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Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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P
Glossary and Abbreviations

ACC

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

AI

Adequate Intake

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

apABG

Acetamidobenzoylglutamate

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

Bioavailability

The accessibility of a nutrient to participate in metabolic and/or physiological processes.

BMI

Body mass index; weight/height2 (kg/m2)

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CI

Confidence interval

CoA

Coenzyme A

CSFII

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, a survey conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, USDA

CV

Coefficient of variation

DFE

Dietary folate equivalent

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Dose-response assessment

The step in a risk assessment in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence and/or severity of the effect) is determined.

Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake

α-EALT

Erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

α-EAST

Erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase

EEG

Electroencephalogram

EGR

Erythrocyte glutathione reductase

EGRAC

Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient

ETK

Erythrocyte transketolase

ETKAC

Erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient

FAD

Flavin-adenine dinucleotide

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FIGLU

Formiminoglutamic acid

FMN

Flavin mononucleotide

FNB

Food and Nutrition Board

Hazard identification

The step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient.

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HPV

Human papilloma virus

IM

Intramuscular

IOM

Institute of Medicine

LCAT

Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

LOAEL

Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level; the lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified.

MCV

Mean cell volume

MI

Myocardial infarction

MMA

Methylmalonic acid

MTHFR

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADP

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NAS

National Academy of Sciences

NE

Niacin equivalent

Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

NHIS

National Health Interview Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

NOAEL

No-observed-adverse-effect level; the highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed.

NRC

National Research Council, the organizational arm of the National Academies

NTD

Neural tube defect

4-PA

4-Pyridoxic acid

pABG

p-Aminobenzoylglutamate

PARP

Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase

PGA

Pteroylglutamic acid

PL

Pyridoxal

PLP

Pyridoxal phosphate

PM

Pyridoxamine

PMP

Pyridoxamine phosphate

PN

Pyridoxine

PNP

Pyridoxine phosphate

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

Risk

Within the context of nutrient toxicity, the probability or likelihood that some adverse effect will result from a specified excess intake of a nutrient.

Risk assessment

An organized framework for evaluating scientific information that has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a dietary nutrient). It includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk. The process of risk assessment can be divided into four major steps: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization.

Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Risk characterization

The final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from the other three steps of the risk assessment and evaluates the risk. This step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the UL.

Risk management

The process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction. In addition to risk assessment results, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and economic and social costs of this control.

SD

Standard deviation

SE

Standard error

SEM

Standard error of the mean

TCI, II, III

Transcobalamin I, II, and III

TMA

Trimethylamine

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition

TPP

Thiamin pyrophosphate

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

UF

Uncertainty factor; a number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the UL. UFs are used in risk assessments to deal with gaps in data (e.g., data uncertainties) and knowledge (e.g., model uncertainties). The size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect.

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

WHO

World Health Organization

Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 537
Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 538
Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 539
Suggested Citation:"P Glossary and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 540
Next: Index »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline Get This Book
×

Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach--the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.

This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

This volume of the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.

Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group--from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.

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