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Appendix BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES OF INFORMATION Studies related to immigration are carried out by a wide assortment of researchers and analysts, including those in government, universities, and the private sector. Because the sources of information on U.S. immigration are so diverse, it is often difficult even for experienced investigators to locate studies about refugees, undocumented workers, resident aliens, naturalized citizens, temporary entrants, or other groups of interest. A thorough compilation and review of the literature on U.S. immigration would be a valuable contribution to the work of researchers and policy makers. Such a comprehensive effort was outside the scope of the panel's mandate; however, the following brief guide to sources of data, along with selected references to recent studies, was compiled to provide assistance in locating information about international migration involving the United States. This appendix includes a description of an annotated bibliography published by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in 1979; an overview of a guide to sources of information on immigration and refugee policy issued in 1982 by the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress; and selected abstracts of immigration literature drawn from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) data base along with other references provided by the Congressional Research Service. The INS bibliography includes references to many of the studies and reports that helped to shape U.S. immigration policy during the 1970s. The guide to sources of information prepared by the Library of Congress describes printed indexes, on-line data bases, and other tools for conducting research in the area of immigration to the United States. The selected references drawn from the NTIS data base are provided to illustrate the utility of the on-line data bases and to provide a limited update of immigration literature for the period following the publication of the INS bibliography. The panel expresses its appreciation to Rosalyn Leiderman, information services librarian, and James Olsen, librarian, at the National Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Engineering Library, for their assistance and guidance in preparing the information presented in this appendix. 304
305 THE INS BIBLIOGRAPHY In 1979 the Office of Planning, Evaluation and Budgeting of the INS published an annotated bibliography, Immigration Literature: Abstracts of Demographic, Economic, and Policy Studies (available from the U.S. Government Printing Office). The bibliography, prepared by Jeannette H. North and Susan J. Grodsky, was published in response to widespread and growing interest in immigration issues. Its scope is described in the introductory material: "The documents in [the] bibliography are generally concerned with immigration to the United States from 1965 to [1979~. The subject matter falls primarily within the following categories: (1) demographic studies of recent immigration, including methodological studies, descriptive statistical reports, and essays on migration theory, (2) economic studies pertaining to recent immigration, including works on both the economic impacts and the economic experiences of aliens in the United States, (3) "Brain Drain" studies, including the descriptive and analytic studies of the migration of foreign students and professionals, and (4) immigration policy studies, including sections on political refugees, undocumented aliens, and the enforcement and administration of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act. . . . The bibliography contains a variety of types of literature including books, pamphlets, reports, periodical articles, and government publications. The latter category encompasses Federal, State, and local government publications; Congressional Hearings and Committee prints as well as executive Branch reports are included." THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GUIDE TO SOURCES OF INFORMATION In 1982 the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress published a guide to information on immigration to the United States, U.S. Immigration and Refugee Policy: A Guide to Sources of Information. The guide, prepared by Marsha K. Cerny, provides information to assist researchers in locating bibliographic information on four major topics: immigration law and policy, alien labor, illegal aliens, and refugees. It also provides appropriate search terms for locating information in printed indexes and on-line data bases. The guide lists nearly 150 citations, including books, journal articles, legal resources, legislative information, executive department publications, statistical sources, and bibliographies. The last two categories, statistical sources and bibliographies, shown on pages 30 and 31 of the guide, are reproduced below because of their relevance to this report and to illustrate the utility of the guide. Statistical Sources Printed Indexes The AMERICAN STATISTICS INDEX (ASI) aims to be a master guide and index to all the statistical publications of the U.S. Government, including periodicals, annual, biennial, semiannual, and special publications. The Index is divided into two
306 sections: an abstract of the content and the volume. ASI is publi Access is provided by Subject terms tc immigration materials volume which contains full descriptions format of each publication and an index shed monthly and cumulated annually. subject, name, issuing source, and title. be used in this index to locate include: IMMIGRATION: Immigration Immigration and Naturalization Service Aliens Citizenship Mexicans in the U.S. ALIEN LABOR: Alien workers ILLEGAL ALIENS: Aliens REFUGEES: Refugees Selected statistical publications from non-Federal sources are indexed in the STATISTICAL REFERENCE INDEX. It presents data on business, industry, finance, economic and social conditions, government and politics, the environment, and population. The Index includes the publications of trade, professional and other nonprofit associations and institutes, business organizations, commercial publishers, university and independent research centers, and state governments. Access is provided by subject, name, categories, issuing source, and title. Indexes are published monthly and annually. The subject teems that can be searched in the Index to find material on immigration are listed here: IMMIGRATION: ALIEN LABOR: ILLEGAL ALIENS: REFUGEES: Immigration Aliens Citizenship Alien workers Aliens Aliens Refugees Cuban refugee program Indo-Chinese refugee programs The PUBLIC AN FAIRS INFORMATION SERVICE BULLETIN (PAIS) subdivides many of its subject categories with a statistical section. For a longer description of this source and a list of the subject teems that can be searched, see page 4 of this guide. Online Data Bases The CRS BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA BASE (CITN or BIBL) also contains Federal and private statistical material. Immigration statistical material can be located by combining the search teems listed in the journal article section of this guide (page 6) with the subdivisions "Statistics" or "Graphs and charts".
