized expert in the area of nutrition, neuroscience, and behavior and has published over 90 original, full-length scientific papers in scientific journals and edited books. He has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences, government research laboratories, and universities.
MARY Z. MAYS received her Ph.D. in experimental psychology with a specialization in learning and memory from the University of Oklahoma in 1977. From 1990 to 1993 she was the Director of the Military Performance and Neuroscience Division at USARIEM. Her research there focused on the impact of stress on cognitive and affective behavior. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Mays served as the Planner for Science and Technology Programs at USAMRMC. She is currently the Director of Eagle Creek Research Services, San Antonio, Texas.
DONALD B. McCORMICK is the Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Biochemistry in the Department of Biochemistry at Emory University. He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Vanderbilt University and was a Postdoctoral Fellow in Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley.
He joined the faculty at Cornell University where he served for nearly 20 years and where he became Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry. He then went to Emory University where he has served as Chair of Biochemistry for 15 years and for part of the time as Executive Associate Dean for Science in the School of Medicine.
Dr. McCormick's research interests center around cofactors including vitamins, coenzymes, and metal ions. In particular he and his associates have isolated and characterized those enzymes that convert riboflavin and vitamin B6 to functional coenzymes, and he has identified primary metabolites of flavins, biotin, and lipoate. Among honors and awards relating to his training and research are Bausch and Lomb and Westinghouse Science Scholarships, USPHS and Guggenheim Fellowships, Mead Johnson and the Osborne and Mendel Awards fro the American Institute of Nutrition, Wellcome Visiting Professorships, and special name lectureships at several universities.
Dr. McCormick has served on numerous committees and in functions for government and professional societies. Among these are duties as member and chair of NIH study sections and an National Cancer Institute Board of Counselors, member of the FASEB Board of Directors and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Committee for their Life Science Research Office, member and Vice Chair of the FNB, and a member of organizing committees for international conferences and symposia, especially as regards flavins and flavoproteins, vitamin B6, and cofactors involved in carbonyl catalysis, and biofactors broadly. He is a member of several scientific societies including the American Institute of Nutrition, where he served as President; American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; American Chemical Society; and American Association for the Advancement of Science, where he is a Fellow. He has served on several editorial boards for journals in the areas of biochemical and nutritional sciences and has been an editor for ''Vitamins and Coenzymes" in the Methods of Enzymology series, "Vitamins and Hormones," and currently the Annual Review of Nutrition.
GUY MILLER is founder, Chair, and Chief Executive Officer of Galileo Laboratories, Inc., Sunnyvale, California. Prior to joining Galileo, Dr. Miller was an Assistant Professor at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He obtained his Ph.D. in chemistry under the direction of Professor Sidney Hecht, John Mallet Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia, and his M.D. t the Medical College of Pennsylvania. After completing a surgical residency at the University of Chicago, Dr. Miller completed a residency in anesthesiology and critical care medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital, followed by a fellowship in multidisciplinary critical care medicine. Currently, he hold an appointment as Clinical Instructor, Stanford University School of Medicine.
LYLE L. MOLDAWER is currently Professor of Surgery at the University of Florida College of Medicine. He joined the College in 1993, after serving on the faculty of Cornell University Medical College for 7 years. Dr. Moldawer currently serves on several USPHS. Scientific Advisory Committees, including Metabolic Pathology and Post-Graduate Medical Training Study Sections of the NIH and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, respectively. He is an active member of the American Physiological Society and American Society for Leukocyte Biology. Dr. Moldawer received his Ph.D. in experimental medicine from Göteborgs Universitet in 1986.
JOHN F. PATTON is Chief of the Military Performance Division, USARIEM. He earned his Ph.D. in medical physiology from the University of Missouri, Columbia. His research interests include cold physiology, exercise physiology, physical fitness, and occupational performance. The mission of the Military Performance Division encompasses research programs in musculoskeletal injury epidemiology, occupational medicine and physiology, biomechanics, and cognitive/pschomoter performance.
ROBERT ROSS obtained a Bachelor degree in physical education form Magill University and Master's and Ph.D. in exercise physiology from the Université de Montréal. Early research interests focused on body composition methodology, in particular, the development and application of magnetic resonance imaging as a means of measuring regional adipose tissue and skeletal muscle distribution. A principal research interest is to study the separate effects of diet-and exercise-induced weight loss on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass, and to relate changes in these variables to concurrent changes in metabolic risk factors. Dr. Ross is currently an Assistant Professor within the School of Physical and Health Education and holds a cross-appointment in the Faculty of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
GERALD I. SHULMAN is Professor of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Physiology at Yale University School of Medicine. He is also Associate Chief of the Endocrinology/Metabolism Section and Associate Director of the Yale Diabetes Endocrinology Research center. Dr. Shulman is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians and a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation. He received a B.S. in biophysics form the University of Michigan and M.D.-Ph.D. (physiology) from Wayne State University. Dr. Shulman did a residency in internal medicine at Duke University Medical Center and a Fellowship in Endocrinology/Metabolism at the Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School.
