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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Index

A

Abortion, spontaneous, 258

Absorption of nutrients. See also Bioavailability of nutrients;

Malabsorption syndromes

biotin, 376

choline, 392–393

folate, 1, 8–9, 198, 211, 212, 233, 256, 259

niacin, 124–125

pantothenic acid, 358, 366

pregnancy and, 33, 89

riboflavin, 88–89, 102, 115

sensitivity considerations, 48

thiamin, 59, 62, 81–82

vitamin B6, 151, 160–161

vitamin B12, 33, 306, 307–309, 313, 317, 318, 320, 322, 328, 330, 331, 333, 334, 339, 429

Acetaldehyde, 164

Acetaminophen, 212

Acne, 346

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation, 127, 145

Adequate Intakes (AIs). See also specific nutrients

applicable population, 18

defined, 2, 5, 17–18, 21, 424

derivation of, 5, 21, 29–31, 33

extrapolation from other age groups, 21, 31–33

increasing consumption of nutrients, 14–15

indicators used to set, 7, 10, 11, 22–23

methods used to set, 5, 22–23, 31–33

RDAs compared, 6, 21–22

risk of inadequacy, 19

uses, 2, 4, 5, 21, 425–426

weight and height and, 26

Adolescents, 14 through 18 years. See also Children;

Life-stage groups;

Puberty/pubertal development;

individual nutrients

AIs, 21, 31–32

EARs, 31–32

lactation, 78, 112, 136–137, 143–144, 178–179, 186–187, 238–240, 280–281, 341–342, 368, 383, 406, 412

pregnancy, 76–78, 110–111, 135–136, 143–144, 176–178, 186–187, 233–238, 280–281, 339–341, 367, 382–383, 404– 406, 412

RDAs, 32–33

ULs, 13, 56

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Adults, 19 through 50 years

AIs, 21

derivation of DRIs for, 21, 32

EARs, 8–9

extrapolation of data to other age groups, 31–33, 66

supplement use, 272

Adults, 51 through 70 years

AIs, 21

ULs, 48–49

Adults, >70 years

cognitive function, 160, 268

EARs, 8–9

pernicious anemia in, 317, 332–333

supplement use, 18, 79, 81, 113, 182, 273, 346, 462–465

ULs, 48

Adverse effects, 2, 5–6

biotin, 384–385

choline, 390, 408–410, 411

defined, 41

evidence of, 50–51

folate, 273–277

interindividual variability in sensitivity, 48–49

niacin, 123, 138, 140–142

nutrient-nutrient interactions, 41, 49, 51, 273–274

pantothenic acid, 370

research recommendations, 15, 441–442

riboflavin, 87, 115–116

source of nutrient and, 47–48

thiamin, 58, 81–82

vitamin B6, 150, 182–183, 186

vitamin B12, 346

African Americans. See Blacks

Aging. See also Life-stage groups;

individual life stages

and energy metabolism, 75, 110

and metabolism of nutrients, 213–214, 228–229, 233

and nutrient requirements, 318–320

and nutrient toxicity, 48

and plasma homocysteine, 159, 203, 518–519

Alanine aminotransferase, 157, 390, 394, 395, 403

Albumin, 89, 152, 198

Alcohol consumption and alcoholism and folate, 204, 211, 240, 263, 266, 268, 276, 525

and niacin, 126, 144

and thiamin, 58, 60

and vitamin B6, 164

and vitamin B12, 347

Allergic sensitivity, 81–82

Alopecia, 377, 378

American Academy of Pediatrics, 30, 31

Amino acid metabolism, 58, 88, 150, 151, 161, 196, 197, 358.

See also individual amino acids

Aminopterin, 246

Anaphylaxis, 81

Anemia, 90, 153, 200, 201, 233, 234, 267, 329, 334.

See also Pernicious anemia

Anencephaly, 241, 243

Aneurin. See Thiamin

Animal studies

choline, 396, 397, 398, 399, 413–414

considerations in use of data from, 53

extrapolation of data from, 28, 43–44, 46, 52, 55, 56, 153

neural tube defects, 244, 245, 523–525

relevance of, 50, 51, 211

vitamin B12 deficiency, 274, 310, 346

Antibiotics, 94, 313, 320

Anticonvulsants, 212, 240, 246, 276, 380, 525

Anti-inflammatory drugs (nonsteroidal), 212

Apotyrosine decarboxylase assay, 156

Ariboflavinosis, 90, 111

Arnold Chiari malformation, 241

Asians, pernicious anemia, 317

Aspartate aminotransferase, 157

Aspirin, 212

Asthma, 187, 212

Atherosclerosis, 260

Athletes, 64, 97, 400

Atrophic gastritis, 200, 312, 317, 318, 320, 331, 337, 340, 341, 342, 527

Avidin, 375–376, 379, 380

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

B

Beriberi, 58, 59–60, 63, 65

Betaine, 392, 393, 398, 399, 413

Bioavailability of nutrients

biotin, 375–376, 378

choline, 400, 402, 413

correction factor, 328, 338

defined, 49, 537

factors affecting, 18, 62, 309, 338, 342, 375

folate, 8–9, 15, 16, 196, 208–210, 211, 221, 227, 235, 239, 256, 428

folic acid, 225, 235

form of intake and, 15, 16, 88, 208– 210, 211, 221, 235, 239, 343, 428

from infant formula, 30, 402

methodological issues, 210, 225

niacin, 123, 128–129, 133

nutrient-nutrient interactions and, 15

pantothenic acid, 361

riboflavin, 88, 95

and risk assessment, 49, 53

from supplements, 1, 9, 18, 49, 208, 210, 235, 256, 259, 331, 334

thiamin, 62

vitamin B6, 150, 160–161, 165, 177

vitamin B12, 309, 328, 338, 342, 343

BioRad Quantaphase Radioassay, 206

Biotin, 374–389

absorption, 376

adolescents, 381, 382–383

adults (19–50 years), 374, 380, 382–383, 385

adverse effects, 384–385

AIs, 6, 11, 21, 374, 380–383, 566–567

assay methods, 379

avidin and, 375–376, 379, 380

bioavailability, 375–376, 378

children, 381

deficiency, 375, 377–378

dose-response assessment for ULs, 385

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

excretion, 377, 378

exposure assessment, 385

factors affecting requirement, 380

fetal, 377, 385

food composition data, 35, 36, 37, 459

food sources, 384

function, 11, 27, 374–375

gender differences, 382

hazard identification, 384–385

and 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 375, 378–379, 382, 383

indicators of adequacy, 11, 378–379

infants, 6, 56, 374, 377–378, 380–381

intakes, 38–39, 374, 384

laboratory values, 452, 457, 459

lactation and, 383

life-stage group and, 38–39, 380–383

metabolism, 377

methods used to set AIs, 380–383

neurological disorders, 377

and odd-chain fatty acid composition of plasma lipids, 379

older adults (51+ years), 382

plasma concentrations, 379

pregnancy and, 33, 380, 382–383, 385

research recommendations, 385–386, 440

risk characterization, 385

special considerations, 383

supplement use, 38–39, 384

transport, 376–377

ULs, 13, 56, 374, 384–385

unit conversions, 452

Biotin deficiency facies, 377–378

Biotinidase, 375, 380, 383

Blacks

glucose-6-dehydrogenase status, 108

homocysteine levels, 158

pernicious anemia, 317

riboflavin, 91, 106

vitamin B6, 174

Blood pressure. See Hypertension

Body Mass Index, 24, 25, 260

Body odor, 408, 411

Body weight. See also Reference body weight ratio method

and nutrient deficiency development, 129 n.1

reference weights, 24–26

thiamin pyrophosphate and, 75

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Boston Nutritional Status Survey, 36–37, 79, 81, 138, 181, 182, 272, 273, 345, 346, 369, 384, 407, 460–465

Breastfeeding. See Human milk;

Lactation

“Burning feet” syndrome, 359

C

Calcium, 124, 370

Canada

dietary intake data, 37, 58, 74, 79, 113, 123, 138, 150, 181, 272, 282, 306, 343, 369, 384, 502–506

neural tube defects, 242

weights and heights, reference, 24

Canadian Paediatric Society, 30, 31

Cancer. See also individual sites

choline and, 265, 398

dysplasia and metaplasia, 264–265

folate and, 12, 196, 204, 205, 264–266, 269, 276

riboflavin and, 90, 94

vitamin B12 and, 264, 317, 346

Carbamazepine, 246, 525

Carbohydrate metabolism, 58, 63, 94, 95– 96

Carcinoid syndrome, 128, 137

Cardiovascular disease. See Coronary heart disease;

