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Suggested Citation:"D Search Strategies." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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D
Search Strategies

REQUIREMENTS FOR B VITAMINS AND CHOLINE

Databases Searched

  • Medline, 1966 through December 1996

  • Embase

Search Terms Used

The search for the nutrient name was limited to titles. Additional strategies were used to identify articles missed by this restriction.

  • Nutrient Names

thiamin* or B-1

riboflavin or B-2

niacin or nicotinic acid or nicotinamide

pyridoxal or pyridoxamine or pyridoxine or B-6

cobalamin or cyanocobalamin or B-12

folic acid or folacin or folate

pantothenic acid or pantothenate

biotin

choline

Suggested Citation:"D Search Strategies." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
  • Specifications and Restrictions of Computerized Search

human only

not neoplasm?/DE (secondary search done for folate and variations on neoplasms in the title)

not reviews

not letters

Other Searches

  • Medline

neural tube defects or spina bifida, prevention or etiology of atrophic gastritis and other terms related to pernicious anemia

  • Federal Research in Progress (FedRIP), limited to CRISP files, which cover the Public Health Service

nutrient name in the title

  • CRISP search done by NICHD

search terms: anencephaly, spina bifida, meningomyelocele, fusion failure, neural tube, folate deficiency

Additional Sources of References

  • References listed in publications on various nutrient reference values from the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States

  • References listed in selected textbooks and review articles and in research articles

  • References provided by panel and committee members and by outside experts

  • Review of recently received journals

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTAKE

Databases Searched

  • Medline, 1965 through December 1996

  • Toxline

Suggested Citation:"D Search Strategies." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

The following mechanisms were used: National Library of Medicine’s PubMed (Medline from 1966–present); WinSPIRS, Version 1.0 (Medline from 1983–May 1997); and HealthWorld/Infotrieve (Medline and Toxline from 1966–present). The choice of which mechanism to use for a particular search involved consideration of ease of access to the database, type and extent of data on adverse effects accessed by each, and presentation of the search information.

Search Terms Used

Searches consistently allowed the inclusion of animal studies unless the number of articles retrieved was large, as was the case for folic acid. Specific searches of folate and animals are specified in the listing below. Final searches were conducted July through October 1997.

  • thiamin AND [toxicity OR high dose OR dermatitis OR pruritus OR sudden infant death syndrome]

  • riboflavin AND [toxicity OR safety OR high dose OR excess OR phototoxicity OR photosensitization OR mutagenicity OR DNA damage]

  • niacin AND [toxicity OR gastrointestinal OR gout OR flushing OR hepatotoxicity]

  • pyridoxine AND [toxicity OR peripheral neuropathy OR kidney stones OR dermatosis OR photosensitivity]

  • [folic acid OR folate] AND [toxicity OR zinc OR neurotoxicity OR nephropathy] (restricted to human studies)

  • [folic acid OR folate] AND [kidney AND ((humans OR toxicity)) OR ((adverse effects AND animals)) OR fruit bats OR precipitation of neuropathy]

  • [vitamin B12 OR cyanocobalamin OR cobalamin] AND [toxicity OR excess OR high dose]

  • pantothenic acid AND [toxicity OR excess OR high dose]

  • biotin AND [toxicity OR high dose]

  • choline AND [toxicity OR adverse effects OR fishy odor OR hypotension OR hepatitis OR hepatotox*]

Suggested Citation:"D Search Strategies." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 453
Suggested Citation:"D Search Strategies." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 454
Suggested Citation:"D Search Strategies." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 455
Next: E Methodological Problems Associated with Laboratory Values and Food Composition Data for B Vitamins »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline Get This Book
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Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach--the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.

This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

This volume of the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.

Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group--from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.

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