Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
Berrien Moore III is director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space at the University of New Hampshire. He has served as chair of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee, for which he received the Distinguished Public Service Medal. He also serves as chair of the Scientific Committee of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and its Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling. Other boards on which he has been a member include the NASA Advisory Council's Committee on Earth System Science, the National Academy of Sciences' Board on Global Change, the Space Science Board's Committee on Earth Science, and the Science Executive Committee for the Earth Observing System. From 1996 until June 1998 he served as chair of the International Space Programs of the Space Studies Board. Professor Moore's computer modeling of the global carbon cycle has received worldwide attention through his publications on the contribution of terrestrial biota to the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the role of the ocean as a sink for carbon dioxide. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Virginia in 1969.
James G. Anderson has been Harvard University's Philip S. Weld Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry since 1982. He has pioneered the in situ detection of stratospheric free radicals from balloon and high-altitude aircraft platforms. Through his research Dr. Anderson has quantitatively demonstrated the mechanisms caused by chlorofluorocarbons and other man-made chlorine compounds responsible for the observed massive springtime ozone depletion. Dr. Anderson has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1992 and has
received a number of honors, including the E.O. Lawrence Award in Environmental Science and Technology, the Gustavus John Esselen Award for Chemistry in the Public Interest, the United Nations Earth Day International Award, and the Ledley Prize for Most Valuable Contribution to Science by a Member of the Faculty, Harvard University. He is a member of numerous professional societies and scientific boards. Dr. Anderson holds a Ph.D. in physics/astrogeophysics from the University of Colorado.
Gregory H. Canavan is currently the senior scientific advisor for defense programs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he works on remote sensing from small satellites for defense and civil applications. Previously, he has served as assistant physics division leader at Los Alamos, in the Physics Division for Advanced Concepts, as Director of the Department of Energy's Office of Inertial Fusion, and as a White House fellow. He has performed studies of strategic defense, limited defenses, and advanced conventional defenses for the White House Science Council and has served on the Offense-Defense Working Group of the Presidential Commission of “Discriminate Deterrence,” on the Steering Group of the U.S. Department of Defense Midcourse Sensor Study, and as deputy chief to the Staff Group to the Chief of Staff for the U.S. Air Force, from which he retired as a colonel in 1979. Dr. Canavan was a charter member of the Defense Technology Panel of the White House Science Council and the Directed Energy Panel of the Strategic Defense Advisory Committee and is a member of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He holds a B.S. in mathematics from the U.S. Air Force Academy, an M.B.A. from Auburn University, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in applied science from the University of California, Davis-Livermore.
Robert Costanza is a professor at the Center for Environmental Science and the Biology Department at the University of Maryland and director of the University of Maryland's Institute for Ecological Economics. His research focuses on ecological-economic modeling on local, regional, and global scales. The president and cofounder of the International Society for Ecological Economics, Dr. Costanza serves as chief editor of its membership journal, Ecological Economics. He was a Pew scholar from 1993 to 1996 and has received the Distinguished Achievement Award from the Society for Conservation Biology, a Kellogg National Fellowship, the National Wildlife Federation Outstanding Publication Award, and the German Marshall Fund travel award. Dr. Costanza holds an M.A. in architecture and urban and regional planning and a Ph.D. in systems ecology, environmental engineering sciences, from the University of Florida.
W. Lawrence Gates is director of the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California and
is currently serving as the chairman of the Joint Scientific Committee for the World Climate Research Programme. Prior to joining the LLNL, he was chairman of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. A member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the Royal Meteorological Society, Dr. Gates conducts research in dynamic meteorology, climate dynamics, numerical weather prediction, and physical oceanography. He holds S.B., S.M., and Sc.D. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Priscilla C. Grew is the vice chancellor for research at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where she is also a professor in the Department of Geology and the Conservation and Survey Division of the Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources. She has served as director of the Minnesota Geological Survey, commissioner of the California Public Utilities Commission, and director of the California Department of Conservation. Dr. Grew is a fellow of the Geological Society of America, the Mineralogical Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She served as chair of the Geology and Geography Section of AAAS. A former member of the National Science Foundation Advisory Committee on Geosciences and the NSF Science and Technology Center 's Advisory Committee, Dr. Grew holds a B.A. in geology from Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. in geology from the University of California at Berkeley.
Margaret S. Leinen is dean of the Graduate School of Oceanography and of the College of the Environment and Life Sciences at the University of Rhode Island. She also serves as vice provost for marine and environmental programs. Her research focuses on geochemistry, mineralogy, and sedimentology of deep-sea sediments and on paleoclimatology and atmospheric circulation in the past. Dr. Lienen is a fellow of the Geological Society of America. She holds a Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Rhode Island.
Paul A. Mayewski is director of the Climate Change Research Center of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, and a professor of glaciology in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of New Hampshire. He currently serves as chair of the Executive Committee for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project, as chair of the Executive Committee for the International Transantarctic Scientific Expedition, as co-chair for the Himalayan Paleoclimate Program and as director of the National Ice Core Laboratory Science Management Office. Dr. Mayewski is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a fellow and citation winner in the Explorers Club and has led more than 30 scientific expeditions to the Antarctic, Arctic, and Himalayas/Tibetan Plateau. He received his Ph.D. in 1973 from the Institute of Polar Studies, Ohio State University.