Vascular disease and thrombosis

Carpal tunnel syndrome, 182, 184, 187

Cataracts, 94

Causality, 51

Cervical neoplasia, 264–265, 266

Children, ages 1 through 8 years. See also Life-stage groups;

individual nutrients

AIs, 21, 31–32

derivation of DRIs for, 21, 31–33

EARs, 20, 31–32

RDAs, 20, 32–33

supplement use, 38, 39

ULs, 56

Choline, 390–422

absorption, 392–393

adolescents, 56, 402–403, 404–406, 411– 412

adults (19–50 years), 2, 21, 390, 403– 404, 410–411

adverse effects, 390, 408–410, 411

AIs, 6, 21, 33, 390, 401–406, 566–567

and alanine aminotransferase levels, 390, 394, 395, 403

animal studies, 396, 397, 398, 399, 413– 414

and betaine, 392, 393, 398, 399, 413

bioavailability, 400, 402, 413

and cancer, 265, 398

and cardiovascular disease, 398

chemistry, 391

children, 56, 392, 402–403, 411–412

and chronic disease risk reduction, 397–398

critical endpoint, 410

data selection, 410

deficiency, 265, 394–395

and dementia, 397

dose-response assessment for ULs, 410– 412, 413–414

drug interactions, 399

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

and embryogenesis, 404–405

excretion, 392

exposure assessment, 412–413

factors affecting requirements, 398–400

fetal, 404, 405

food composition data, 35, 36, 37, 459

food sources, 406–407

function, 11, 27, 390–391, 392

gender differences, 399–400, 403, 404

hazard identification, 408–410, 411

homocysteine and, 27, 398, 413

indicators of adequacy, 11, 23, 390, 396–398

infants, 6, 392, 393, 401–402, 406, 411– 412

intakes, 406–407

interaction with other nutrients, 391– 392, 394, 398–399, 400, 413

laboratory values, 407, 457, 459

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

lactation, 400, 406, 411–412

life stage and, 400–406, 410–412

and liver dysfunction, 11, 390, 391–392, 393, 394, 396–397, 398, 408, 409

metabolism, 391, 392–393

method used to set AIs, 21, 33, 401– 404, 406

neurological disorders, 407

NOAEL/LOAEL, 410

older adults (51+ years), 392, 403–404

physical exercise and, 400

plasma concentrations, 11, 395–396, 397, 405

pregnancy, 33, 400, 404–406, 411–412

research recommendations, 413–414, 440

risk characterization, 413

serum concentrations, 392

special considerations, 402, 409, 412

supplement use, 407, 412–413

ULs, 13, 22, 56, 390, 408–413

uncertainty assessment, 410

unit conversions, 452

Chrome detoxification, 116

Chronic disease. See also specific diseases

risk reduction as indicator of nutrient adequacy, 7, 12, 15, 23, 28, 94, 159– 160, 205, 397–398, 441

Chronic ulcerative colitis, 213, 265–266

Clomiphene, 246

Cognitive function, 160, 268, 311

Colorectal cancer, 12, 265–266

Congenital anomalies (non-NTD), 183, 186, 259–260

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII)

biotin, 384, 407, 466–477

choline, 407

folate, 269–272, 281, 474–475

niacin, 137–138, 139, 470–471

quality of food composition data, 36, 37, 38

riboflavin, 113, 114, 468–469

thiamin, 79, 80–81, 466–467

vitamin B6, 179, 180–181, 472–473

vitamin B12, 342–343, 344, 345, 476–477

Convulsions, 153, 166–167, 178, 187

Coronary heart disease, 159–160, 260

Craniorachischisis, 241, 243

Creatinine excretion, 34, 63, 67, 92, 109, 126, 364, 365

Critical endpoints

choline, 410

defined, 53

folate, 277

vitamin B6, 183

Crohn’s disease, 342

CSFII. See Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals

Cystathionine β-synthase, 244, 245, 260

D

Data and database issues

availability of data, 2, 11, 13, 15, 37–38

choline, 11, 392, 398, 407, 412–413

folate, 15, 16, 206–207

food composition data, 37–38, 206–207, 368–369, 434

nutrient intakes, 35–36, 37, 265, 272

quality and completeness of data, 7, 28–29, 35–36, 52, 265, 337, 366

search strategies, 453–455

selection for dose-response assessment for ULs, 53, 142, 184, 277, 410

supplement intakes, 37, 407

Defined nutritional states, 21

Dementia, 397

Depletion-repletion studies

folate, 221–225, 226–227, 228–229

methodological issues, 34, 438–439

thiamin, 69, 70–73, 75

vitamin B6, 153–154, 155, 157, 158, 164, 172

Depression, 153, 267–268, 378, 409, 412

Dermatitis, 183, 377, 409

Developmental disability, 11–12, 441.

See also Neural tube defects

Diabetes mellitus, 90, 144, 260, 321

Diabetic neuropathy, 184

Dietary fiber, 18, 211, 322

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Dietary folate equivalents (DFEs), 1, 14

defined, 10–11

derivation, 196, 221, 227

EAR derivation, 1, 210

recommendations, 434

uses, 432–435

Dietary intakes. See also Canada;

Nutrient intakes;

Supplements;

specific nutrients

and bioavailability, 15, 16, 343

food composition databases, 15, 35–36

food frequency questionnaires, 225, 247

gender differences, 8–9, 79, 180, 181, 306, 344, 345, 460–506

overreporting of, 247

self-reported, 35

sources of data, 36–37, 113

underreporting of, 36, 272

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

applicable population, 18

categories, 2, 6–7, 17, 18–23, 423, 424;

see also Adequate Intakes;

Estimated Average Requirements;

Recommended Dietary Allowances;

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

criteria for, 6–7, 10, 423

defined, 2–3, 17–18

extrapolation from other age groups, 20, 31–33

framework, 446

group applications, 4, 8, 14, 20, 427– 432, 434

individual applications, 4, 6, 18, 424– 425, 432–435

origin, 443–444

parameters for, 23–26;

see also Life-stage groups;

Reference weights

risk of inadequacy, 19

rounding of values, 23 n.2

sources of data, 2, 6;

see also Methodological considerations

uses, 2, 3, 4, 14, 423–435

Diphenylhydantoin, 212

Diphyllobothrium lactum, 317

DNA replication and repair, 124, 127, 145, 196, 265

DNA synthesis, 27, 197, 258, 265, 311

Dose-response assessment for ULs

adolescents, 187, 281, 412

adults, 142–143, 184–186, 277–280, 410

biotin, 385

children, 187, 281, 412

choline, 410–412, 413–414

components and process, 44, 45, 51

critical endpoints, 49, 53–54, 183, 277, 410

data selection, 53, 142, 184, 277, 410

defined, 537

derivation of ULs from, 46–47, 52, 55– 56, 143, 186, 280, 410

folate, 277–281

infants, 186, 281, 411–412

lactation, 187, 281, 412

by life-stage group, 143–144, 184–187, 277–281, 410–412

niacin, 142–144

NOAEL/LOAEL identification, 53–54, 142–143, 184–185, 277–279, 410

pregnancy, 186, 187, 281, 412

riboflavin, 116

special considerations, 56, 144, 187, 281, 412

thiamin, 82

uncertainty assessment, 54–55, 143, 186, 279–280, 410

vitamin B6, 184–187

vitamin B12, 347

Drug interactions

with choline, 399

with folate, 212–213, 240, 246, 265–266, 276

with niacin, 128, 129, 137

with riboflavin, 94

with vitamin B6, 162

with vitamin B12, 313, 342

E

Elderly people. See Adults, >70 years

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

abnormalities, 153–154, 155, 172

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Embryogenesis, 16, 241–242, 404–405

Energy intakes, 15, 36

Energy metabolism

aging and, 75, 110

exercise and, 97

gender differences, 108

lactation and, 78, 96, 130

niacin and, 27, 28, 129–130, 133, 135– 136

pantothenic acid, 27

pregnancy and, 33, 77, 96, 111, 130, 135–136

and RDA derivation, 20

riboflavin and, 27, 28, 88, 94, 96, 97, 108, 110, 111

thiamin and, 27, 28, 62–63, 75, 77, 78

vitamin B6 and, 27, 160

Erythrocyte

aminotransferase, 154, 157, 161, 167, 168–169, 172–173, 174–175, 177

flavin, 91–92, 95, 98–102, 107

folate concentrations, 199, 200, 201, 208, 209, 213, 214–215, 216, 219, 221–225, 227, 229, 230–231, 234, 235–237, 238, 239, 256–259, 264–265, 266, 267–268, 269, 514–515

glutathione reductase activity, 10, 87, 90–91, 94–95, 96–97, 98–102, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110, 116

pantothenic acid, 360–361, 364–365

pyridine nucleotides, 127, 132

pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, 154–156

thiamin concentrations, 60, 62, 64, 67, 74

transketolase activity, 10, 58, 60, 61, 64, 67, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76

Esophageal cancer, 94, 266

Estimated Average Requirements (EARs).