307 The online file for the PUBLIC AFFAIRS INFORMATION SERVICE BULLETIN (PAIS), available through Lockheed, can also be searched for statistical material. The subject teems listed in the journal article section of the guide (page 4) can be combined with the term "Statistics" to locate immigration material. Other Source The STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE UNITED STATES is an annual publication of the Census Bureau. It contains a standard summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic makeup of the country. Immigration material is in the section entitled Immigration and Naturalization. . . . Bibliographies Fox, James W., and Mary Anne Fox. Illegal immigration: a bibliography, 1968-1978. Monticello, Ill., Vance Bibliographies, 1978. 32 p. (Public administration series: bibliography P-94) Z7165.U5F67 Sharma, Prakash C. Refugee migration: a selected international research bibliography. Monticello, I11., Council of Planning Librarians, 1975. 15 p. (Council of Planning Librarians. Exchange bibliography 801) Z5942.C68 no. 801 A selected research bibliography on Mexican immigration to the United States. Monticello, Ill., Council of Planning Librarians, 1974. 18 p. (Council of Planning librarians. Exchange bibliography 672) Z5942.C68 no. 672 U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Illegal aliens: selected references, 1978-1981, by Marsha Cerny. [Washington] 1981. 4 p. (Bibliography in brief L0063) SELECTED ABSTRACTS OF IMMIGRATION LITERATURE, 1978-1983 Most of the abstracts below were selected from a search of the NTIS data base in June 1983 and reproduced here. The NTIS data base includes over 900,000 citations, most with abstracts, to technical reports resulting from U.S. and other government-sponsored research. The unpublished U.S. reports are prepared by federal, state, and local agencies and their contractors and grantees. Major areas covered include the biological, social, and physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, and business information (Chadra Associates, 1984, Directory of Online Data Bases 5( 3) Spring) . The NTIS data base was searched by Rosalyn Leiderman of the National Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Engineering Library in mid-1983, and a list of annotated references was generated. The abstracts that appear below were selected from the original list to partially update the 1979 INS bibliography and to provide a brief list of abstracts of
308 publications that illuminate many of the issues described in this report. The abstracts are loosely arranged into the following categories: bibliographies, employment and labor market impact, federal statistics, illegal aliens, assimilation/adaptation, and miscellaneous references. A final section lists additional abstracts for the 1979-1982 period. These references, prepared by Marsha Cerny of the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, are divided into two categories: general sources and illegal aliens. Selected References from the NTIS Data Base Bibliographies Department of Housing and Urban Development. Hispanic Americans in the United States: A Selective Bibliography, 1975-1980. Washington, D.C. 1981. This is the second edition of a bibliography devoted to literature on the Hispanic minority in the United States. It reflects the growth of both the Hispanic population and the awareness of its importance since 1974. The bibliography consists of a selected list of studies, newspaper and periodical articles, and government publications which are arranged topically, beginning with general background on Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans; followed by immigration, migration and settlement patterns, ethnicity and assimilation, and housing. Additional topics are the family, women, the elderly, education, employment, health, crime and law enforcement, political participation, civil rights, and race relations. Bibliographies are listed separately. Altogether 429 bibliographic entries are contained in this compilation. Most citations date from the late 1970s; a few are dated 1980. An author index is provided. A Review and Analysis of the Literature on Asian/Pacific . and Hispanic Aging and Mental Health Programs, and on Indochinese Refugee Mental Health Programs. CON SAD Research Corp., Vienna, VA. February 1981. This literature review and analysis summarizes recent research, examines the issues on evaluation raised (and not raised) in the literature, and assesses the adequacy of available data for evaluation and for evaluability assessment. The task involved a broad search of the mental health and aging literature on Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Americans. Foreign Medical Graduates. 1975-July, 1982 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. July 1982. A compilation of research reports is presented on the following issues regarding the immigration of foreign trained medical personnel to the United States: (1) Immigration policies; (2) demographic and professional characteristics; (3) performance on examinations, licensing tests, and specialty
309 certification; (4) clinical performance; and (5) information on location and professional activities. The impact of foreign medical graduates on health manpower planning is discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 96 citations, 7 of which are new entries to the previous edition.) Employment and Labor Market Impact Bailey, Thomas, and Marcia Freedman. Immigrant and Native-Born Workers in the Restaurant Industry. Columbia - University, New York. Conservation of Human Resources Project. January 1982. Each of four industry sectors, defined according to labor process, depends mainly on one particular category of worker: full-service restaurants on attached workers, intermediate restaurants on the quasi-attached, and fast-food on the unattached. . . . A large alien labor force supports the proliferation of full-service restaurants. Hiring networks are well developed; paternalistic management puts a premium on insider acceptance. As the stay of unskilled immigrants lengthens, they accumulate knowledge and capital, thus constituting a pool from which skilled workers and entrepreneurs are produced. The informality and uncertainty of the training process reduces the attractiveness of the industry for native-born workers seeking attachment. The most likely adjustment to immigration restriction would be a shift to fast-food production rather than a significant increase in wages or career-type jobs. Borjas, George J. Economic Status of Male Hispanic ants and Natives in the U.S.: A Human Capital Approach. California University, Santa Barbara. Community and Organization Research Institute. 