Glossary and Abbreviations
The accessibility of a nutrient to participate in metabolic and/or physiological processes.
Body mass index; weight/height2 (kg/m2)
Coronary heart disease
Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, a survey conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Coefficient of variation
Dietary folate equivalent
The step in a risk assessment in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence and/or severity of the effect) is determined.
Dietary Reference Intake
Erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase
Estimated Average Requirement
Erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase
Erythrocyte glutathione reductase
Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient
Erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Food and Nutrition Board
The step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient.
Human immunodeficiency virus
High-performance liquid chromatography
Human papilloma virus
Institute of Medicine
Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level; the lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified.
Mean cell volume
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
National Academy of Sciences
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
National Health Interview Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
No-observed-adverse-effect level; the highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed.
National Research Council, the organizational arm of the National Academies
Neural tube defect
Recommended Dietary Allowance
Within the context of nutrient toxicity, the probability or likelihood that some adverse effect will result from a specified excess intake of a nutrient.
An organized framework for evaluating scientific information that has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a dietary nutrient). It includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk. The process of risk assessment can be divided into four major steps: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization.
The final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from the other three steps of the risk assessment and evaluates the risk. This step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the UL.
The process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction. In addition to risk assessment results, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and economic and social costs of this control.
Standard error of the mean
TCI, II, III
Transcobalamin I, II, and III
Total parenteral nutrition
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Uncertainty factor; a number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the UL. UFs are used in risk assessments to deal with gaps in data (e.g., data uncertainties) and knowledge (e.g., model uncertainties). The size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
World Health Organization