See also individual nutrients

availability of data, 15, 29

coefficient of variation, 3, 5, 20

defined, 2, 17–19, 424

energy expenditure and, 20

extrapolation to/from other age

groups, 20, 29, 31–32

group applications, 14, 427–432

indicators used to set, 6–7, 10, 22–23, 29

methods used to set, 19, 29

and RDA, 3, 6–7, 18, 19–20, 22

reference weight and height and, 25– 26

risk of inadequacy, 19

standard deviation, 3, 19–20

uses, 4, 20, 427–432

Estrogen, 129, 163–164, 213, 400

Ethnic background. See Race/ethnicity

Etretinate, 246

Euglena gracilis, 315, 323

Exposure

duration of, 52

route of, 51–52, 53

Exposure assessment

biotin, 385

choline, 412–413

derivation of ULs, 46, 48, 412–413

folate, 229–232, 248–253, 281–282

niacin, 144

pantothenic acid, 370

process, 44, 45

riboflavin, 116

thiamin, 82

vitamin B6, 187

vitamin B12, 347

Extrapolation of data

from animal studies, 28, 43–44, 46, 52, 55, 56, 153

from one gender group to another, 32, 403

from other age groups, 20, 29, 31–33, 56, 66, 103–104, 105, 106, 131, 167, 215, 217, 220, 325, 326, 362–363, 364, 381, 382, 401–402

F

Fat, dietary, 95–96

Fetal. See also Neural tube defects;

Pregnancy

biotin, 377, 385

choline, 404, 405

folate, 233

growth retardation, 277, 385

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

riboflavin, 91, 110–111

sensitivity to nutrients, 48

thiamin, 76

vitamin B6, 156, 166, 176–177

vitamin B12, 339–340

Fish and shellfish, 139

Flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 87–88, 89, 91–92, 94, 95, 96, 116, 129

Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), 87–88, 89, 92, 95, 96, 116, 129

Flavokinase, 89

Folate, 196–305.

See also Dietary folate equivalents;

Folic acid

absorption and transport, 1, 198, 211, 212, 233, 259

adolescents, 220, 233–238, 239, 240, 280–281

adults (19–50 years), 9, 196–197, 220– 228, 234–240, 270–272, 277–281

adverse effects, 273–277

AIs, 214–217

alcohol and, 204, 211, 240, 263, 266, 268, 276

bioavailability, 8–9, 15, 16, 196, 208– 210, 211, 227, 235, 239, 256, 428

body stores, 198

and cancer, 12, 196, 204, 205, 264–266, 269, 276

chemistry, 197

children, 217, 220, 280–281

and congenital anomalies (non-NTD), 259–260

controlled trials, 250–253

critical endpoint, 277

data sources, 277

deficiency, 11, 12, 16, 199–200, 210– 211, 215, 221, 233, 234, 311

dietary fiber and, 211

dose-response assessment for ULs, 277– 281

drug interactions, 212–213, 246, 265– 266, 276

EARs, 8, 9, 217, 220–228, 229–233, 234– 240, 427

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

and embryogenesis, 16, 241–242

equivalents, 10–11, 196, 210

erythrocyte concentrations, 199, 200, 201, 208, 209, 213, 214–215, 216, 219, 221–225, 227, 229, 230–231, 234, 235–237, 238, 239, 256–259, 264–265, 266, 267–268, 269, 514–515

excretion, 198–199, 204, 211, 237–238

exposure assessment, 229–232, 248–253, 281–282

factors affecting requirement, 207–214

fetal, 233

food (naturally occurring), 1, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 196, 197, 198, 209–210, 215, 222, 223, 224, 227, 239, 247, 269–272, 281

food composition data, 35, 36, 206– 207, 459

fortified foods, 269–272, 281–282, 428, 435

function, 10, 197, 240–269, 273

gender differences, 202–203, 213–214, 220, 260, 428

genetic considerations, 203, 213–214, 259, 263

hazard identification, 273–277

hematological status and, 204–205

and homocysteine levels, 11, 12, 159, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201–203, 214, 221, 223, 224, 225, 228–232, 234, 239, 244–245, 246, 260–261, 262, 268, 314

hypersensitivity, 276–277

indicators of adequacy, 10–11, 16, 196, 200–205, 234

infants, 214–217, 218–219, 276, 277, 280–281

intakes, 38–39, 196–197, 269–273, 281– 282, 428, 430, 460–461, 464–465, 474–475, 494–497, 504, 506

interaction with food components, 211

interaction with other nutrients, 158, 159, 199, 202, 210–211, 273–276, 277, 307, 321, 391, 394–395, 398– 399, 400, 413

laboratory values, 205–206, 268, 272, 457, 459

lactation and, 238–240, 280–281

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

life-stage group and, 38–39, 214–240, 277–281, 474–475, 494–497, 504, 506, 512–515

measurement of blood values, 205–206

mental function, 12, 16, 196, 204, 205, 267–269, 276

metabolism, 198–199, 211, 213–214, 221–225, 226–227, 228–229, 233, 235– 237, 238, 398–399

method used to set AIs, 214–216

method used to set EARs, 210, 217, 220, 238–239

methodological considerations, 205– 207, 210, 214, 237, 268, 272, 456– 459

and neural tube defects, 16, 23, 196, 205, 233, 240–259, 269, 276, 283, 284, 435, 524

neurological/neuropsychiatric effects, 12, 16, 196, 205, 267–269, 273–276, 277–279, 280, 281

NOAEL/LOAELs, 277–279, 280

observational studies, 248–251

older adults (51+ years), 9, 200, 201, 228–233, 268, 272, 273, 277–280, 460–461, 464–465

oral contraceptives and, 212, 213

periconceptional use, 204, 247–256, 276

plasma concentrations, 196, 200, 214, 216, 221, 223, 229, 232, 261–262, 267

population-based studies, 234–235, 238

pregnancy and, 2, 11–12, 16, 23, 197, 204, 209, 228, 233–238, 240–260, 273, 276, 277, 278–279, 280–281, 435

race/ethnicity and, 203, 242–243, 245

RDAs, 2, 11–12, 23, 196, 217, 220, 228, 233, 238, 240

research recommendations, 1, 2, 16, 283–284, 439, 440, 441

risk characterization, 16, 282–283

serum concentrations, 199, 200, 201, 203–204, 209, 214–215, 216, 219, 221, 223, 224, 225, 229, 234, 235, 261, 267, 277, 307, 512–513

smoking and, 211–212, 260, 276

special considerations, 217, 240, 281

supplement use, 1, 38–39, 196, 197, 208, 238, 242, 247–256, 258–259, 263, 272–273, 283, 464–465, 496–497, 524

synthesis by intestinal bacteria, 211

uncertainty assessment, 279–280

unit conversions, 451

and vascular disease, 12, 16, 159, 196, 203, 204, 205, 260–264, 269

and vitamin B12, 199, 202, 210–211, 273–274, 277–279, 280, 281, 307, 311, 314, 321

Folic acid

absorption, 1

bioavailability, 225, 235

chemistry, 197, 213

intakes, 15, 223, 224, 227

neural tube defects and, 11–12, 16

neurotoxicity, 276

research recommendations, 16

supplements, 1, 210

ULs, 13, 22, 197, 273–283, 427

unit conversions, 452

Food and Agriculture Organization, 41

Food component interactions, 211, 322

Food composition analysis, 35, 368–369, 413, 458–459

Food composition databases, 15, 35–36, 434

Food Guide Pyramid, 283

Food sources. See also Fortified foods

biotin, 384

choline, 406–407

folate, 269–272

niacin, 128, 137–138, 139

pantothenic acid, 368–369

riboflavin, 113, 114

thiamin, 79, 80

types of information, 37–38

vitamin B6, 179–181

vitamin B12, 306, 309, 342–343, 344– 345, 435

Formiminoglutamic acid, 314

Formulas, infant

bioavailability of nutrients from, 30, 402

choline, 402, 407

cow milk, 402

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

folate, 216, 217, 218–219

soy-derived, 402

special considerations, 167, 217, 402

vitamin B6 deficiency, 166–167

Fortified foods, 15.

See also Formulas, infant

folate in, 1, 2, 8–9, 12, 14, 196, 197, 208–209, 235, 240, 247, 256, 257– 258, 269–272, 281–282, 428, 435

niacin in, 128

riboflavin in, 113

thiamin in, 79, 80

ULs and, 5, 22, 47–48 343–345

Framingham Heart Study, 175, 336

G

Gastrointestinal complaints, 141, 144, 276, 312, 318, 320, 359, 408

Gender differences, 23.