1981. This research presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the economic status of Hispanic natives and immigrants in the United States labor market. The empirical findings include results on the heterogeneity of the Hispanic population, the earnings growth of Hispanic immigrants, the labor supply behavior of Hispanic men, and the impact of Hispanics in the labor market. The empirical analysis is based on the Survey of Income and Education. Chiswick, Barry R. Effects of Immigration on Earnings and Employment in the United States. Phase 1. Illinois University at Chicago Circle. Survey Research Lab. November 1981. Part I is an analysis of the employment (weeks worked), unemployment and earnings among adult foreign-born men, and in comparison with the native-born. The analyses of employment and unemployment are done for the 1970 Census of Population and the 1976 Survey of Income and Education (SIE). Part II analyzes the impact of immigrants on the earnings and employment of native-born men using the 1970 census. The earnings of the
310 native-born are higher the greater the proportion of immigrants in their labor market, and the higher the skill level of these e e Immigrants. Chiswick, Barry R. An Analysis of the Economic Progress and Impact of Immigrants. Illinois University at Chicago Circle, Survey Research Lab. The theoretical analysis of earnings and occupational mobility is based on the international transferability of skills and the favorable self-selection of immigrants. Detailed analyses are performed by race/ethnic group and sex (1970 Census). Immigrants initially have lower earnings than the native born but their earnings rise rapidly with the duration of residence, reach equality after 11 to 25 years and then they have higher earnings. The children of immigrants earn 5 to 10 percent more than those with native-born parents. Using aggregate production function analysis, it is shown that an increase in supply of either low-skilled or high-skilled immigrants decreases the wage of that type of labor, and increases the return to both capital and the other type of labor. The immigration tends to increase the aggregate income of the native population, unless the immigrants are substantial net beneficiaries of income transfers. A bibliography is included. Conroy, Michael E., Mario Coria Salas, Felipe Vila-Gonzalez. Socioeconomic Incentives for Migration from Mexico to the United States: Magnitude, Recent Changes, and Policy Implications. Texas Universitv at Austin. Dent. of Economics. July 1980. The purpose of the report is to present new evidence of the magnitude of recent estimated real wage differentials for low-skill laborers across regions within Mexico and through the Southwestern United States; to show the trend in those wage differentials across recent years, with specific attention to the effect of recent devaluations of the Mexican peso; to broaden the analysis of socioeconomic incentives to a series of measures beyond real wages alone; and to suggest policy implications with respect to migration which emerge from this analysis of changing incentives in the context of broader interrelationships between the two countries. (Prepared in cooperation with Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City, MX.) Emerson, Robert D. Seasonal Agricultural Labor Markets in the United States. Florida University, Gainesville. Department of Food and Resource Economics. March 1981. The report is a series of papers devoted to seasonal agricultural labor markets. The titles of the papers are as follows: Introduction to the Seasonal Farm Labor Problem; Some Analytical Approaches for Human Resource Issues of Seasonal Farm Labor; Seasonality of Farm Labor Use Patterns in the United States; Migration in Farm Labor Markets; The Off-Farm Work of
311 Hired Farmworkers; Nonimmigrant Aliens in American Agriculture; Labor Supply Uncertainty and Technology Adoption; An Intertemporal Approach to Seasonal Agricultural Labor Markets; Unstructured Labor Markets and Alternative Labor Market Forms; Occupational Structure and the Industrialization of Agriculture; The California Agricultural Labor Relations Act and National Agricultural Labor Relations Legislation; Impact of Labor Laws and Regulations on Agricultural Labor Markets; Farmworker Service and Employment Programs; Seasonal Farm Labor and U.S. Farm Policy; and a Summary. The orientation of the document is toward the consideration of policy alternatives, data needs, and research needs. Clover, Robert W. Attempting to Rationalize Agricultural Labor Markets: A Review of Experiences with Citrus Harvesting in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Texas University at Austin. Center for the Study of Human Resources. July 1981. This report provides an overview of efforts to improve the labor market for farm workers in the citrus industry of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas under the Citrus Labor Market Demonstration Project from 1974 to 1977. A primary aim of the effort was to increase productivity and incentives for workers to remain in citrus harvest work on a more stable basis. Meeting this objective would enable the industry to utilize legal U.S. workers rather than relying on undocumented foreign workers. Researchers worked with five packinghouses who agreed to cooperate with the project in varying degrees. Efforts were conducted in four areas: (1) improvements in fruit handling methods, (2) development of company crews hired directly by the packinghouse, (3) development of a variable piece rate system that adjusted to the amount of effort put to picking and (4) finding alternative employment during the off-season. For a variety of reasons discussed in this report, none of the attempts could be declared successful. Johnson, Kyle, and James Orr. Labor Shortages and Immigration: A Survey and Taxonomy. Bureau of International ~ ~ . Labor Affairs, Washington, D.C. Office of Foreign Economic Research. February 1981. The paper contributes to the debate on immigration by analyzing recent discussions of the effects of immigration on economic growth, income distribution and productivity and the relationship of these effects to projected labor shortages. paper also provides a discussion of the principal economic effects of immigration and briefly discusses the experience of Europe and Japan in meeting labor shortages. McLaughlin, Steven D. English Language Proficiency, Occupational Characteristics and the Employment Outcomes of Mexican-American Men. Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, WA. June 17, 1982.
