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Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998)

Chapter: K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994

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Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

K
Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994

TABLE K-1 Serum Folate (ng/mL) of Persons Aged 4 Years and Older: Mean and Selected Percentiles, United States, 1988–1994

Gender and Age (y)

Number of Examined Persons

Mean

Standard Error of the Mean

Both, 4–8

3,128

11.0

0.3

M, 9–13

1,129

9.0

0.3

M, 14–18

865

6.0

0.4

M, 19–30

1,856

5.0

0.1

Males, 31–50

2,493

5.7

0.2

M, 51–70

1,987

7.4

0.2

M, >70

1,370

9.0

0.3

F, 9–13

1,149

8.2

0.3

F, 14–18

936

5.7

0.2

F, 19–30

1,915

5.8

0.2

F, 31–50

2,929

6.5

0.2

F, 51–70

2,087

8.9

0.3

F, >70

1,534

10.7

0.4

Pregnant F, 14–55

327

10.5

0.8

Both, ≥4, unadjusted

23,705

7.2

0.1

NOTE: Values have been adjusted by following recommendations in Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1994. Assessment of the Folate Methodology Used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Raiten DJ, Fisher KD, eds. Bethesda, MD: LSRO/ FASEB. Values are presented as received from source.

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Selected Percentiles

5th

10th

15th

25th

50th

75th

85th

90th

95th

4.4

5.3

5.9

6.9

9.4

12.8

14.9

16.9

21.8

3.4

4.0

4.8

5.6

7.7

10.9

12.8

15.3

18.1

2.3

2.6

2.9

3.4

4.7

7.4

8.7

10.5

13.2

1.8

2.2

2.5

2.9

4.0

6.2

7.7

8.7

11.1

1.9

2.3

2.7

3.2

4.6

7.1

9.2

10.5

12.8

2.2

2.7

3.0

3.7

5.7

9.3

12.0

14.3

17.8

2.3

3.1

3.6

4.5

6.9

11.1

15.3

17.9

21.7

3.1

3.8

4.0

4.9

6.8

10.3

11.6

13.9

17.8

2.1

2.5

2.7

3.2

4.9

7.2

8.7

9.7

12.1

1.8

2.3

2.5

3.1

4.6

7.2

9.0

10.5

13.1

1.9

2.3

2.7

3.3

4.9

8.2

10.6

12.4

16.0

2.4

2.9

3.3

4.2

6.6

11.4

14.6

17.0

22.2

2.9

3.6

4.0

5.1

8.0

13.7

17.5

20.6

26.6

2.7a

3.4

3.7

4.7

8.4

13.9

16.6

18.5

20.5a

2.1

2.5

2.9

3.6

5.5

9.0

11.4

13.5

17.2

a Value does not meet standard of reliability or precision.

SOURCE: NHANES III, 1988–1994, unpublished data, C.L.Johnson and J.D.Wright, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997.

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

TABLE K-2 Erythrocyte Folate (ng/mL) of Persons Aged 4 Years and Older: Mean and Selected Percentiles, United States, 1988–1994

Gender and Age (y)

Number of Examined Persons

Mean

Standard Error of the Mean

Both, 4–8

3,157

222

12.6

M, 9–13

1,137

202

4.2

M, 14–18

864

164

4.4

M, 19–30

1,853

164

2.8

M, 31–50

2,484

182

3.0

M, 51–70

1,968

216

4.5

M, >70

1,266

242

7.3

F, 9–13

1,145

175

3.4

F, 14–18

934

157

4.0

F, 19–30

1,917

168

3.3

F, 31–50

2,924

194

3.4

F, 51–70

2,059

238

5.5

F, >70

1,374

259

7.3

Pregnant F, 14–55

322

261

12.5

Both, ≥4, unadjusted

23,404

197

1.2

NOTE: Values have been adjusted by following recommendations in Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1994. Assessment of the Folate Methodology Used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Raiten DJ, Fisher KD, eds. Bethesda, MD: LSRO/ FASEB. Values are presented as received from source.

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Selected Percentiles

5th

10th

15th

25th

50th

75th

85th

90th

95th

123

140

151

170

212

258

289

312

359

102

116

129

149

190

242

280

306

342

83

94

101

116

149

197

237

261

301

84

95

107

119

151

192

219

244

300

86

102

112

127

166

217

255

282

335

93

108

120

139

188

269

318

353

425

93

113

125

149

207

305

362

419

471

87

104

113

129

167

216

239

260

288

77

89

98

115

141

190

221

240

269

77

88

97

116

149

206

242

270

315

84

97

107

125

172

239

286

324

369

95

113

128

149

206

296

356

408

462

96

116

133

160

228

325

391

432

519

114a

123

140

164

248

344

379

429

461a

87

101

113

130

175

238

284

319

380

a Value does not meet standard of reliability or precision.