See also Men;

Women;

individual nutrients

dietary intakes, 8–9, 79, 180, 181, 306, 344, 345, 460–506

extrapolation between groups, 32, 403

and metabolism of nutrients, 108, 213– 214

and plasma homocysteine, 203

supplement intakes, 38–39, 113, 257, 462–465

in vascular disease, 260

Genetic influences

biotin, 380, 383

choline, 409

folate, 16, 203, 213–214, 244–245, 259, 263

neural tube defects, 244–245

special considerations, 347, 383, 409

thiamin, 61

vitamin B6, 16, 168

vitamin B12, 16, 322, 347

Glucose intolerance, 141

Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 91, 108

Glutathione reductase activity, 10, 87, 90– 91, 94, 95

Gout, 144

Grain products, 14, 79, 113, 114, 128, 137– 138, 139, 208–209, 270

Growth factors, 32, 106

Growth retardation, 277, 385

H

Hartnup’s disease, 128, 137

Hazard identification

adverse effects, 50–51, 81–82, 182–183, 273–277, 346, 370, 408–409

biotin, 384–385

choline, 408–410, 411

components of, 44, 45, 50–52, 538

data sources, 50, 51

derivation of UL, 46

folate, 273–277

niacin, 138, 140–142

pantothenic acid, 370

riboflavin, 115–116

special considerations, 52, 347, 370, 409

thiamin, 81–82

vitamin B6, 182–183

vitamin B12, 346–347

Health Canada, 444

Hemodialysis patients, 18, 79, 112, 137, 383, 385

Holotranscobalamin II, 314

Homocysteine

catabolism, 158–159, 170–171, 175

and choline status, 27, 398, 413

gender differences, 518–519

and folate status, 11, 12, 159, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201–203, 214, 221, 223, 224, 225, 228–232, 234, 239, 244– 245, 246, 260–261, 262, 268, 314

life stage and, 159, 203, 518–519

methionine synthesis, 27, 88, 155–156, 268, 306, 307, 399, 521

and neural tube defects, 244–245, 246, 524

in older adults, 314

and riboflavin status, 27

and vascular disease, 12, 154, 159–160, 175, 260–261, 262, 398, 520

and vitamin B6 status, 151, 154, 155–156, 158–159, 170–171, 175, 244, 314

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

and vitamin B12 status, 12, 88, 158, 159, 306, 307, 314, 316, 336

Homocystinuria, 244–245, 260, 398

Human immunodeficiency virus, 342

Human milk, 5.

See also Lactation

AIs, 29–30

antivitaminic metabolites, 103

biotin, 380–381

choline, 401–402

colostrum, 65, 323

folate, 214–219, 239

intakes, 104

niacin, 130–131

pantothenic acid, 362–363, 368

riboflavin, 103, 104

thiamin, 65–66

tryptophan content, 130

vitamin B6, 165–166

vitamin B12, 322–326, 341

Human papillomavirus-16, 264–265

Huntington’s disease, 410

Hydrocephalus, 241

2-Hydroxyethylflavin, 103

3-Hydroxyisovalerate, 375, 378–379, 382, 383

Hyperbilirubinemia, 116

Hypercholesterolemia, 141, 145

Hyperhomocysteinemia, 154, 159, 202, 260

Hyperlipidemia, 140

Hypersensitivity to nutrients, 276–277, 409

Hypertension, 75, 213, 260

Hypoglycemia, 359

Hypotension, 390, 408

I

Ibuprofen, 212

Immune response, 175

Immunoglobulins, 89

Inborn errors of metabolism, 12

biotin-related, 378, 384, 385

Indicators of nutrient adequacy. See also specific indicators, nutrients, and life stages

concurrent analyses, 94–95, 97

deficiency-based, 6–7, 16, 22–23, 94

methodological considerations, 16, 29, 60–62, 438–439

research recommendations, 438–439

risk reduction-based, 7, 12, 15, 23, 28, 94, 159–160, 205, 397–398, 441

Infants, premature, 166

Infants, 0 through 12 months. See also Formulas, infant;

Human milk

ages 0 through 6 months, 30, 33

ages 7 through 12 months, 30–31, 33

AI derivation for, 5, 6, 21, 29–31, 33

Apgar scores, 177, 277

bioavailability of nutrients, 30

EAR derivation for, 31–32

formula-fed, 30, 166–167, 216, 217, 218–219, 402

growth spurts, 30

methylmalonic acid concentrations, 323–324

reference weight, 65

sensitivity to nutrients, 48, 116

solid foods, 30, 31, 66, 105, 112, 131, 406

special considerations, 167, 217, 325– 326, 402

ULs, 13, 48–49, 55–56

vegan mothers, 323–324, 326

Inflammatory bowel disease, 144, 212

Inositol, 524–525

Insulin sensitivity, 359

Intake assessment to derive ULs. See Exposure assessment

Interactions. See Nutrient-nutrient interactions

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 41

International comparisons

neural tube defects, 242–243

Intrinsic factor, 306, 307–308, 310, 315, 317, 318, 330, 333

Iron, 129, 177, 210

Isoniazid, 128, 137, 162

Isotretinoin, 246

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

K

Kloeckera brevis bioassay, 379

Kynurenine hydroxylase, 88

L

Laboratory values

analytic considerations, 34, 205–206, 272, 313, 315, 407, 456–459

conversion between tradition and SI units, 451–452

interlaboratory differences, 206–207, 268, 315

interpretation of study results, 34

sensitivity and specificity, 34–35, 379, 407

Lactation. See also Human milk;

individual nutrients

derivation of DRIs for, 33

energy metabolism, 78, 96, 130

laboratory values during, 34

methodological considerations, 34

special considerations, 240

twins/multiple infants, 79, 112, 137, 240

ULs, 48

Lactic acid values, 62, 64, 94

Lactobacillus assays, 315, 333, 358

L-DOPA, 162

Latin Americans, pernicious anemia, 317, 323

Lean body mass, and sensitivity to nutrients, 48

Leber’s optic atrophy, 346

Lecithin, 392, 395, 398, 400, 406–407, 408

Life-stage groups. See also Adolescents;

Adults;

Children;

Infants;

individual nutrients

Body Mass Index by, 25

categories, 24

and derivation of DRIs, 23–24, 29

intakes of nutrients by, 8–9, 466–506

recommended intakes by, 566–567

and supplement use, 38–39

ULs by, 13

Liver function/disease/toxicity

choline and, 11, 306–307, 370, 390, 391–392, 393, 394, 396–397, 398, 408, 409

folate and, 212

niacin and, 137, 140, 144

vitamin B6 and, 164

Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL)

choline, 410

defined, 46, 538

folate, 277–280

identification of, 53–54, 56

niacin, 142–143

thiamin, 82

and UL derivation, 53–54, 56

vitamin B6, 184–185

Lung cancer, 266

M

Malabsorption syndromes, 16, 18, 79, 112, 137, 308, 310, 318, 320, 331, 334, 342, 377

Malaria, 213

Men. See also Gender differences

choline, 390, 394–395

energy metabolism, 133

folate, 201, 260, 270–271, 272

indicators used to set EARs, 170–171

niacin, 14, 123, 127, 133, 135, 138, 139, 144

pantothenic acid, 358, 359, 360

riboflavin, 14, 87, 97, 100–102, 107, 109, 113, 114

thiamin, 14, 61, 71–74, 79, 80, 82

vitamin B6, 150, 152, 153–154, 155, 170– 171, 180–181

vitamin B12, 14, 306, 343, 344, 345

Meningocele, 241

Meningomyelocele, 241, 243, 248–249

Menstrual cycle and vitamin concentrations, 156

Metabolism of nutrients, 48

aging and, 213–214, 228–229, 233

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

amino acid, 58, 88, 150, 151, 161, 196, 197, 358

biotin, 377

carbohydrate, 58, 63, 94, 95–96

choline, 391, 392–393

depletion-repletion studies, 69, 70–73, 75, 153–154, 155, 157, 158, 164, 172, 221–225, 226–227, 228–229, 438– 439

and EAR, 20

fatty acids, 357, 358

folate, 198–199, 211, 213–214, 221–225, 226–227, 228–229, 233, 235–237, 238, 398–399

niacin, 125

pantothenic acid, 358, 362

pregnant women, 235–237, 238

riboflavin, 89, 92, 98–102

and sensitivity to nutrients, 48

smoking and, 320–321

thiamin, 59, 69–73, 75

vitamin B6, 151–152, 153–154, 155, 157, 158, 162, 164, 172

vitamin B12, 250–255, 320–321

Methionine

choline and, 391, 394–395, 398–399, 400, 413

folate and, 158, 197, 201–202, 214, 244, 261, 391, 394–395, 398–399, 400, 413

homocysteine conversion to, 27, 88, 155–156, 158, 159, 197, 201–202, 268, 306, 307, 399, 521

MTHFR and, 88, 214, 244, 261

and neural tube defects, 244, 524

riboflavin and, 88

and vitamin B6 status, 154, 155–156, 158, 159, 413

vitamin B12 and, 158, 413

Methodological considerations. See also Data and database issues;

Extrapolation of data;

Indicators of nutrient adequacy;