312 Several models of the employment outcomes process are estimated in order to determine the effects of human capital, immigrant status, English language proficiency and a set of occupational characteristics on the employment and earnings of Mexican-American males. A comparison is also made between native-born, English proficient Mexican-Americans and a sample of white, native-born English proficient non-Hispanics. The results indicate that the employment outcomes of Mexican-Americans is largely determined by human capital and occupational characteristics. North, David S. Seven Years Later: The Experiences of the . . 1970 Cohort of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market. Linton and - Co., Inc., Washington, D.C. June 15, 1978. Each year about 400,000 legal immigrants enter the U.S., and each year about 222,000 immigrants (net) enter the labor market. The demographic profile of the legal immigrants is close to that of the population at large, and is thus different from that of illegal immigrants (who tend to be young, single males). In the U.S., immigrants earn more money and work fewer hours per week than they did in their homeland, and, in the case of women, quickly earn as much as their peers; the men appeared to be on their way to earnings equity with their peers. There are substantial occupational group movements, many of which initially at least are downwards. The study is based on published and unpublished government statistics and on a survey of the 1970 cohort of immigrants. Pollack, Susan L., Robert Coltrane, and William R. Jackson, Jr. Farm Labor Wage Issues. Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C. Economic Development Div. June 1982. Proposed immigration reforms would make the hiring of undocumented workers illegal. It would also establish a worker program to permit agricultural employers to bring legal foreign workers into the United States to replace illegal workers, but only when domestic workers are unavailable for farmwork. The proposed worker program would be a revision of the current H-2 temporary foreign worker program operated by the Departments of Labor and Justice. The procedures adopted for establishing wage rates and non-wage benefits of temporary foreign agricultural workers could significantly affect farm labor expenditures and the willingness of U.S. farmers to participate in the program. This analysis of 1980 H-2 adverse effect wage rates provides new information which policy-makers may use when they consider changes in current H-2 wage determination procedures. Roberts, Kenneth David, and Gustavo Trevino Elizondo. Agrarian Structure and Labor Migration in Rural Mexico: The Case of Circular Migration of Undocumented Workers to the U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. Office of External Research. July 1980. The purpose of this study is to determine the specific agricultural conditions in Mexico which cause off-farm wage
313 labor to take the form of undocumented migration to the U.S. The report reviews economic and anthropological migration literature and develops a migration model which is applied to 4 rural areas of Mexico. The principal conclusion to emerge from this research is that regional agricultural development will not necessarily stem the flow of migratory wage labor to the U.S. The Bajio, which contributed most heavily to the U.S. migration stream, was the most developed of the 4 zones studied, and within this zone there were no significant differences between migrant and non-migrant households with respect to most economic indicators. Migrant households were found to be significantly larger through the incorportion of more adult members into the extended family. Higher farm incomes in that zone permit more individuals to claim a share of farm production, while lower farm labor requirements and higher cash outlays dictate that the majority of labor by these members will be in off-farm occupations. This household structure encourages U.S. migration by partially off-setting through occupational diversification the higher level of risk associated with this activity. Sullivan, Teresa A., and Silvia Pedraza-Bailey. Differential Success Amone Cuban-American and Mexican-American Immigrants: The Role of Policy and Community. National Opinion _ Research Center, New York. June 1979. The report analyzes the Cuban-Mexican differential in labor market success as a function of the differentials between economic and political immigrants. Cubans had higher initial social class and received a comprehensive program of government services; Mexicans were economic immigrants and received few services. The report uses multiple regression models with 1970 Census Public Use Sample data to show Cuban advantage in earnings and occupational prestige even when personal characteristics are statistically controlled. There is a detailed description of U.S. policy toward Cuban refugees. General Accounting Office, General Government Div. Information on the Enforcement of Laws Regarding Employment of Aliens in Selected Countries. Washington, D.C. August 31, 1982. This study provides information on legal and illegal alien workers in 19 countries and Hong Kong. Specifically, GAO compiled information on the countries' laws and policies concerning guest workers, national identification documents, employer responsibilities, illegal alien workers, and law enforcement. The information was obtained by questionnaire. Because of the subcommittee's specific interest, followup visits were made to four countries--Canada, France, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Genmany--to obtain more detailed responses. The discussion of each country's situation contains characterizations of its laws, legal requirements, and sanctions. In most cases, GAO did not independently examine the countries' laws, regulations, and case law, but rather based its characterizations on information furnished by the countries in response to the questionnaire or in interviews.
