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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
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This study was supported by Contract No. CCN-0004-A-00-5023-00 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Bureau of Europe and the New Independent States, U.S. Agency for International Development, and Contract No. 94-F 134700-000 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Transforming post-Communist political economies / Task Force on Economies in Transition, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Former Soviet republics—Economic conditions. 2. Former Soviet republics—Economic policy. 3. Former Soviet republics—Social conditions. 4. Post-communism—Former Soviet republics. 5. Social change—Former Soviet republics. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Task Force on Economies in Transition.
Printed in the United States of America.
Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
TASK FORCE ON ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION
CHARLES TILLY (Cochair),
Departments of Sociology and Political Science, Columbia University
JOAN M. NELSON (Cochair),
Overseas Development Council, Washington, DC
EDGAR L. FEIGE,
Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Council on Foreign Relations, New York City
DOUGLASS C. NORTH,
Department of Economics, Washington University
Department of Political Science, New York University
Department of Economics, University of Washington
Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan
LEE WALKER, Study Director
ANDERS ÅSLUND, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC
DEBRA BAILEY, Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, University of Syracuse
ALEXANDRA BENHAM, Independent Scholar, St. Louis, Missouri
LEE BENHAM, Department of Economics, Washington University
DANIEL BERKOWITZ, Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh
DAVID N. DEJONG, Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh
THRAINN EGGERTSSON, Department of Economics, University of Iceland, and Max Planck Institute for Research into Economic Systems, Jena, Germany
EDGAR L. FEIGE, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison
ZSUZSA FERGE, Institute of Sociology and Social Policy, Eötvös Lorand University
LOUISE FOX, Human Development Sector, The World Bank, Washington, DC
CAROL GRAHAM, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC
SIMON JOHNSON, Sloan School of Business, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
DANIEL KAUFMAN, Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington, DC
JENI KLUGMAN, Department of Economics, University of Australia
JANOS KORNAI, Department of Economics, Harvard University, and Institute for Advanced Study, Collegium Budapest
YEVGENY KUZNETSOV, Finance and Private Sector Development Network,
Latin American Region, The World Bank, Washington, DC
JAMES LEITZEL, The New Economic School, Moscow, Russia
ALASTAIR MCAULEY, Department of Economics, University of Essex, England
JOAN M. NELSON, Overseas Development Council, Washington, DC
DOUGLASS C. NORTH, Department of Economics, Washington University
LEONID POLISHCHUK, Institutional Reform in the Informal Sector Center, University of Maryland
ADAM PRZEWORSKI, Department of Political Science, New York University
GEORGE SCHIEBER, Middle East and North Africa Region, The World Bank, Washington, DC
TIMOTHY M. SMEEDING, Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, University of Syracuse
JUDITH THORNTON, Department of Economics, University of Washington
CHARLES TILLY, Departments of Sociology and Political Science, Columbia University
BARBARA BOYLE TORREY, National Research Council, Washington, DC
OLEG USTENKO, Kiev State Economic University, Ukraine
KATHERINE VERDERY, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan
ANDREW WALDER, Department of Sociology and Institute of International Studies, Stanford University
First, we thank the participants in our five workshops for their ideas, insights, and analyses concerning emerging developments and trends in the post-communist world. Both those whose papers are included in this volume and those who contributed through their cogent comments and probing questions in the discussions were central to the work of the Task Force.
Second, we express our gratitude to the project's sponsors—the Bureau for Europe and the New Independent States of the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, and the Joint Economic Committee of the U.S. Congress—for bringing their inquiries concerning post-communist affairs to the National Research Council. They provided the impetus and the necessary financing for what we found to be a fascinating and timely project. We hope this volume meets their expectations.
We also thank the Research Council staff who oversaw the myriad technical details associated with this project, especially Janine Bilyeu and Heather Schofield. We are particularly grateful to Rona Briere for her editorial expertise. Most important, Lee Walker, the project director, was the linchpin who directed the study, from its earliest glimmer through five workshops and innumerable drafts of papers, keeping us all focused on both the substantive tasks and the administrative realities. This volume would not exist without her work.
Finally, we acknowledge the critical and intellectual contributions of our fellow members of the Task Force. We are a small group, and the scope of the topics and the substantial tasks entailed in the project demanded active and substantial contributions from the Task Force members. We are grateful to have had the opportunity to work so closely on this important project with such dedicated, thoughtful, and congenial colleagues.
Joan Nelson and Charles Tilly, Cochairs
Task Force on Economies in Transition
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Understanding Economic Change
Property Rights in Transition Economies: A Commentary on What Economists Know
Rule Evasion in Transitional Russia
Restructuring Production Without Market Infrastructure
Formal Employment and Survival Strategies After Communism
Observations on the Speed of Transition in Russia: Prices and Entry
Social Policy and the Labor Market in Russia During Transition
Health Reform in Russia and Central Asia
Vulnerable Populations in Central Europe
The State in a Market Economy
Research Priorities for Post-Communist Economies