Uncertainty

adequate intakes for infants, 29–33

bioassays, 315, 379

bioavailability estimates and assumptions, 210, 225

blood nutrient measurement, 205–206

data sources, 28–29, 50, 51, 52

depletion-repletion study design, 438– 439

experimental studies, 28

food composition data, 206–207, 225, 407, 458–459

high-performance liquid

chromatography, 92

kinetic modeling of body pools, 439

laboratory values, 34–35, 205–206, 268, 272, 315, 456–459

for lactation, 33, 34

load tests, 93–94

normalization to baseline, 164–165

in nutrient intake estimates, 8–9, 14, 16, 35–36, 206–207, 210, 237, 265, 272, 337, 429

observational studies, 28

for pregnancy, 33, 34

radioligand binding assays, 315

research recommendations, 440

retention studies, 315–316

in risk assessment, 45

risk reduction as indicator of nutrient

adequacy, 7, 12, 15, 23, 28, 159–160, 205

statistical association, 29

Methotrexate, 212–213, 240, 399

Methylcitrate, 314

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)

and cancer, 266, 521

and choline, 398

folate metabolism and, 214, 244, 245, 259, 263, 266, 520–521

and methionine formation, 88, 214, 244

and neural tube defects, 244, 245, 259

riboflavin and, 88

and vascular disease, 263, 398, 520

Methylmalonic acid, 244, 246, 313–314, 316, 318, 323–324, 335–337

Microbial synthesis of nutrients, 152

Migraine headaches, 144

Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 262

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

N

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (NHANES II), 31, 206, 232, 384

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

anthropometric data, 24, 25

biotin, 384

choline, 407

defined, 539

folate, 206, 221, 272, 273, 281, 282, 428, 430, 494–497, 512–515

homocysteine, 518–519

niacin, 144, 486–489

pantothenic acid, 369

riboflavin, 113, 116, 482–485

scope of intake data, 36, 37

thiamin, 82, 478–479

vitamin B6, 169, 187, 490–493

vitamin B12, 347, 431, 498–501, 516–517

National Health Interview Survey, 37, 38– 39, 138, 369, 384

Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 282–283

Neoplastic tranformation, 16.

See also Cancer

Neural tube defects, 10, 11–12

anatomy, 241–242

animal studies, 244, 245, 523–525

classification, 241–242

embryology, 241–242, 404–405

erythrocyte folate and, 258–259

etiology, 233, 243–246, 523–525

folate and, 16, 23, 196, 205, 233, 240– 259, 269, 276, 283, 284, 435, 524

forms of, 241

genetic evidence, 244–245

homocysteine and, 244–245, 246, 524

inositol and, 524–525

levels of dietary folate and, 247, 276

maternal folate intake and, 246–253, 435

maternal folate status and, 256–257

mechanism of folate action, 258

methionine and, 524

and methyl malonic acid, 246

MTHFR and, 244, 245, 259

nutrition studies, 524–525

periconceptional folate supplement use and, 247–256

prevalence, 242–243

research recommendations, 283, 284

risk of, 254–256

race/ethnicity and, 242–243, 245

recommendations for risk reduction, 196, 258–259, 269

screening for, 242

socioeconomic status and, 245–246

teratology and, 246, 525

vitamin B12 and, 246

zinc and, 277, 524

Neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders

biotin and, 377

choline and, 407

folate and, 12, 16, 196, 205, 267– 269, 273–276, 277–279, 280, 281

niacin and, 126

pantothenic acid and, 359

thiamin and, 59

vitamin B6 and, 12, 153–154, 160

vitamin B12 and, 12, 273–274, 277–279, 280, 308, 311–312, 313, 316, 328, 329, 347

Niacin, 123–149

absorption and transport, 124–125

adolescents, 56, 131–137, 143–144

adults (19–50 years), 9, 123, 126, 127, 132–137, 138, 139, 142–143

adverse effects, 123, 138, 140–142

and adenosine diphosphate

ribosylation, 127

adverse effects, 138, 140–142

AIs, 130–131

bioavailability, 123, 128–129, 133

chemistry, 123–124

children, 56, 131–132, 143–144

data selection, 142

deficiency, 125–126

dose-response assessment for ULs, 142– 144

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

drug interactions, 128, 129, 137

EARs, 9, 132–137, 427

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

energy intake and expenditure and, 27, 28, 129–130, 133, 135–136

and erythrocyte pyridine nucleotides, 127, 132

excretion, 10, 123, 125, 126–127, 132, 133, 134

factors affecting requirement, 128–130

food composition data, 458

food sources, 128, 137–138, 139

function, 10, 27, 123, 124, 127, 128, 130

gender differences, 130, 133, 135, 138, 144

hazard identification, 138, 140–142

indicators of adequacy, 10, 123, 126– 128, 132, 134, 145

infants, 31, 130–131, 143–144

intakes, 38–39, 123, 137–138, 144, 460– 463, 470–471, 486–489, 503, 506

interactions with other nutrients, 88, 94, 96, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 370

laboratory values, 456, 458

lactation, 130, 136–137, 143–144

by life-stage group, 38–39, 130–137, 142– 144, 470–471, 486–489, 503, 506

LOAEL, 142–143

metabolism, 125

method used to set AIs, 130–131

method used to set EARs, 131, 132– 133, 136

neurological/neuropsychiatric

disorders, 126

older adults (51+ years), 9, 132–135, 138, 142–143, 460–463

and oral contraceptives, 129

and pellagra, 125–126, 127–128, 132– 133

plasma concentrations, 127

preformed, 123, 128, 130, 131, 136, 138

pregnancy, 126, 128–129, 130, 135–136, 137, 143–144

protein intake and, 10, 125, 126, 128, 129, 132

RDAs, 123, 131–132, 135, 136, 137, 566– 567

research recommendations, 145

risk assessment, 145

special considerations, 137, 144

supplement use, 38–39, 138, 462–463, 488–489

tryptophan intake and, 10, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128–129, 130, 132, 135, 137, 138

ULs, 13, 22, 56, 123, 138, 140–145, 427

uncertainty assessment, 143

unit conversions, 451

Niacin equivalents, 10

Nicotinamide, 124, 125, 127, 140, 142, 256

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), 123–124, 125, 127, 128, 132, 145

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), 123–124, 125, 127, 128, 132

Nicotinic acid, 124, 140, 141, 143

Nitrogen balance, 94

N1-Methylnicotinamide, 126, 132–133, 134

No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL)

choline, 410

defined, 46, 53, 539

folate, 277–289, 280

identification of, 53–54, 56

niacin, 142–143

thiamin, 82

and UL derivation, 53–54, 56

vitamin B6, 184–185

Nutrient intakes. See also Dietary intakes;

Exposure assessment;

specific nutrients

Canadian, 37, 58, 74, 79, 113, 123, 138, 150, 181, 272, 282, 306, 343, 384, 502–506

cooking losses, 36, 343

day-to-day variation, 36, 37, 428–429

form of, 52, 125, 140–141, 142, 209

gender differences, 270–271, 460–506

increasing, strategies for, 14–15

by life stage group, 466–506

magnitude and duration of, 53, 125

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

methodological considerations, 8–9, 14, 16, 35–36, 206–207, 210, 237, 265, 272, 337, 429

quality of data, 35–36, 265, 337, 366

route of, 51–52, 315–316

from supplements, 87, 182, 407, 462– 465

U.S., 38–39, 460–465, 466–477, 478–480

Nutrient-nutrient interactions. See also specific entries under nutrients

adverse, 41, 49, 51

and bioavailability, 15

B vitamins, 96, 129

and chronic disease risk reduction, 94

composition of diet and, 95–96, 211

research recommendations, 413

risk assessment, 49

Nutrition Canada Survey, 24, 261

O

Obesity, 174

Ocular effects, 94, 141–142, 346

Omeprazole treatment, 342

Oral contraceptives

folate and, 212, 213

niacin and, 129

pantothenic acid and, 362

riboflavin and, 97

vitamin B6 and, 158, 162–164

Orofacial clefts, 259

P

Pantothenic acid, 357–373

absorption, 358, 366

adolescents, 359, 360, 364–365, 367– 368, 369

adults (19–50 years), 357, 365–366, 367– 368, 369

adverse effects, 370

AIs, 6, 11, 21, 357, 362–368, 566–567

bioavailability, 361

blood levels, 360, 361, 364–365

body stores, 359–360, 366–367

children, 363–364, 370

deficiency, 357, 359

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

energy metabolism and, 27

erythrocyte concentrations, 360–361, 364–365

excretion, 11, 357, 358, 359–361, 362, 363–364, 365–366, 367, 368

exposure assessment, 370

factors affecting requirement, 361–362

food composition data, 368–369, 459

food sources, 368–369

function, 27, 357, 368

gender differences, 364–365, 366

hazard identification, 370

indicators of adequacy, 11, 359–361

infants, 6, 56, 362–363

intakes, 38–39, 368–369, 370, 505

interactions with other nutrients, 358, 361–362, 370

laboratory values, 457, 459

lactation and, 368

by life-stage group, 38–39, 505

metabolism, 358, 362

method used to set AIs, 362–364

neurological disorders, 359

older adults (51+ years), 366–367

oral contraceptives and, 362

pregnancy and, 367

research recommendations, 371

risk characterization, 370

socioeconomic status and, 363

special considerations, 370

supplement use, 38–39, 362, 366, 369

ULs, 13, 56, 370

uncertainties, 366

unit conversions, 452

Parkinson’s disease, 409, 412

Pellagra, 125–126, 127–128, 132–133

Pepic ulcer disease, 144

Peritoneal dialysis patients, 18, 79, 112, 137, 383

Pernicious anemia

folate and, 274–275, 280

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

vitamin B12 and, 308, 310, 311, 312, 316, 317–318, 319, 323–324, 327, 328, 329–330, 331, 332–333, 342, 346, 527