314 Waldinger, Roger. Immigration and Industrial Change: A Case Study of Immigrants in the New York City Garment Industry. Harvard-MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies, Cambridge, MA. May 1982. This report is a case study of immigrants in New York women's garment industry. The major purpose of this report is to examine the relationship between immigration and industrial change. The principal focus is on the transformation of New York from an industry center to a spot market and on the effect of this change on the incorporation of new immigrants and on the functioning of key labor market institutions. The study is based on a variety of data sources, the most important of which are interviews with the owners of apparel firms that directly produce in New York City. The literature on the labor market impact of immigrants is discussed in the introduction. A bibliography is included. Federal Statistics North, David S., and Jennifer R. Wagner. Government Records: What They Tell Us About the Role of Illegal Immigrants in the Labor Market and in Income Transfer Programs. New TransCentury Foundation, Washington, D.C. April 1981. It has become obvious that illegal immigrants are making substantial impacts on U.S. society, its population, its economy, and particularly on its labor market; and, while it is clear that the impacts are occurring, no consensus has been reached about the nature of those impacts nor what to do about them. It is important to try to secure incremental data from whatever sources are available on the numbers, roles, and activities of illegal migrants. North, David S. Analyzing the Apprehension Statistics of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. New TransCentury Foundation, Center for Labor and Migration Studies. Washington, D.C. November 1979. This report is an exploratory study of the apprehension statistics of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The objective was to review these statistics on illegal migrants--which are gathered for law enforcement management purposes--to determine if they contained demographic and labor market data of utility to policymakers. The study found that all indices of migration to the U.S., legal and illegal, have increased markedly during the eight years studied, and that the indices of illegal migration appear to be rising more sharply than those of legal migration. Apprehensions of illegal aliens, for example, increased 213% between 1970 and 1977. Despite these trends, the amount of resources devoted to enforcement apparently has not kept pace with the increased flow; the number of officer hours spent on apprehensions increased only 31% during the studied period. Further, INS does not allocate its resources in such a way so as to maximize apprehensions,
315 particularly as they relate to removing undocumented workers from jobs which could be filled by legal residents. The study also examined a number of other migration control systems, such as issuances of visas and inspections of arriving aliens. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing: 1970. Evaluation and Research Program. Accuracy of Data for Selected Population Characteristics as Measured by Reinterviews. Washington, D.C. August 1974. The report presents data on the accuracy of reporting for selected population characteristics as measured in a large-scale reinterview program, carried out shortly after the 1970 census field work was completed. Response error data are presented for three population characteristics which were collected for the first time in the 1970 census: Spanish origin or descent, mother tongue, and vocational training. In addition, response error data are presented for six population characteristics which had been collected in previous decennial censuses: Nativity, citizenship, year of immigration, country of birth of parents, year moved into present house, and number of children ever born. Illegal Aliens Chiswick, Barry R., and Francis A. Fullam. Feasibility Study for a Survey of the Employers of Undocumented Aliens. Illinois Univ. at Chicago Circle, Survey Research Lab. June 1980. A non-probability sample of Chicago employers was selected from the Records of Deportable Alien (I-213) to determine whether employers would participate in a survey on potentially sensitive hiring practices, e.g., undocumented aliens. The sample was stratified by the alien's ethnicity (Mexican, non-Mexican) and industry (manufacturing, restaurant, other service). The Interviews were face-to-face, preceded by a telephone appointment. The survey instrument was indirect, with specific questions regarding hiring youths, older workers, women, and migrants, including undocumented aliens. There were 31 completed interviews, 2 ineligible firms, and 9 refusals/unavailable, for a 78 percent completion rate among eligible employers. Employer's procedures generally indicated they check applicant's legal status which they incorrectly perceived to be a legal obligation. Questions on practices suggested they knew they were hiring undocumented aliens. Maram, Sheldon, and Stewart Long. The Labor Market Impact of Hispanic Undocumented Workers: An Exploratory Case Study of the Garment Industry in Los Angeles County. California State Univ., Fullerton. October 1981. The study seeks to determine whether Hispanic undocumented workers are occupying jobs in the garment industry in Los Angeles County that might otherwise be held by unemployed Black
316 and Hispanic U.S. citizens and legal immigrants. The data gathered suggest that the majority of the garment workers in Los Angeles are Hispanic undocumented and that the prevailing wage level for sewing machine operative jobs, the main production job in the industry, is the minimum wage or below. The data also indicate that very few unemployed Blacks and Hispanics would be willing to work as sewing machine operatives at the prevailing wage level, and that employers prefer to hire Hispanics over Blacks as sewing machine operators. Thus, data from the supply as well as the demand sides of the labor market indicate that there is very little displacement of unemployed Blacks and Hispanics by Hispanic undocumented workers at prevailing wages. The authors were unable to obtain sufficient empirical data on which to reach conclusions about the extent of indirect displacement--that is, displacement that may be occurring if the presence of the undocumented depresses wages and thus makes these jobs unattractive to unemployed Blacks and Hispanics who otherwise would accept them. Morris, Milton D., and Albert Mayio. Illegal Immigration and United States Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. October 1980. The study examines how illegal immigration affects U.S. foreign relations. It reviews the level and sources of illegal immigration, the conditions that contribute to it, the actions that might be