RONALD G. TOMPKINS received a B.S. in chemistry and an M.D. from Tulane University. During his surgical training at the MGH and Harvard Medical School, he received an S.M. in chemical engineering and an Sc.D. in medical and chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Following completion of his surgical training at MGH, he has been both a clinician and scientific investigator. He is the Chief of the Trauma and Burn Services at MGH, Chief of Staff at the Shriners Burns Institute in Boston, and the John Francis Burke Professor of Surgery at the Harvard Medical School. Dr. Tompkins is board-certified in surgery and in surgical critical care, and he currently serves as Director of the American Board of Surgery and the American Burn Association. Although Dr. Tompkins has maintained a broad clinical interest in surgery, many of his clinical responsibilities have focused on patients who have been injured by burns and other traumatic injuries. These clinical activities have complemented his scientific interests, which involve tissue engineering and artificial organ development, physiological transport in injury, and metabolism.
HOWARD C. TOWLE is currently Professor of Biochemistry and a member of the Institute of Human Genetics at the University of Minnesota Medical School. He received his B.A. in biological sciences and Ph.D. in biochemistry from Michigan State University. Subsequently, he did postdoctoral work in cell biology a the Baylor College of Medicine before starting his academic career at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Towle's research has focused on the influence of thyroid hormones and nutritional factors on hepatic gene expression. He has served on the NIH Study Section on Biochemistry and is a member of the editorial board for the Journal of Biological Chemistry. He is also a member of the Endocrine Society and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
GABRIEL VIRELLA received the M.D. (1967) and Ph.D. (1974) from the University of Lisbon School of Medicine in Portugal. He is Professor of Basic and Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, as well as of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, at the medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. he directs a special Immunology Diagnosis Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology and immunology. Previously, he was a Senior Researcher in Immunochemistry and Immunopharmacology at the Gulbenkian Institute of Science in Oeiras, Portugal, and he also held postdoctoral fellowships at the University of Birmingham Medical School and the National Institute for Medical Research, London. His research interests include immunoglobulin structure, B-lymphocyte activation, hematological malignancies, immunodeficiencies, immune complex diseases, and the role of immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. He has authored or coauthored 196 research articles, edited two textbooks (Introduction
to Clinical Immunology, 4th ed. and Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 3d ed.), is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and American Academy of Microbiology, a charter member of the American Board of Medical Laboratory Immunologists, and a member of the Clinical Immunology Society. Dr. Virella serves as member of the editorial board of the Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, and is Section Editor of Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology.
JAMES A. VOGEL was Director of Occupational Health and Performance at USARIEM, which encompassed research programs in occupational medicine, occupational physiology, nutrition, and behavioral performance-neuroscience. He was the principal consultant to the Department of the Army in the biomedical aspects of physical fitness and exercise physiology and chaired a NATO Research Study Group on the Biomedical Aspects of Military Physical Training. Dr. Vogel retired from federal service in September 1995. He earned a Ph.D. degree in physiology from Rutgers University, New Jersey.
ZiMIAN WANG is Senior Staff Associate, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. He formerly directed the Biochemistry Laboratory and served as Associate Research Professor at the Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science. He is recipient of China State Sports Commission awards in 1989, 1991, and 1992. Mr. Wang is widely recognized in the body composition field for his innovative approach to multicomponent model development. He was awarded B.S. and M.S. degrees in biochemistry from Nanjing University and Shanghai Institute of Physiology, respectively. Mr. Wang is completing doctoral studies in Nutrition at Waganingen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.
PETER GREGORY WEYAND is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Harvard University Concord Field Station in Bedford, Massachusetts. He received his B.A. in history from Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, in 1983, his M.S. in exercise physiology from Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, Massachusetts, in 1988, and his Ph.D. in exercise physiology from the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, in 1992. He joined the Concord Field Station in 1992. His research interests include anaerobic energy release during exhaustive exercise, the metabolic determinants of run/walk performance in men and women, and the effects hypohydration on perceived exertion and submaximal exercise capacity.
ROBERT R. WOLFE has been Professor of Surgery and Nutritional Biochemistry at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, and Chief of Metabolism at the Shriners Burns Institute since 1983. From 1976 to 1983 he was Assistant and Associate Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School and the Shriners Burns Institute, Boston. Dr. Wolfe has served as associate editor of the American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism and as an editorial board member of several other journals. He has been a regular member of the Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Trauma Study Section and many other ad hoc study sections of the NIH, as well as a member of the Committee on Research Review of the American Diabetes Association. He has been an active member of the American Physiological Society and American Institute of Nutrition. Dr. Wolfe received an A.B. in biology from the University of California, Berkeley and a Ph.D. in biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara.
VERNON R. YOUNG has been at M.I.T. since 1965, where he is currently Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry. Dr. Young received a B.Sc. (agriculture) from the University of Reading, United Kingdom and a Ph.D. (nutrition) from the University of California, Davis. He later received a D.Sc. from the University of Reading for his research on various aspects of muscle and whole-body protein metabolism. He has served as President of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (previously American Institute of Nutrition) and is currently a member of the FNB. He was elected in 1990 to the National Academy of Sciences and in 1993 to the Institute of Medicine in recognition of his research contributions, which have been focused mainly in the area of human protein and amino acid metabolism and nutritional requirements.
YONG-MING YU is an Associate Biochemist in the Department of Surgery, Trauma Service of Massachusetts General Hospital and Assistant Professor of Surgery at the Harvard Medical School. He is active in the research of metabolic response to trauma and burns using tracer methods. Dr. Yu is an active member of the American Burn Association and American Institute of Nutrition, along with other scientific societies. He received a B.S. in biology from Peking University, M.D. from Peking Union Medical College, and Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from M.I.T.