Phenobarbitol, 212

Photosensitivity, 115–116

Physical activity

choline and, 400

energy metabolism and, 97

and riboflavin, 64, 94, 96–97

and thiamin, 62, 63–64

and vitamin B6, 64, 162

Physicians’ Health Study, 261–262, 266

Picolinate carboxylase, 128

Plasma concentrations of nutrients. See individual nutrients

Pneumosystis carinii infections, 213

Population-based studies, folate, 234–238

Pregnancy. See also Lactation;

Neural tube defects;

individual nutrients

and absorption of nutrients, 33

derivation of DRIs for, 33

energy utilization, 33, 77, 96, 111, 130, 135–136

hyperhomocysteinemia and, 202

indicators of nutrient adequacy, 23

intakes of nutrients, 144

laboratory values during, 34

metabolic studies, 235–237

methodological considerations, 33, 34

multiple fetuses, 79, 112, 137, 240

population-based studies, 234–238

preeclampsia, 164

smoking and, 321

supplements during, 187, 234, 235, 236–237

ULs, 48

Premenstrual syndrome, 182, 185, 187

Propionate, 314

Prostaglandin, 141

Protein, dietary

niacin and, 10, 125, 126, 128, 129, 132

requirements for growth, 20, 32, 33

vitamin B6 and, 28, 161–162, 163, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175

Protein kinase C, 398

Pruritis, 81, 409

Psoriasis, 246

Psychotropic drugs, 94

Puberty/pubertal development, 25.

See also Adolescents

Pyrimethamine, 213

Pyruvic acid values, 62, 94

Q

Quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase, 128

R

Race/ethnicity. See also Asians;

Blacks;

Latin Americans;

Whites

and neural tube defects, 242–243, 245

and pernicious anemia, 280, 317

and plasma homocysteine, 203

Radioligand binding assays, 315

Recommendations. See also Research recommendations

food composition data, 15, 434

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). See also individual nutrients

AIs compared, 6, 21–22

applicable population, 18, 424–425

coefficient of variation, 32–33

criteria used to derive, 3, 6–7, 10

defined, 2, 3, 17–18

derivation of, 5, 18, 19–20, 22

EAR and, 3, 18, 19–20, 22

increasing consumption of nutrients, 14–15

indicators of nutrient adequacy, 7, 10, 23

gender differences, 2, 3, 5

group applications, 14, 424–425

for pregnancy, 11, 23

risk of inadequacy, 19

uncertainty in, 425

uses, 4, 5, 6, 21, 423, 424–425

weight and height and, 26

Recommended Dietary Allowances (reports), 2, 17

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Reference body weight ratio method, 31, 33

biotin, 381

choline, 412

folate, 215, 280

niacin, 130, 143

pantothenic acid, 362–363

riboflavin, 104–105, 106

thiamin, 66

vitamin B6, 167

Reference weights, 24–26, 56, 65, 425

Renal disease/failure/insufficiency

choline and, 409, 412

folate and, 203

thiamin and, 60

vitamin B6 and, 159, 160

vitamin B12 and, 313, 336

Requirement, defined, 17

Research recommendations

adverse effects, 15, 441–442

agenda development, 437–438

biotin, 385–383, 440

choline, 413–414, 440

chronic disease risk reduction, 15, 16, 441

depletion-repletion study design, 438– 439

developmental disorders, 441

folate, 1, 2, 16, 283–284, 439, 440, 441

indicator of nutrient status, 188, 438– 439, 441–442

interrelationships among nutrients, 413, 440

kinetic modeling of body pools, 439

knowledge gaps and, 439–440

methodologies, 16, 440, 438–439

neural tube defects, 283, 284, 441

niacin, 145

pantothenic acid, 371, 440

priorities, 413, 442

public health implications of intakes, 441

requirements studies, 439–440

riboflavin, 116

thiamin, 82–83

toxicity of nutrients, 15, 441–442

vitamin B6, 16, 188

vitamin B12, 2, 16, 348, 439, 441–442

Retinoids, 246, 525

Rheumatoid arthritis, 212–213

Riboflavin, 87–122

absorption, 88–89, 102, 115

adolescents, 105–106, 110–112, 116

adults (19–70 years), 8, 87, 92, 107–109, 110–112, 114

AIs, 103–105

bioavailability, 88, 95

and cancer, 90, 94

chemistry, 87–88, 95

children, 92, 105–106, 116

and chronic disease, 90, 94

deficiency, 90, 91, 107, 111, 127–128

dose-response assessment for ULs, 116

drug interactions, 94

EARs, 8, 97–102, 105–106, 107–112, 116, 427

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

and energy metabolism, 27, 28, 88, 94, 96, 97, 108, 110, 111

erythrocyte flavin, 91–92, 95, 98–102, 107

erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity, 10, 87, 90–91, 94–95, 96–97, 98–102, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110, 116

excretion, 10, 87, 89–90, 92–94, 95, 96– 97 , 98–102, 107–108, 109, 110

exposure assessment, 116

factors affecting requirement, 95–97

fetal, 91, 110–111

food composition data, 458

food sources, 95, 113, 114

function, 10, 27, 87–88, 96

gender differences, 14, 87, 96, 106, 107, 108, 113

glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and, 91, 108

hazard identification, 115–116

indicators of adequacy, 10, 87, 90–95, 97–102, 116

infants, 31, 56, 89–90, 103–105, 107, 112, 116

intakes, 31, 38–39, 87, 113–114, 116, 460–463, 468–469, 482–485, 503, 506

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

interactions with other nutrients, 88, 90, 94, 95–96, 129, 361–362

laboratory values, 456, 458

lactation, 96, 103–104, 112, 116

life-stage group and, 38–39, 103–112, 116, 427, 468–469, 482–485, 503, 506

metabolism, 89, 92, 98–102

methods used to set AIs, 103–105

methods used to set EARs, 97–102, 105– 106, 112

and neural tube defects, 256

older adults (>70 years), 8, 91, 95–96, 97, 100–101, 102, 108, 109–110, 113, 114, 116, 460–463

oral contraceptives and, 97

and photosensitivity to UV light, 115– 116

physical activity and, 64, 94, 96–97, 116

pregnancy, 89, 91, 96, 110–111, 112, 115, 116

race/ethnicity and, 91, 106

RDAs, 87, 106, 109, 111, 112, 566–567

research recommendations, 117

risk characterization, 116

safety factor, 10

special considerations, 112, 116

supplement use, 38–39, 87, 103, 113, 462–463, 484–485

ULs, 13, 56, 87, 115–116

unit conversions, 451

Risk, defined, 539

Risk assessment, defined, 42, 539

Risk assessment models. See also Doseresponse assessment;

Exposure assessment;

Hazard identification;

Risk characterization

application to nutrients, 12–13, 47–49

basic concepts, 12–13, 42–44

bioavailability considerations, 49, 53

and food safety, 42–47

nutrient interactions, 49

process, 44–45

sensitivity of individuals, 48–49

thresholds, 45–47

uncertainties, 13, 43–44, 46, 47–48, 507– 511

Risk characterization

biotin, 385

choline, 413

defined, 43, 540

derivation of UL, 46–47

folate, 16, 282–283

intake data and, 46–47, 145

niacin, 145

pantothenic acid, 370

process, 44, 45

riboflavin, 116

thiamin, 82

vitamin B6, 187

vitamin B12, 347

Risk management, 43, 44, 540

S

S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), 268, 391, 393, 399

Seborrheic dermatitis, 153

Self-medicating with nutrients, 41

Sensitive subpopulations. See Special considerations

Sensitivity. See also Hypersensitivity

allergic, 81–82

defined, 34–35

fetal, 48

interindividual variability in, 48–49

Sensory neuropathy, 150, 182–183, 184– 185, 187

Serum levels of nutrients. See individual nutrients

Sickle cell disease, 187

Skiers, 64

Smoking, 211–212, 320–321

Socioeconomic status and nutrient intake, 245–246, 363

Special considerations

alcohol consumption 240

biotin, 383

breastfeeding twins, 79, 137, 240

choline, 402, 409, 412

chronic disease, 144, 342, 409, 412

dialysis patients, 18, 79, 112, 137, 383

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

in dose-response assessment for ULs, 56, 144, 187, 281, 412

drug interactions, 128, 137, 240, 246, 342

folate, 217, 240, 281

formula-fed infants, 167, 217, 402

genetic disorders, 347, 383, 409

high-protein diets, 176

identification of, 52, 347, 370, 409

malabsorption syndromes, 16, 18, 79, 112, 137, 320, 342

multiple infants/births, 79, 112, 137, 240

niacin, 137, 144

pantothenic acid, 370

riboflavin, 112, 116

in risk assessment, 48, 347, 412

thiamin, 79

vitamin B6, 167, 176, 187

vitamin B12, 325–326, 342, 347

Specificity, 34–35

Spina bifida. See Meningomyelocele

Starvation, 63, 129

Stomach cancer, 266, 317

Sulfasalazine, 213, 265–266

Supplements, dietary. See also individual nutrients

bioavailability of nutrients, 1, 9, 18, 49, 62, 208, 210, 235, 256, 259, 331, 334

