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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
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H

Acronyms and Abbreviations


ACS

Advanced Camera for Surveys (on HST)

AGHF

Advanced Gradient Heating Facility

AMPTE

Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer

ANS

Astronomical Netherlands Satellite

AO

Announcement of Opportunity

APCF

Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility

APL

Applied Physics Laboratory (Johns Hopkins University)

APT

Automatic Picture Transmission

ARGOS

Advanced Research and Global Observations Satellite (France)

ASA

Austrian Space Agency

ASI

Agenzìa Spaziale Italiana [Italian Space Agency]

ASTP

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

ATLAS

Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science

AVHRR

Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer

AVISO

Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic [Data Center]

AWG

Astronomy Working Group (ESA)

Astrophysics Working Group (ESRO)

AXAF

Advanced X-Ray Astronomy Facility


BDPU

Bubble, Drop, and Particle Unit

BMFT

Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie (Germany)

BNSC

British National Space Centre

BOREAS

Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (of Central Canada)


CAC

Cost at completion

CCE

Charge Composition Explorer (on AMPTE)

CDTI

Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico Industrial [Center for Industrial

Technology Development] (Spain)

CEOS

Committee on Earth Observation Satellites

CERES

Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System

CERN

Centre d'Études et de Recherches Nucléaires (European Laboratory for Particle Physics)

CFZF

Commercial Float Zone Furnace

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×

CGMS

Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites

CISP

Committee on International Space Programs (U.S.)

CLAES

Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer

CNES

Centre National d'Études Spatiales (French Space Agency)

COMPLEX

Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration

COS

Cosmic Ray Satellite (Germany)

COS-B

Cosmic Ray Satellite B

COSPAR

Committee on Space Research

COSTAR

Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (HST)

CPCG

Commercial Protein Crystal Growth Facility

CPF

Critical Point Facility

CRAF

Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby

CRISTA

Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere

CRRES

Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite

CSA

Canadian Space Agency

CSLM

Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures Facility


D/APP, D/SCI

Directorate of Application Programmes, Directorate of Scientific Programmes

DARA

Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrt Angelegenheiten (German Space Agency)

DCE

Droplet Combustion Experiment

DISCO

Dual Spectral Irradiance and Solar Constant Orbiter

DLR-PT

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt-Projektträger [German Center for Air and Spaceflight Projects]

DME

Direct Measurement Explorer

DOD

Department of Defense (U.S.)

DORIS

Détermination d'Orbite et Radiopositionnement Intégré par Satellite

[Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite]

DSN

Deep Space Network

DSRI

Danish Space Research Institute


ECF

European Coordinating Facility

EGS

EOS Ground System

ELDO

European Launcher Development Organization

ELV

Expendable Launch Vehicle

ENVISAT

Environmental Satellite

EOAC

Earth Observation Advisory Committee

EO-ICWG

Earth Observation-International Coordination Working Group

EOIM

Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials

EOPP

Earth Observation Preparatory Programme

EOS

Earth Observing System

EOSDIS

Earth Observing System Data and Information System

EOSAT

Earth Observing Satellite Company

EPS

European Physical Society

EROS

Earth Resource Observation Satellite

ERS

European Remote Sensing (satellite)

ERTS

Earth Resources Technology Satellite (now Landsat)

ESA

European Space Agency

ESAC

Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESA)

ESE

Earth Science Enterprise

ESF

European Science Foundation

ESO

European Southern Observatory

ESOC

European Space Operations Center

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×

ESPOIR

European Symposium on Opportunities and Instrumentation for Remote Sensing

ESRO

European Space Research Organization

ESSAAC

Earth System Science and Applications Advisory Committee

ESSC

European Space Science Committee

ESSP

Earth System Science Pathfinder

ESTEC

European Space Research and Technology Centre

EU

European Union

EUMETSAT

European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites

EURECA

European Retrievable Carrier

EUTELSAT

European Telecommunications Satellite Organization

EUV

Extreme ultraviolet

EXOSAT

European Space Agency's X-Ray Observatory Satellite (formerly HELOS)


FAST

Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer

FAUST

Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope

FFEU

Free Flow Electrophoresis Unit

FGS

Fine Guidance Sensors (on HST)

FIFE

First International Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment

FOC

Faint Object Camera (on HST)

FORBAIRT

Technical and economic development entity (Ireland)

FOS

Faint Object Spectrometer (on HST)

FUSE

Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer


GAO

General Accounting Office (U.S.)

