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« Previous: Appendix B Listing of Reports by the Committee on Atmospheric Sciences and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Since 1958
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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INDEX

A

Access to electronic data, move to limit, 5, 50-51

ACE-1 Science and Implementation Plan, 164

ACRIM. See Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor

Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM), 257-258

Adaptive observation strategies, 171, 188-190

Advection, 192-193

Aerometric Information Retrieval System, 127

Aerosol climatology, designing and deploying networks to document, 164

Aerosol physics, 63

Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 162

Aerosols. See also Atmospheric aerosols and atmospheric chemistry, 40

chemical and physical properties of, 129-131

direct radiative forcing of climate by, 73-74

and environmental quality, 23

and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7, 86-87

predicting size distributions of, 75-76

Agencies. See Federal government and agencies

Agricultural planning, value of predictions to, 26

Aircraft. See also Commercial aircraft

atmospheric effects of, 203, 220-222, 224-225

remote piloted, 36, 153, 223

Air quality

forecasting of, 3, 42-43, 138

improving predictive numerical models for, 2, 7, 134

Air quality monitoring, 2, 134, 150-151

American Meteorological Society (AMS), 177

AMIP. See Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

AMS. See American Meteorological Society

Anthropogenic influences, 246-247, 289-296

ability to predict, 255, 324

affecting lower atmosphere, 8, 22-24, 106

affecting stratospheric processes, 211-212

driving global chemical change, 117

separating from solar, 259-263

Appleton, Sir Edward, 210

Appleton anomalies, 236

ARM. See Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program

Army Signal Corps, 21

Artificial intelligence (AI), 98

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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ASOS. See Automated Surface Observation System

Atmospheric aerosols, 7, 129-131, 162-166

designing and deploying networks to document aerosol climatology, 164

designing and implementing intensive field programs for, 164-165

designing and implementing new suites of measurement technologies for tropospheric aerosols, 163-164

developing predictive model capability for, 165-166

and global warming, 292, 293

maintaining and expanding stratospheric aerosol measurement capability, 162-163

Atmospheric boundary layer, 63, 172-173

resolving interactions at, 37-41

and studies, 88

Atmospheric chemistry

Environmentally Important Atmospheric (chemical) Species, 108, 140-168

infrastructure, 135-139

mission, 112-114

recent insights, 114-121

recommended research strategies for, 121-132

summary, 7

Atmospheric components, interactions with other Earth system components, 3, 184-185

Atmospheric dynamics, 169-198

recommended research, 7-8, 173-175

small-scale, 6, 63

Atmospheric electricity, 6-7, 63, 67

and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7, 65

investigating global electrical circuit and lightning as measures of stability and temperature, 78

mechanisms of charge separation in clouds, 78

nature and sources of middle-atmosphere discharges, 78, 249

production of NOx by lightning, 79

recommended research strategies for, 67, 77-79

Atmospheric emissions, rapidly increasing, 4, 45

Atmospheric forecasting. See Weather forecasting

Atmospheric information

developing a strategy for providing, 46-50

preserving free and open exchange of, 5, 50-51

prospects for, 48-49

Atmospheric information services

distributed, 49-50

funding for, 56-58

optimizing, 50

Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP), 291, 315

Atmospheric observations. See Observations

Atmospheric physics

atmospheric electricity, 77-79, 93-95

atmospheric radiation, 71-74

atmospheric water, clouds, 73, 74-77, 87, 92, 102-103

boundary layer meteorology, 79-80, 87-89

cloud physics, 74-77

instrumentation, 103-106

mission, 68

models, improvement and testing, 84-85

small scale influences on large scale phenomenon, 99-102

Atmospheric potential vorticity, 172

Atmospheric prediction. See Weather forecasting

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, 98

Atmospheric sciences, 1-2, 14-16, 101

contributions to the national well-being, 17-27, 65, 106, 111, 202, 271, 324

cost effectiveness of, 169-170

entering the twenty-first century, 15-16

history of, 14, 114-116

imperatives, 2-3, 28-37

key role of, 14

oceanography a close partner of, 15

role in environmental issues, 23-24

Auroral emission, 231

Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS), 21

Automated Weather Interactive Processing System (AWlPS), 21

B

Baroclinicity, effect on boundary layer, 80

BASC. See Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Benefits and costs of atmospheric information services, 5, 47, 51-58