taken to curtail it, the effects of these actions on the principal source countries, on the United States, and on relations between these countries and the U.S. Van Arsdol, Maurice D., Jr., Joan W. Moore, David M. Heer, and Susan Paulvir Haynie. Non-Apprehended and Apprehended Undocumented Residents in the Los Angeles Labor Market: An Exploratory Study. University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Population Research Lab. May 1979. The study presents for the first time detailed information concerning the economic assimilation, demographic characteristics, and social adjustment of a large sample of undocumented Mexican residents of the United States who were not apprehended by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service at the time they were interviewed. These persons were then residing in Los Angeles, California. The purpose of the research is to analyze previously unavailable data concerning the social histories and assimilation of such migrants, and to compare their characteristics with those of apprehended undocumented migrants. General Accounting Office, Program Analysis Div. Illegal Aliens: Estimating Their Impact on the United States. March 14, 1980. While the number of immigrants legally admitted to the United States has remained fairly constant, the estimated number of people entering illegally has been increasing. There are conflicting points of view as to the illegal alien's role in the
317 United States. This report addresses the issues relating to the impact of illegal aliens and develops a framework for analyzing these issues. General Accounting Office, Human Resources Div. Administrative Changes Needed to Reduce Employment of Illegal Aliens. January 30, 1981. The report examines the impact that the Department of Labor's program for reducing the employment of illegal aliens has had in six States. The report also describes the problems associated with a program that lacks penalties for use against nonagricultural employers who knowingly employ illegal aliens. General Accounting Office, General Government Div. Number of Undocumented Aliens Residing in the United States Unknown. Washington, D.C. April 6, 1981. While various estimates on the size of the undocumented alien population residing in the United States have been made, none are considered reliable. Congress, therefore, in considering important immigration issues, may wish to weigh the desirability and feasibility of any proposed actions on both a best and worst case basis. What may seem right premised on an undocumented alien population of 1 or 2 million could be inappropriate if this population was actually 10 million or more. General Accounting Office, Inst. for Program Evaluation. Problems and Options in Estimating the Size of the Illegal Alien _ _ Population. Washington, D.C. September 24, 1982. Illegal aliens are of concern to the Congress not only because of their illegal status but also because they may aggravate employment and community resource problems. As the Congress considers its response to the presence of illegal aliens in this country, accurate estimates of the size and growth of this population would be useful for deciding on policy options and for evaluating policy effectiveness. However, presently available estimates are imprecise and insufficiently reliable. GAO presents for congressional consideration three alternative ways of acquiring information relevant to policymaking on illegal aliens. In assessing the merit of these alternatives, the Congress should weigh the extent of its concern for reliable narrow-ranged estimates against the significant expenditure of resources that would be required. Flores, Grace. Unpaid Medical Costs and Undocumented , A Aliens. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Office of Special Concerns. Washington, D.C. March 1979. The report presents the field materials collected under a contract commissioned by the Division of Spanish Surnamed Americans to examine the costs of medical services for undocumented persons. The findings of this study revealed that hospitals do not have systematic methods for determining the alienage status of their patients. As a result none of the
318 hospitals had exact figures on the amount of money lost due to the treatment of undocumented persons. Assimi tat ion/Adaptation Dunning, Bruce B., and Joshua Greenbaum. Survey of the Social, Psychological and Economic Adaptation of Vietnamese Refugees in the U.S., 1975-1979. Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. Washington, D.C. April 1982. This document reports the principal findings of a survey of 555 adult Vietnamese refugees who entered the U.S. from 1975 through 1979 and were living as of Jan. 1980 in the areas of Orange and Los Angeles counties, California, Galveston/Houston or New Orleans. Data gathered in December 1980 include background, demographic and household characteristics, economic and employment status, social participation, religious identification, migration patterns, sponsorship and use of refugee services, and perceptions of problems and of socioeconomic status. Hurh, Won Moo, and Kwang Chung Kim. Korean Immigrants in America: A Structural Analysis of Ethnic Confinement and - Adhesive Adaptation. Western Illinois Univ., Mac omb. December 1980. Korean immigrants' adaptation in terms of their historical background, demographic characteristics, and various patterns of adaptation in cultural, social, economic, and psychological dimensions were studied. In addition to the historical overview of the Korean immigrants in the United States, their demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, geographic adaptation patterns such as concentration, streaming and scattering ecological processes, and their general patterns of cultural and social adaptation are analyzed. Adhesive adaptation of Korean immigrants reflects multiple realities involved in intergroup relations, such as acculturation, assimilation, separatism, and pluralism. It also reveals the most salient aspect of an American dilemma--the idea of ethnic pluralism versus the reality of ethnic confinement. Li, Angelina H. Labor Utilization and the Assimilation of Asian-Americans. Chicago Univ., IL. June 1980. The research addresses the topic of underemployment as measured by the extent of unemployment, involuntary part-time work, inadequate income, and mismatch between education and occupation. The first part of the study critiques a number of conventional measures of economic well-being and compares them with Hauser's Labor Utilization Framework (LUF) in teems of operationalization and comprehensiveness The second part of the study uses 1970 Census data and measures the degree of labor utilization of Asian-Americans in teems of the LUF. In this section, Asians are classified by ethnicity and immigration generation and comparisons are made with White Americans.