SOURCE: NHANES III, 1988–1994, unpublished data, C.L.Johnson and J.D.Wright, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997.

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

TABLE K-3 Serum Vitamin B12 (pg/mL) of Persons Aged 4 Years and Older: Mean and Selected Percentiles, United States, 1991–1994

Gender and Age (y)

Number of Examined Persons

Mean

Standard Error of the Mean

Both, 4–8

1,519

781

13.2

M, 9–13

550

620

12.7

M, 14–18

458

516

14.0

M, 19–30

891

470

8.1

M, 31–50

1,201

473

8.4

M, 51–70

937

460

23.7

M, >70

614

449

21.0

F, 9–13

595

612

13.6

F, 14–18

496

509

14.6

F, 19–30

1,049

479

42.1

F, 31–50

1,639

497

42.8

F, 51–70

1,078

504

12.7

F, >70

824

536

66.1

Pregnant F, 14–55

173

426

53.1

Both, ≥4, unadjusted

12,024

517

9.0

NOTE: Values are presented as received from source.

a Value does not meet standard of reliability or precision.

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Selected Percentiles

5th

10th

15th

25th

50th

75th

85th

90th

95th

409

474

517

569

720

909

1,034

1,103

1,270

344

379

420

470

590

746

825

868

947

261

335

344

395

485

589

656

767

871

251

281

312

355

466

550

623

666

762

236

287

305

348

436

556

633

681

803

190

247

273

317

414

540

630

688

884

187

218

239

298

382

512

629

719

881

344

383

401

453

569

694

794

880

1,060

276

300

319

362

460

618

733

791

871

214

250

277

328

437

580

669

721

805

223

262

287

332

427

589

666

729

827

224

266

291

344

465

605

698

769

919

186

232

261

315

436

622

718

795

953

232a

246

255

293

421

501

549

579

631a

233

274

303

351

466

615

707

790

924

 

SOURCE: NHANES III, 1988–1994, unpublished data, C.L.Johnson and J.D.Wright, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997.

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

TABLE K-4 Serum Homocysteine (µmol/L) of Persons Aged 12 Years and Older: Mean and Selected Percentiles, United States, 1991–1994

Gender and Age (y)

Number of Examined Persons

Mean

Standard Error of the Mean

M, 12–13

177

6.61

0.20

M, 14–18

395

8.39

0.34

M, 19–30

816

10.29

0.26

M, 31–50

1,055

9.93

0.20

M, 51–70

821

11.94

0.49

M, >70

502

13.40

0.49

F, 12–13

226

6.19

0.22

F, 14–18

448

7.08

0.19

F, 19–30

938

8.05

0.15

F, 31–50

1,446

8.36

0.16

F, 51–70

937

9.68

0.19

F, >70

681

11.83

0.36

Pregnant F, 14–55

143

5.41

0.36

Both, ≥12, unadjusted

8,585

9.51

0.09

a Value does not meet standard of reliability or precision.

SOURCE: NHANES III, 1988–1994, unpublished data, C.L.Johnson and J.D.Wright, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997.

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Selected Percentiles

5th

10th

15th

25th

50th

75th

85th

90th

95th

3.90a

4.40

4.80

5.30

16.50

7.70

8.59

8.61

9.51a

4.80

5.40

5.60

6.20

7.40

9.01

9.81

11.60

15.30

5.70

6.40

6.80

7.60

9.20

11.20

12.90

13.90

17.53

6.00

6.40

6.80

7.70

9.00

10.89

12.60

13.90

16.38

6.40

7.40

7.80

8.51

10.20

12.89

13.90

15.30

18.38

6.80

7.90

8.40

9.31

12.11

15.70

17.72

19.01

22.70

3.40a

3.70

4.30

4.70

5.80

7.20

7.91

8.51

9.51a

3.50

4.20

4.90

5.60

6.50

7.90

9.01

9.90

12.10

4.70

5.10

5.40

5.90

7.20

9.40

11.10

12.20

14.09

4.50

5.09

5.50

6.10

7.50

9.20

10.91

12.40

14.30

5.20

5.70

6.30

7.40

8.90

11.01

12.80

14.10

16.01

6.40

7.01

7.50

8.40

10.61

13.40

15.31

17.30

20.53

2.80a

2.80a

3.50

3.50

4.90

6.40

7.30

7.80a

9.30a

4.90

5.50

6.00

6.70

8.51

10.81

12.60

13.90

16.51

Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 512
Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 513
Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 514
Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 515
Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 516
Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 517
Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 518
Suggested Citation:"K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 519
Next: L Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline Get This Book
×

Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach--the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.

This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

This volume of the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.

Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group--from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.

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