Benefits of atmospheric research, 17-27, 47

enhancing national economic vitality, 24-26

maintaining environmental quality, 22-24

protection of life and property, 17-22

strengthening fundamental understanding, 26-27

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC), 1, 4, 6, 54, 59

disciplinary assessments of, 6-9, 28-29

imperatives of, 2-3, 28-37

leadership and management planning, 6

listing of reports of, 346-348

recommendations of, 3-5, 37-45

Boundary layer meteorology, 6, 65, 100

effects of inhomogeneity and baroclinicity on boundary layer, 80

exploiting new remote sensors, 88-89

interactions of planetary boundary layer, surface characteristics, and clouds, 81

and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7

measurements of exchange of water, heat, and trace atmospheric constituents, 80-81

recommended research strategies for, 67, 79-81

structure of cloudy boundary layers, 79-80

turbulence and entrainment, 80

C

CAAA-90. See Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

CAPE. See Convective available potential energy

CAPS. See Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms

Carbon dioxide, 22, 106

CASH. See Commercial Aviation Sensing Humidity (CASH) program

CASR. See Committee on Atmospheric Services and Research

Catastrophic events, 174, 297

potential for, 107

Cavendish, Henry, 114

CCN. See Cloud condensation nuclei

CDNC. See Cloud droplet number concentrations

CEDAR. See Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions

CEES. See Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences

CENR. See Committee on Environment and Natural Resources

Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms (CAPS), 180

CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons

Chaos theory, 41, 98

outgrowth of meteorology, 27

Charge generation, mechanisms of, 94-96

Charge separation in clouds, mechanisms of, 78

Chemical climatology, documenting, 109

Chemical constituents

developing new capabilities for observing, 2

disciplined forecasting for, 3

Chemical instrumentation, continue development and validation of, 159-160

Chemical meteorology system, developing, 138

Chemistry. See Atmospheric chemistry

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases, 26, 123, 206, 222

and environmental quality, 22, 117- 119, 210-211

longevity of, 255

substitutes for, 216-217

Circulation systems, quasi-balanced and unbalanced, 172-173

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90), 126, 134-135, 216

Climate, 272-324

climate monitoring, 2, 281, 307

climate sensitive enterprises, 25

climate weather and health, 44

climatic prediction, increase of skill in, 311-314

deterioration of current observational capability, 302-306

enhancing observational capability, 307-309

historical and paleoclimatic data, use of, 309-310

improvements in climate prediction, 314-316

key drivers for research, 297-302

mission statement, 278

priorities for climate research, 318-322

results of research in recent decades, 279-296

anthropogenic effects, 289-290

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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decade-to-century variability (DEC-CEN), 283-288, 313-314

joint effects of greenhouse gas forcing and aerosols, 292-295

seasonal-to-interannual, 277, 279-283

Climate Variability and Prediction Program (CLIVAR), 308, 313, 321

Clinton administration, 52

CLIVAR. See Climate Variability and Prediction Program

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), 66

populations of, 76-77, 87

Cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNCs), 74

Cloud physics, 6, 63, 100

coverage and radiative properties of clouds, 74

ice formation in the atmosphere, 75

improving understanding of precipitation formation, 75, 92-93

parameterizing subgrid-scale influences of clouds and microphysical processes on cloud models, 76-77

predicting size distributions of hydrometeors and aerosols affecting radiative transfer, 75-76

recommended research strategies for, 65-66, 74-77

Clouds

charge generation in, 94-96

consequences of, 39-40

effect on radiation streams, 39

feedback from, 290

improved understanding of their roles in climate, 73

and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7, 85-86

modeling, 92

noctilucent, 245, 247

resolving, 77, 102

stratocumulus and cirrus, 85-86

Cloudy atmospheres, radiative transfer in, 72

Cloudy boundary layers, structure of, 79-80

CMEs. See Coronal mass ejections

Coal burning. 22-23

COARE. See Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment

Collaboration

needed among agencies, 274

needed among disciplines, 4, 46

COMET. See Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education, and Training

Commercial aircraft, observations from, 30-31, 193

Commercial Aviation Sensing Humidity (CASH) program, 34

Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry, 77

Committee on Atmospheric Services and Research (CASR), listing of reports of, 346-348

Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), 52, 58

Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR), 54-55

Subcommittee on Air Quality Research, 58

Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP), 199, 204

Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR), 199, 204

Communication systems, space weather effects on, 8, 228, 231-241

Computer models, 14

Computers. See also Massively parallel processors (MPPs)

for atmospheric analysis, 14, 197

increasingly more powerful, 1, 13, 98-99

Computer-to-computer communication, 5, 47

Computer visualization, 98

Computer workstations, 197

Concentration monitoring networks, maintaining current, 150-151

Condensed-phase chemistry, facilities needed for studying. 7, 139

Confidence

in climate change predictions, 23

in forecasts, 1-2, 13

Convection, moist, 82, 88

Convective available potential energy (CAPE), 94

Convective downdrafts, 172

Convective ensemble simulations, 91

Convective heating, 40

Convective momentum transfer, 91

Convective storms, 237

Convective systems, mesoscale, 172

Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET), 180

Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Long Range Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP), 167-168

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Coordination, needed within atmospheric sciences, 46

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), 37, 229, 231-233, 238, 242