GARP

Global Atmospheric Research Program

GAS

Get Away Special

GEOS

Geostationary satellite

GHRS

Goddard High-Resolution Spectrometer (on HST)

GMM

Generic Mars mission

GNP

Gross national product

GO

Guest observer

GOES

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GPPF

Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility

GPS

Global Positioning System

GRACE

Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

GRASP

Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Positioning (telescope)

GRGS

Group de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale [Research Group for Space Geodesy]

GRIST

Grazing Incidence Solar Telescope

GRO

Gamma-Ray Observatory

GRS

German Research Satellite

GSFC

Goddard Space Flight Center

GSOC

Guide Star Occultation Prediction Utility


HAPEX

Hydrological and Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel

HCMM

Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

HEAO

High-Energy Astronomical Observatory

HEDS

Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise

HEOS

Highly Eccentric Orbit Satellite

HRI

High-Resolution Imager (on ROSAT)

HST

Hubble Space Telescope

HUD

Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.)

HZE

High-Charge Z and High-Energy Particles


IACG

Inter-Agency Consultative Group (for Space Science)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×

IAS

Infrared Astronomical Satellite

IAU

International Astronomical Union

IBIS

Imager on Board the INTEGRAL Satellite

ICE

International Cometary Explorer

ICSU

International Council of Scientific Unions

IGBP

International Geosphere-Biosphere Program

ILSCP

International Land Surface Climatology Project

IML

International Microgravity Laboratory

IMP

Interplanetary Monitoring Platform

IMRC

International Mission Review Committee

IMS

International Magnetospheric Study

IMSCIE

International Magnetospheric Study Central Information Exchange

IMWG

International Mission Working Group

INTASAT

Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial Satellite

INTEGRAL

International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory

IPS

Instrument Pointing System

IRAS

Infrared Astronomical Satellite

IRM

Ion Release Module (on AMPTE)

ISAS

Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)

ISEE

International Sun-Earth Explorer

ISLSCP

International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project

ISO

Infrared Space Observatory

ISPM

International Solar Polar Mission (later renamed Ulysses)

ISS

International Space Station

ISTP

International Solar-Terrestrial Physics program

IUC

International Users Committee (for ROSAT)

IUE

International Ultraviolet Explorer

IUS

Interim Upper Stage


JEM-X

Joint European X-Ray Monitor (on INTEGRAL)

JERS

Japanese Earth Resources Satellite

JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JSWT

Joint Science Working Team

JWG

Joint Working Group


LAGEOS

Laser Geodynamics Satellite

LANS

Astronomical Netherlands Satellite

LDEF

Long Duration Exposure Facility

LEGOS

Laboratoire en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiale

LMS

Life and Microgravity Spacelab

LMScAAC

Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Advisory Committee

LST

Large Space Telescope


MAHRSI

Middle Atmosphere High-Resolution Spectrograph Investigation

MAROTS

Maritime Communications Satellite Program

MAU

Million accounting units

MAUS

Materialwissenschaftliche Autonome Experimente unter Schwerelosigkeit

MEA

Materials Experiment Assembly

MEPHISTO

Matériel pour l'Étude des Phenomenes Interessant de la Solidification sur Terre et en Orbit

MESUR

Mars Environmental Survey

METEOSAT

European Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

METOP

Meteorological Operational Satellite

MFC

Microgravity Facility for Columbus

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×

MGCO

Mars Geoscience and Climatology Orbiter

MIMR

Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer

MLS

Microwave Limb Sounder

MMA

Microgravity Measurement Assembly

MO&DA

Mission operations and data analysis (U.S.)

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

MPE

Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik

MRLS

Microgravity research and life sciences

MSG

METEOSAT Second Generation

MSL

Microgravity Science Laboratory

MSS

Multispectral Scanner (on Landsat)

MTPE

Mission to Planet Earth (former name of Earth Science Enterprise)


NAE

Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer

NAS

National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.)

NASDA

National Space Development Agency (Japan)

NGST

Next Generation Space Telescope

NICMOS

Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (on HST)

NIMBUS

NASA environmental research satellite series

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (U.S.)

NPOESS

National Polar orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

NRC

National Research Council (U.S.)

NSC

Norwegian Space Centre


OAO

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory

OES

Office of Earth Science (formerly Office of Mission to Planet Earth)

OGO

Orbiting Geophysical Observatory

OMB

Office of Management and Budget (U.S.)

OMC

Optical Monitoring Camera (on INTEGRAL)

OOE

Out of ecliptic (mission)

OPEN

Origins of Plasmas in the Earth's Neighborhood

OPST

Outer Planets Study Team

ORFEUS

Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer

OSO

Orbiting Solar Observatory

OSSA

Office of Space Science and Applications (U.S.-NASA)

OSTA

Office of Space Technology and Applications (NASA)

OSTP

Office of Science and Technology Policy (U.S.)