James J. McCarthy is a professor of biological oceanography in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University. He also serves as the director of Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology, head tutor for degrees in environmental science and public policy, and master of Pforzheimer House. His research interests relate to the regulation of plankton productivity in the sea and in recent years have focused in particular on the cycling of nitrogen in planktonic ecosystems in diverse ocean regions. From 1986 to 1993 Dr. McCarthy chaired the international committee that establishes research priorities and oversees implementation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. He is the founding editor of the American Geophysical Union's journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Dr. McCarthy received his Ph.D. in oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
S. Ichtiaque Rasool, a senior research scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, is currently a visiting research professor at the Complex Systems Research Center of the University of New Hampshire. Until recently he was director of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, Data and Information System, in Paris. Dr. Rasool is also cofounder and from 1981 to 1992 was chairman of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project. His main research interest is the field of physics of atmospheres and remote sensing of Earth and planets. He has served as editor of the Journal of Atmospheric Sciences and now serves as coeditor of Space Science Reviews and as founding editor of the Journal of Global Atmosphere and Ocean Systems. The 1974 recipient of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 's medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement and a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, Dr. Rasool received his Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Paris.
Edward S. Sarachik is currently professor of atmospheric sciences and adjunct professor in the School of Oceanography of the University of Washington, Seattle. Previously, he held research positions with Stanford University, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Dr. Sarachik's research interests involve the role of the oceans in climate, climate predictability, and the applications of climate predictions for the benefit of society. In addition to his involvement in the Committee on Global Change Research, he serves on the CLIVAR Scientific Steering Group of the World Climate Research Programme and is chair of the Working Group on Forecast Applications for the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction. A fellow of the American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical
Union, Dr. Sarachik received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Brandeis University in 1966.
David S. Schimel is a senior scientist in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and also holds a position as senior research scientist in the College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University. He was a National Research Council senior fellow at the Ames Research Center from 1988 to 1989. His current research focuses on ecosystem effects, the carbon cycle, and isotopic analyses. Dr. Schimel received his Ph.D. from Colorado State University in 1982.
W. James Shuttleworth joined the Department of Hydrology and Water Resources of the University of Arizona in 1993, having previously been head of the Hydrological Processes Division of the Institute of Hydrology, United Kingdom. His major research interests are in physical processes in hydrology, with emphasis on evaporation and hydrometeorology, as applied to environment change at local, regional, and global scales, including the effects on global climate of Amazonian deforestation and African desertification. He serves on committees for the International Council of Scientific Unions, the International Hydrology Programme, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, and the World Climate Research Programme, and is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society and the Royal Meteorological Society. Dr. Shuttleworth holds a Ph.D. in high-energy nuclear physics and a D.Sc. from Manchester University in the United Kingdom.
Karl K. Turekian is the Benjamin Silliman Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. His research utilizes radioactive and radiogenic isotope measurements in studying oceanic, earth surface, and atmospheric processes. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is also a fellow of several scientific societies, including the Geological Society of America, the American Geophysical Union, the Meteorological Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Turekian has served on numerous National Research Council committees and boards. He was a Guggenheim fellow at Cambridge University and a Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at Caltech. He was awarded the V.M. Goldschmidt Medal of the Geochemical Society in 1989, the Maurice Ewing Medal of the American Geophysical Union in 1997, and the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society of London in 1998. Dr. Turekian holds an A.B. degree from Wheaton College in Illinois and a Ph.D. from Columbia University.
Peter M. Vitousek is a professor of population biology at Stanford University. A member of the Ecological Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Soil Science Society of America, Dr. Vitousek
conducts research on the regulation of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and land-water interactions. He has carried out extensive experimental and comparative studies of nutrient cycling in tropical and temperate forests and has demonstrated that biological invasions by exotic species can alter ecosystem-level properties in the areas they invade. His laboratory is at the forefront of efforts to understand nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems and is now working toward understanding interactions between components of global change and terrestrial ecosystems. Dr. Vitousek holds a Ph.D. in biological sciences from Dartmouth College.
Staff Member Information
Sherburne B. Abbott joined the Policy Division of the National Research Council (NRC) in January 1997 as the executive director of the Board on Sustainable Development. She has worked with the NRC for 12 years, serving previously as the director of the Committee on International Organizations and Programs of the Office of International Affairs, and the Polar Research Board of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. Prior to her work with the NRC, she was assistant scientific program director for the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission, a science teacher in a private high school, and a research assistant at the Tufts University Cancer Research Center. She has published papers on environmental monitoring in Antarctica, salmonid biology, and polar research. She holds an A.B. in biology from Goucher College and an M.F.S. in ecology and natural resource policy from Yale University.
Sylvia A. Edgerton joined the Policy Division as a senior research fellow from April 1998 to April 1999 on loan from the U.S. Department of Energy through the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She previously served as deputy director of the coordinating Office of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and as a senior research associate for the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. She has also worked both nationally and internationally in air quality research and environmental risk assessment. Dr. Edgerton received her B.S. in physics from the University of Arizona and her M.S. and Ph.D. in environmental science from the Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology.
Laura J. Sigman joined the National Research Council as a research associate with the Board on Sustainable Development and the Committee on Global Change Research in February 1997. She holds an A.B. in environmental studies from Dartmouth College.