data sources on intakes, 37

doses, 264, 273

gender differences in use, 113

supraphysiological doses, 264

timing of, 256

ULs and, 5–6, 22, 47–48, 82, 138, 140– 142

usage, 38–39, 79, 81, 182, 462–465

usefulness of, 15

T

Tardive dyskinesia, 408, 410

Teratogenicity, 183, 186

Tetrahydrofolate, 307

Tetrahydropterin, 268

Thiamin, 58–86

absorption, 59, 62, 81–82

adolescents, 61, 63, 67–68, 76–78, 82

adults, 8, 58, 61, 66, 69–74, 76–78, 80, 82

adverse effects, 58, 81–82

AIs, 65–66

bioavailability, 62

chemistry, 58–59

children, 66–68, 82

deficiency, 58, 59–60, 62, 63, 65, 67–68, 69, 74–75

dose-response assessment for ULs, 82

EARs, 8, 62, 66, 67–68, 69–73, 74–77, 78, 427

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

energy utilization and, 27, 28, 62–63, 75, 77, 78

erythrocyte concentrations, 60, 62, 64, 67, 74

erythrocyte transketolase activity, 10, 58, 60, 61, 64, 67, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76

excretion, 10, 58, 59, 60–61, 64, 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, 75, 77, 82

exposure assessment, 82

factors affecting requirement, 62–64

fetal, 76

food composition data, 458

food sources, 79, 80

function, 10, 27, 58, 63

gender differences, 14, 72, 81, 82

genetic factors, 61

hazard identification, 81–82

indicators of adequacy, 10, 60–62, 67, 69, 82

infants, 31, 56, 60, 65–66, 78

intakes, 31, 38–39, 58, 79–81, 82, 460– 463, 466–467, 478–481, 502, 506

interactions with other nutrients, 88, 361–362

laboratory values, 456, 458

lactation, 63, 78, 79, 82

and lactic acid values, 62, 64

life-stage group and, 38–39, 65–79, 427, 466–467, 478–481, 502, 506

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

metabolism, 59, 69–73, 75

methods used to set AIs, 65–66

methods used to set EARs, 60–61, 66, 76–77, 78

neurological disorders, 59

NOAEL/LOAELs, 82

and neural tube defects, 256

older adults (51+), 8, 61, 74–76, 79, 81, 82, 460–463

parenteral administration, 81

physical activity and, 62, 63–64

pregnancy, 63, 76–78, 82

and pyruvic acid values, 62

RDAs, 58, 66–67, 68, 73–74, 76, 77–78, 566–567

research recommendations, 82–83

risk characterization, 82

special considerations, 79

supplement use, 38–39, 58, 79, 81, 82, 462–463, 480–481

ULs, 13, 56, 58, 81–82

unit conversions, 451

Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), 58–59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 74, 75, 76–77

Thiochrome analysis, 67, 74

Tinnitus, 409

Tolerable, defined, 22, 41, 43

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs), 1, 17, 32.

See also Dose-response

assessment;

Hazard identification;

Risk assessment models;

individual nutrients

critical endpoints, 49, 53–54

defined, 2, 5, 7, 13, 22, 41, 47, 54, 424

derivation of, 5–6, 7, 12–13, 22, 46–47, 52, 55–56

by life-stage group, 13

risk of excess, 19, 22, 41, 53–54, 82, 116

supplement use and, 5–6, 22, 47–48

uses, 4, 22, 426–427

Toxicity, mechanism of action, 52

Transcobalamin II (TCII), 308, 315, 339

Transketolase activity, 10, 58, 60, 61, 64, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76

Triamterene, 213

Trimethoprim, 213

Trimethylaminuria (fishy body odor), 390, 408, 409, 411, 412

Trimetrexate, 213

Tryptophan, 88, 90, 96

abnormal metabolites, 153

catabolites, 154, 157–158, 162, 163–164, 170, 173, 177

conversion to niacin, 10, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128–129, 130, 132, 135, 137, 138

riboflavin and, 88, 90, 96

Tuberculosis patients, 162

U

Uncertainty

approaches for dealing with, 507–511

assessment, 54–55

in data, 43, 46

in dietary intake estimates, 69, 72, 366

dose-response assessment for ULs, 54– 55

extrapolation from experimental animals to humans, 43–44, 46, 55

factor, 54–55, 540

interindividual variability in sensitivity, 55

in LOAEL, 55

in RDAs, 425

in risk assessment, 13, 43–44, 46, 47–48, 55, 507–511

subchronic NOAEL to predict chronic

NOAEL, 55

Unit conversions for nutrients, 451–452

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 207, 272, 282–283, 343, 369, 384

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 282– 283

V

Valproate, 246, 525

Vascular disease and thrombosis

choline and, 398

folate and, 12, 16, 159, 196, 203, 204, 205, 259, 260–264, 269

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

homocysteine values and, 12, 154, 159– 160, 175, 260–261, 262, 398, 520

niacin and, 144

riboflavin and, 90

thiamin and, 59–60

vitamin B6 and, 12, 154, 159–160, 262– 263

Vasodilatory effects (flushing), 123, 140– 141

Vegans/vegetarians

folate, 281

vitamin B12, 310, 317, 323–324, 325– 326, 327–328, 330, 331, 337, 340, 341, 343, 527

Vitamin A, 256, 358, 361–362, 525

Vitamin B1. See Thiamin

Vitamin B2.See Riboflavin

Vitamin B6, 150–195

absorption and transport, 151, 160–161

adolescents, 167–169, 176–179, 186–187

adults (19–50 years), 2, 9, 150, 153, 161, 170–174, 176–179, 180–181, 184– 187

adverse effects, 150, 182–183, 186

AIs, 153, 165–167

alcohol consumption and, 164

bioavailability, 150, 160–161, 165, 177

body stores, 152–153

children, 167–169, 186–187

and chronic disease, 159–160

and cognitive function, 160

data sources, 184

deficiency, 153–154, 164, 166–167, 168, 176, 178

dependency, 183, 186

dietary equivalents, 165

dose-response assessment for ULs, 184– 187

drug interactions, 162

EARs, 9, 161, 167–169, 170–179, 427

EEG abnormalities, 153–154, 155, 172

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

energy metabolism and, 27, 160

and erythrocyte aminotransferase, 154, 157, 161, 167, 168–169, 172–173, 174–175, 177

excretion, 152, 156–158, 161, 168, 173

exposure assessment, 187

factors affecting requirements, 160–164

fetal, 156, 166, 176–177

food composition data, 458

food sources, 179–181

forms of, 150–151

function, 10, 27, 150, 151, 161

gender differences, 152, 153–154, 155, 170–174, 175–176, 181

hazard identification, 182–183

and homocysteine catabolism, 158–159, 170–171, 175, 244

indicators of adequacy, 10, 16, 23, 150, 154–160, 161, 164, 165, 168–169, 176, 177, 188

infants, 150, 156, 164, 165–167, 178, 183, 186–187

intakes, 38–39, 150, 166–167, 168, 179– 182, 187, 460–463, 472–473, 490–493, 504

interaction with other nutrients, 28, 88, 90, 96, 128, 129, 158, 159, 161– 162, 202, 413

laboratory values, 333, 456, 458

lactation and, 165, 166–167, 178–179, 183, 186–187

life-stage group and, 38–39, 164–179, 181, 184–187, 427, 472–473, 490–493, 504

metabolism, 151–152, 153–154, 155, 157, 158, 164, 172

methods used to set AIs, 153, 165–167

methods used to set EARs, 153, 165

microbial synthesis, 152

and neural tube defects, 244, 256

and neurological/neuropsychiatric

disorders, 12, 153–154, 160

NOAEL/LOAELs, 184–186

older adults (51+ years), 9, 160, 174– 176, 181, 182, 184–186, 460–463

oral contraceptives and, 158, 162–164

physical activity and, 64, 162

plasma concentrations, 154–156, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 170, 175

preeclampsia and, 164

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

pregnancy and, 156, 158, 164, 176–178, 183, 186–187

protein intake and, 28, 161–162, 163, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175

race/ethnicity and, 158–159, 174

RDAs, 150, 169, 171, 174, 176, 178, 179, 566–567

research recommendations, 16, 188

risk characterization, 187

and sensory neuropathy, 182–183, 184– 185, 187

special considerations, 167, 176, 187

supplement use, 2, 38–39, 160, 182, 187, 462–463, 492–493

teratogenicity, 183, 186

and tryptophan catabolism, 154, 157– 158, 162, 163–164, 166, 170, 172, 173, 175, 177