319 Fortes, Alejandro. Latin American Immierant Minorities in the United States. Duke Univ., Durham, NC. November 1981 - Immigration and immigrant adaptation among Cubans and Mexican immigrants to the U.S. was studied. Structural, social, and cultural adaptation were analyzed, as were the immigrants' views of the host society and their perceptions of discrimination against their ethnic group. Occupational and economic mobility and exposure to outside society appear to retard, rather than promote, cultural adaptation. Predominant ethnicity of community of residence and place of employment are more important predictors of social adaptation than race, class of origin, or religion. Shifflett, Crandall A., and Richard J. Harris. Occupational Mobility and the Process of Assimilation of Mexican Immigrants to San Antonio, Texas: A Longitudinal Analysis. Texas Univ. at San Antonio, Div. of Social Sciences. June 1979. The study examines the career patterns of 132 Mexican American male heads of household whose names were chosen at random from the San Antonio City Directory of 1977. Each person was contacted for a 45 minute interview, and information was collected on the head, his parents, and his grandparents to get a three generation perspective. The results were compared with a National Opinion Research Center sample of Anglo males from southern S.M.S.A.'s. Miscellaneous References Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Hispanic Population in the United States: 1950-1980. Development Associates, Inc. Arlington, VA. January 1982. The Hispanic population is the second largest and fastest growing minority in the country. While the total U.S. population is expected to double between 1950 and 2000, the Hispanic population, it is estimated, will increase approximately five times. Between 1950 and 1980, the group tripled in size, growing from about 4 million to over 14 million. By 1990 it is expected to reach over 19 million; by the end of the century, it is likely to number close to 24 million. Eighty percent of the Hispanics now live in 9 states Cal., Tex., NY, Fla., Ill., NJ, New Mex., Ariz., and Cal. The following groups have been identified with the Hispanic population: the Mexican Americans; the Puerto Ricans; the Cubans; and those from Central and South America and from Spain. In 1950, the Hispanic population was primarily of Mexican origin, concentrated then, as now, in the Southwestern U.S. Since the 1950s, there have been growing concentrations Puerto Ricans in the NY area; Cubans in Florida; and other Hispanics dispersed over several states. Various factors, such as fertility, age distribution, immigration and mortality, are likely to result in differential growth patterns for each of these groups. the
320 North, David S., and Jennifer R. Wagner. Nonimmigrant Workers in the U.S.: Current Trends and Future Implications. - - - . New TransCentury Foundation. Center for Labor and Migration Studies. Washington, D.C. May 1980. The report describes one class of alien workers, nonimmigrants, who may work in the U.S. legally, but only temporarily and under other prescribed conditions. The numbers, occupations, wages, and working conditions of five subclasses of such workers are analyzed: foreign students, temporary workers of distinguished merit and ability, other temporary workers, exchange visitors, and intracompany transferees (multinational employees). Many of these workers are roughly comparable to the guestworkers of Europe, while the rural workers are comparable to the braceros (Mexican Nationals working in agriculture) of the period 1942-1964. The impacts of these workers on the micro labor markets they affect is discussed, as are their demographic impacts. Reubens, Edwin P. Temporary Admission of Foreign Workers: Dimensions and Policies. City Univ. of New York. March 1979. The report examines the policy dimensions of the H-2 Program (Temporary admission of foreign workers) in teems of legal and administrative provisions; numbers and trends of H-2 workers; functions of H-2 workers; the need for foreign workers; the capacity to absorb foreign workers; and the available policy options. General Accounting Office. Human Resources Div. Greater Emphasis on Early Employment and Better Monitoring Needed in As, Indochinese Refugee Resettlement Program. Washington, D.C. March 1, 1983. Although the Refugee Act of 1980 establishes the goal of quick self-sufficiency for refugees, its achievement has been impeded by problems in the Indochinese refugee resettlement program including (1) continued placement of most refugees in a few areas of the United States; (2) lack of employment assistance given to refugees soon after their arrival, coupled with the large number receiving public assistance; (3) limited monitoring by voluntary agencies to assure that refugees receive services needed to help them become self-sufficient; and (4) fragmented Federal management of the resettlement program and poor program direction and oversight. Much corrective action has been taken through recent reauthorizing legislation and administrative action. GAO is making additional recommendations to the Secretaries of the Departments of Health and Human Services and State that would (1) place program emphasis on quick employment for refugees and (2) improve direction and oversight of the refugee program by key offices involved in resettlement activities.
321 General Accounting Office. Human Resources Div. Issues Concerning Social Security Benefits Paid to Aliens. Washington, D.C. March 24, 1983. There has long been congressional concern about aliens who work only long enough to become eligible for social security benefits and then return to their native countries to collect the benefits for themselves and their dependents. In 1981, the Social Security Administration paid nearly $1 billion to 313,000 beneficiaries living abroad, more than 60 percent of whom were aliens. Alien retirees abroad generally have worked less time in covered employment, have paid less taxes to social security, and have more dependents than the average retiree, frequently adding such dependents after retirement. GAO's study also identified an inconsistency between the Social Security Act and the Immigration and Nationality Act--aliens are allowed to earn social security credits under the former act while violating the latter. Accumulation of credits by and the payment of benefits to aliens who worked illegally in the United States could be costly to the trust funds. General Accounting Office. International Div. Indochinese Refugees: Protection, Care, and Processing Can Be Improved. _ Washington, D.C. August 19, 1980. The continuous exodus of refugees from Communist Indochina in 1979 strained the willingness and the ability of Asian asylum countries to accept refugees and to assist in providing protection and temporary care. GAO reported in 1979 that because of political restraints and the humanitarian plight of these people, the Department of State should seek more active participation of international and voluntary agencies in refugee resettlement. In the past year, conditions at the transit centers and resettlement camps have improved somewhat. GAO makes additional recommendations to alleviate the continuing problems associated with refugee protection, care, and resettlement. General Accounting Office. General Government Div. Information on Immigration in 17 Countries. Washington, D.C January 12, 1979. The immigration policies and trends in selected developed and developing countries were reviewed. The following countries were selected for review: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and Venezuela. From each country specific data was requested concerning visitors, foreign students, guest workers, refugees, permanent resident aliens, citizenship, and immigration problems. The data furnished varied by country. The data provided are incorporated in a summary for each country. Included is information from countries' representatives familiar with local immigration, policies and trends, and the local U.S. embassy or consulate.