PI

Principal investigator

PODAAC

Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center

POEM

Polar Orbit Earth Observation Mission

POGO

Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory

POPE

Polar Orbiting Platform Element

PPARC

Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (U.K.)

PRARE

Precise Range and Range-rate Equipment

PRODEX

Programme de Développement d'Expériences Scientifiques [Science Experiment Development Programme] (ESA)

PSG

Project Science Group

PSPC

Position-Sensitive Proportional Counter (on ROSAT)


RAHF

Research Animal Holding Facility

ROSAT

Roentgen Satellite

RSDC

ROSAT Science Data Center

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×

RTG

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator


SADM

Solar Array Drive Mechanism

SAF

Space Agency Forum

SAO

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

SAR

Synthetic Aperture Radar

SARSAT

Search and Rescue Satellite

SDI

Strategic Defense Initiative

SERC

Science and Engineering Research Council (U.K.)

SIR

Shuttle Imaging Radar

SIRIO

Italian Satellite for Industrially Oriented Research

SIRTF

Space Infrared Telescope Facility

SLS

Spacelab Life Sciences

SME

Solar Mesospheric Explorer

SMM

Solar Maximum Mission

SNSB

Swedish National Space Board

SOHO

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

SPAS

Shuttle Pallet Satellite (Germany)

SPC

Science Programme Committee (ESA)

SPOT

Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre

SRL

Space Radar Laboratory

SRON

Stichting Ruimteonderzoek Nederland [Space Research Organization Netherlands]

SSAC

Space Science Advisory Committee (ESA)

SSB

Space Studies Board (U.S.)

SSC

Swedish Space Corporation

SScAC

Space Science Advisory Committee (NASA)

SSE

Space Science Enterprise

SSEC

Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council

SSO

Swiss Space Office

SST

Supersonic transport

SSTC

Services Federaux des Affairs Scientifiques, Techniques et Culturelles [Federal Service for Scientific, Technical, and Cultural Affairs] (Belgium)

SSWG

Solar System Working Group (ESA)

STEP

Satellite to Test the Equivalence Principle

STIC

Space Telescope Institute Council

STIS

Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

STJ

Superconducting Tunnel Junction

STS

Space Transportation System (U.S. Space Shuttle)

STScI

Space Telescope Science Institute

STSP

Solar-Terrestrial Science Program

SURGE

Seasat Users Research Group of Europe

SWT

Science working team


TD

Thor Delta

TEKES

Technology Development Centre (Finland)

TEMPUS

Electromagnetic Containerless Processing Facility

TIROS

Television Infrared Observing Satellite

TM

Thematic Mapper

TOGA

Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program

TOPEX

(Ocean) Topography Experiment

TPSG

Terrestrial Planets Study Group

TVD

Torque Velocity Dynamometer

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×

UARS

Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

UK

United Kingdom

UKDC

United Kingdom Data Centre (ROSAT)

UKGOC

United Kingdom Guest Observer Centre

UKS

United Kingdom Subsatellite (on AMPTE)

US-CREST

United States Center for Research and Education on Strategy and Technology

USML

U.S. Microgravity Laboratory

USMP

U.S. Microgravity Payload

UV

Ultraviolet


VA

Department of Veterans Affairs (U.S.)

VEGA

Venera (Venus)-Halley (former U.S.S.R.)


WCRP

World Climate Research Programme

WFC

Wide Field Camera

WFPC

Wide Field and Planetary Camera (on HST)

WOCE

World Ocean Circulation Experiment

WWW

World Weather Watch


XMM

X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission

XRT

X-Ray Telescope (on ROSAT)

X-SAR

X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

XUV

Extreme ultraviolet

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H." National Research Council. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5981.
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Page 161
U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science Get This Book
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U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science reviews the past 30 years of space-based research across the Atlantic. The book, which was prepared jointly with the European Space Science Committee (under the aegis of the European Science Foundation) begins with a broad survey of the historical and political context of U.S.-European cooperation and collaboration in space.

The focus of the book is a set of 13 U.S.-European missions in astrophysics, space physics, planetary sciences, earth sciences, and life and microgravity research that illustrate "lessons learned" on the evolution of the cooperation, mission planning and scheduling, international agreements, cost-sharing, management, and scientific output.

These lessons form the basis of the joint committee's findings and recommendations, which serve to improve the future conduct and enhance the scientific output of U.S.-European cooperation and collaboration in space science.

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