ULs, 13, 22, 150, 182–187

unit conversions, 451–452

and vascular disease, 12, 154, 159–160, 262–263

Vitamin B12, 306–356

absorption and utilization, 33, 306, 307–309, 313, 317, 318, 320, 322, 328, 330, 331, 333, 334, 339, 429

adolescents, 56, 326–327, 339–342

adults (19–50 years), 2, 9, 306, 327–338, 339–342, 343, 344–345, 347

adverse effects, 346

aging and, 318–320

AIs, 322–326

animal studies, 274, 310, 346

and atrophic gastritis, 317, 318, 320, 331, 334, 338, 342, 527

bioavailability, 309, 328, 338, 342, 343

body stores, 308, 309–310, 313, 315– 316, 318, 324, 327, 331, 334, 340, 527–530

and cancer, 264, 317, 346

chemistry, 306, 307

children, 56, 326–327

deficiency, 13, 16, 210–211, 267, 307, 310, 311–312, 313, 316–317, 330

depletion, 324

dose-response assessment for UL, 347

drug interactions, 313, 342

EARs, 9, 326, 327–337, 338–342, 427

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

enterohepatic circulation, 309–310

excretion, 310, 320–321, 331

exposure assessment, 347

factors affecting requirements, 318, 320–322

fetal, 339–340

folate and, 199, 202, 210–211, 273–274, 277–279, 280, 281, 307, 311, 314, 321

food-bound, 320

food composition data, 459

food interactions with, 322

food sources, 306, 309, 342–343, 344– 345, 435

and formiminoglutamic acid, 314

function, 11, 27, 158, 306, 307, 311

gastrointestinal effects, 312

gender differences, 14, 321, 343, 345, 346, 347

genetic considerations, 322, 347

hazard identification, 346–347

hematological status/response, 306, 311, 312–313, 327–329

and holotranscobalamin II, 314

and homocysteine levels, 158, 159, 306, 314, 316, 336

indicators of adequacy, 11, 23, 312– 316 , 327–331, 335–337

infants, 56, 322–326, 339–340

intakes, 38–39, 306, 313, 330–331, 334– 335, 337, 342–346, 347, 429, 431, 460–461, 464–465, 476–477, 498–501, 505

interaction with other nutrients, 88, 158, 199, 210–211, 273–274, 307, 321, 391, 413

intrinsic factor and, 306, 307–308, 310, 315, 317, 318, 330, 333, 339

laboratory values, 457, 459

lactation and, 322–325, 341–342

life-stage group and, 38–39, 322–342, 427, 476–477, 498–501, 505, 516–517

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

malabsorption disorders, 16, 308, 310, 318, 320, 331, 334, 342

and mental function, 267, 311, 313

metabolism, 250–255, 320–321

methodological issues, 313, 315–316, 456–459

methods used to set AIs, 322–325

methods used to set EARs, 326, 327– 331, 335–337

and methylcitrate, 314

and methylmalonic acid

concentrations, 313–314, 316, 318, 323–324, 326, 335–337

and neural tube defects, 246

neurological/neuropsychiatric effects, 12, 273–274, 277–279, 280, 308, 311– 312, 313, 316, 328, 329, 347

older adults (51+), 9, 16, 18, 306, 313, 314, 317, 318, 320, 332–333, 336– 337, 338–339, 343, 344, 346, 429, 460–461, 464–465

and pernicious anemia, 308, 310, 311, 312, 316, 317–318, 319, 323–324, 327, 328, 329–330, 331, 332–333, 342, 346, 527

plasma concentrations, 313, 324, 325, 341

pregnancy and, 33, 321, 339–341

and propionate, 314

race/ethnicity and, 317, 323

RDAs, 306, 326–327, 337–338, 339, 340– 341, 342, 566–567

research recommendations, 2, 16, 348

risk characterization, 347

safety factor, 10

serum levels, 306, 313, 316, 321, 327– 329, 333, 335–337, 347, 516–517

smoking and, 320–321

special considerations, 325–326, 342, 347

supplement use, 2, 18, 38–39, 337, 346, 347, 464–465, 500–501

ULs, 13, 56, 306, 346–347

unit conversions, 451

and vascular disease, 12

vegans/vegetarians, 310, 317, 323, 324, 325–326, 327–328, 330, 331, 337, 340, 341, 343, 527

Vitamin C, 256, 321, 358, 361–362, 370

Vitamin D, 256, 358, 361–362

W

Weight. See Body weight;

Reference weights

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, 58

Whites

pernicious anemia, 317

riboflavin, 106

Women. See also Gender differences;

Lactation;

Pregnancy

biotin, 384

choline, 390, 399–400

energy metabolism, 133

folate, 14, 23, 201, 224, 229, 260, 270– 271, 272

indicators used to set EARs, 98–102, 171–174

niacin, 123, 133, 135, 138, 139, 144

obese, 174

pantothenic acid, 362, 365

postmenopausal, 400

riboflavin, 87, 96–97, 98–100, 107, 108, 109–110, 113, 114

thiamin, 72–73, 75, 79, 80, 82

vitamin B6, 150, 152, 153, 155, 171–174, 180–181

vitamin B12, 306, 343, 344, 345

weight-reducing/exercise training, 96– 97, 108

World Health Organization, 41

X

Xanthurenic acid, 157–158, 172, 175

Z

Zinc, 277, 524

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE-NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS

Life Stage Group

Calcium (mg/d)

Phosphorus (mg/d)

Magnesium (mg/d)

Vitamin D (µg/d)a,b

Fluoride (mg/d)

Thiamin (mg/d)

Infants

0–6 mo

210*

100*

30*

5*

0.01*

0.2*

7–12 mo

270*

275*

75*

5*

0.5*

0.3*

Children

1–3 y

500*

460

80

5*

0.7*

0.5

4–8 y

800*

500

130

5*

1*

0.6

Males

9–13 y

1,300*

1,250

240

5*

2*

0.9

14–18 y

1,300*

1,250

410

5*

3*

1.2

19–30 y

1,000*

700

400

5*

4*

1.2

31–50 y

1,000*

700

420

5*

4*

1.2

51–70 y

1,200*

700

420

10*

4*

1.2

> 70y

1,200*

700

420

15*

4*

1.2

Females

9–13 y

1,300*

1,250

240

5*

2*

0.9

14–18 y

1,300*

1,250

360

5*

3*

1.0

19–30 y

1,000*

700

310

5*

3*

1.1

31–50 y

1,000*

700

320

5*

3*

1.1

51–70 y

1,200*

700

320

10*

3*

1.1

> 70y

1,200*

700

320

15*

3*

1.1

Pregnancy

≤ 18y

1,300*

1,250

400

5*

3*

1.4

19–30 y

1,000*

700

350

5*

3*

1.4

31–50 y

1,000*

700

360

5*

3*

1.4

Lactation

≤ 18y

1,300*

1,250

360

5*

3*

1.4

19–30 y

1,000*

700

310

5*

3*

1.4

31–50 y

1,000*

700

320

5*

3*

1.4

NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

a As cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

b In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.

c As niacin equivalents (NE), 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

d As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Riboflavin (mg/d)

Niacin (mg/d)c

Vitamin B6 (mg/d)

Folate (µg/d)d

Vitamin B12 (µg/d)

Pantothenic Acid (mg/d)

Biotin (µg/d)

Cholinee (mg/d)

0.3*

2*

0.1*

65*

0.4*

1.7*

5*

125*

0.4*

4*

0.3*

80*

0.5*

1.8*

6*

150*

0.5

6

0.5

150

0.9

2*

8*

200*

0.6

8

0.6

200

1.2

3*

12*

250*

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

25*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4f

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4f

5*

30*

550*

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.0

14

1.2

400g

2.4

5*

25*

400*

1.1

14

1.3

400g

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.3

400g

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4f

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4f

5*

30*

425*

1.4

18

1.9

600h

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600h

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600h

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

e Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

f Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

g In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

h It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 541
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 542
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 543
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 544
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 545
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 546
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 547
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 548
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 549
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 550
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 551
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 552
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 553
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 554
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 555
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 556
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 557
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 558
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 559
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 560
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 561
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 562
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 563
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 564
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 565
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 566
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page 567
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline Get This Book
×

Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach--the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.

This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

This volume of the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.

Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group--from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.

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