322 Data on immigration to the United States from these countries are also included. Selected References Prepared by Congressional Research Service: 1979-1982 General Sources Martin, Philip L. Select commission suggests changes in immigration policy--a review essay. Monthly Labor Review, v. 105, Feb. 1982: 31-37. Describes the recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy for reforming the immigration system. These recommendations include "tougher enforcement, higher quotas, amnesty for most current illegal aliens," and a reliable means for checking the legal status of workers. Reimers, David M. Post-World War II immigration to the United States: America's latest newcomers. In America as a multicultural society. Philadelphia, American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1981. (Annals, v. 454, Mar. 1981) p. 1-12. Reviews changes that have occurred in U.S. immigration policy since the 1940s. Also looks at the shifts in country of origin of the immigrants--from northern and western European countries to Third World nations. Schroeder, Richard C. Refugee policy. [Washington Congressional Quarterly] 1980. 387-404 p. (Editorial research reports, 1980, v. 1, no. 20~. Contents.--Spotlight on the Caribbean.--Global efforts to aid refugees.--Implications of policy reforms. Teitelbaum, Michael S. Right versus right: immigration and refugee policy in the United States. Foreign affairs, v. 59, fall 1980: 21-59. Concludes that, in the long term, the only humane and sustainable policy regarding immigration and refugees must be one that accurately reflects American national interest and humanitarian values, protects the civil liberties and rights of citizens and immigrants alike, and recognizes the importance of trade and foregin assistance policies for developing countries. Advocates the development of legislation to embody such an immigration policy. U.S. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. U.S. immigration policy and national interest; the final report and recommendations . . . with supplemental views by commissioners. [Washington] 1981. 453 p.
323 Partial contents.--Undocumented/illegal aliens.--The admission of immigrants.--Refugee and mass asylum issues. --Nonimmigrant aliens .--Administrative issues .--Legal issues.--Language requirement for naturalization. Walter, Jacob. Lack of cash and poor coordination plague U.S. refugee policies. National journal, v. 12, July 26, 1980: 1234-1237. "If you count Cubans and Haitians, some 364,000 refugees are flocking to the United States this year, only to be greeted by a patchwork of government and voluntary agencies that have little in common except a shortage of money that many feel is necessary to cope with the problem." Illegal Aliens Abrams, Elliott. The myth of 7~.,_~-1 ~ ~- ~A__- ·-.__ A_ ~ ~ the illegal alien crisis. v"~.~ an bile '~' buss con socioeconomic Studies, v. 4, spring 1979: 27-35. Examines the illegal alien problem from the viewpoint of its basis in American economic history. Burnett, Richard. Illegal aliens come cheap. Progressive, v. 43, Oct. 1979: 44-46. Compares U.S. immigration policy with the employment of Mediterranean "guest workers" in northern Europe and the "homelands" policy of South Africa. Concludes that all of these policies ensure a supply of unskilled labor which, because it lacks a permanent right of residence, remains docile and relatively cheap. Cornelius, Wayne A. Mexican migration to the United States. In Mexico-United States relations. New York, Academy of Political Science, 1980. (Proceedings, v. 34, no. 1, 1981) p. 67-77. Questions the view that illegal Mexican immigration could be reduced significantly by government action and concentrates instead on the limits to government intervention on the United States side of the border. Keely, Charles B. Illegal migration. Scientific American, v. 246, Mar. 1982: 41-47. Focuses on the questions of how many illegal residents there are in the U.S., how fast the number of illegal aliens is growing, the effect of illegal immigration on U.S. society, and how this problem might be solved. Keely, Charles B. The shadows of invisible people. American demographics, v. 2, Mar. 1980: 24, 26-29. Looks at the estimated number of illegal aliens in the United States. States that what has emerged from this analysis is a picture of a resident illegal migrant population that is
324 smaller than has been believed to be the case. "The more recent analyses, using demographic methods, conclude the number of illegal migrants around 1973-75 to be in the lower end of the 4 to 12 million range." Martin, Philip L. Illegal immigration: the guestworker option, by Philip L. Martin and Ellen B. Sehgal. Public policy, v. 28, spring 1980: 207-229. As a solution to the problem of illegal immigration into the United States, analyzes the effect of converting illegal aliens to the status of guest workers. Argues that a U.S. guest worker program is discouraged on conceptual and empirical grounds. Contends that "the availability of foreign workers does not solve 'labor shortage' problems; further, it only postpones debate and decision on the kinds of jobs and job structure the United States should have." l