Cosmic rays, 208

Costs. See Benefits and costs of atmospheric information services

Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), 91

Coupled systems, seeing components of Earth's environment as, 3

Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR), 243

Coupling between chemistry, dynamics, and radiation, 145-147

Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability criterion, 193

Coverage and radiative properties of clouds, 74

CRAY supercomputers, YMP model, 197

CSSP. See Committee on Solar and Space Physics

CSTR. See Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research

Cyclogenesis, 38

Cyclones, extratropical, 175-177. See also Tropical cyclones

D

Data

acquired for public purposes with public funds, 51

needed from over oceans, 8

Data assimilation techniques, 171, 188-190

Data denial experiments, 173, 194

Data from satellites and other remote sensors, innovative approaches to analyses of, 72-73

Dec-Cen. See Climate, decade-to-century variability (DEC-CEN)

Decision making, incorporating atmospheric information into, 5

Deposition fluxes, developing and evaluating techniques for measuring, 166-167

Differential absorption lidar (DIAL), 194

Digital communication, for aviation weather and flight planning capabilities, 48

Digital computers, for atmospheric analysis, 14

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), oceanic production of, 76

Disaster statistics, 21

Disciplinary assessments, 6-9

Disciplined forecast process, 3-4, 41-43

Disease vectors, affected by weather and climate, 15, 44

Distributed atmospheric information services, implications of, 49-50

DMS. See Dimethyl sulfide

Dobson unit (DU), 124

DOC. See U.S. Department of Commerce

DOD. See U.S. Department of Defense

DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy

DOl. See U.S. Department of the Interior

Doppler laser, combining with Global Positioning System (GPS), 89

Doppler weather radar, 36, 68, 178-179

network, 21

Dropsonde tracking, 193

DU. See Dobson unit

E

Earth Observing System (EOS), 32, 98, 202, 217, 224, 308

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), 257-258, 290

The Earth's Electrical Environment, 77

Ecosystem exposure monitoring networks, designing and implementing, 167-168

Ecosystem exposure systems, 7, 110

Ecosystems, 15

Eddy correlation method, 153

Electricity. See also Atmospheric electricity

and Benjamin Franklin, 14

Electronic data, move to limit access to, 5, 50-51

El Niño events, 42, 278

changes in weather patterns associated with, 18, 183

value of predictions to agricultural planning, 26

El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, 38-39, 85, 180, 273, 277, 279-283, 296-301, 311-313, 317

EMEP. See Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Long Range Air Pollutants in Europe

Emissions to the atmosphere, rapidly increasing, 4, 45

Energy budget for Earth, 35

Ensemble forecasting, 171, 183, 187-188

ENSO. See El Niño/Southern Oscillation cycle

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Entrainment, 80, 100

Environmental health, 2

Environmentally Important Atmospheric (chemical) Species, 7, 108-109, 112-114, 122, 132-135

atmospheric aerosols, 7, 129-131, 162-166

developing holistic and integrated understanding of, 7

greenhouse gases, 7, 123-126, 147-157, 300

nutrients, 7, 132, 166-168

photochemical oxidants, 7, 126-129, 157-161

stratospheric ozone, 7, 122-123, 140-147

toxics, 7, 132, 166-168

Environmental management systems, 7. 111

assessing efficacy of, 7, 109, 134-135

Environmental quality

aerosols, 23

chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases, 22, 117-119, 210-211

and global change, 22-23

greenhouse gases, 22-23

long-term consequences of chemical emissions, 117-119

maintaining. 22-24

ozone, 22

Environmental shear, 91

EOS. See Earth Observing System

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

ERBE. See Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

ERS-1. See European Remote Sensing Satellite

European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, 184

European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1). 36, 196

EUV. See Extreme ultraviolet

Expendable bathythermographs (XBTs), 281

Experimental forecasts, initiating, 3

Expert systems, 32, 35

Exposure assessment networks, deploying. 137

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, 206, 263-264

F

FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration

Fatalities, 18-21, 65

FCCSET. See Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology

Federal government and agencies

access to atmospheric information, 50-51

development of new observational capabilities, 33-34

discipline of forecasting, role in, 41-43

emerging issues, 43

funding, see Federal funding of atmospheric research and operations

historical roles, 21

interactions at boundaries, 37-38

planning and management, 58-59

protection of life and property, 17-18

role in observations, 29-30

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 24, 34

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 52, 58

Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, 4, 46

Federal Council for Science and Technology, 52

Federal funding of atmospheric research and operations, 52-58

by agency, 56

by categories, 55

historical, 53, 57

for information services, 56

for operations, 57

Field programs, designing and implementing intensive, 164-165

Field studies, carrying out process-oriented, for algorithm development and evaluation, 168

"Fire weather," forecasting, 173, 186-187

Fiscal Year (FY) expenditures, 56

Flash floods, forecasting, 184-185

Flight planning capabilities, by digital communication, 48

Flows, surface-induced, 83

Flux measurements

conducting multiyear, over different ecosystems, 151-152

from oceans, improving methods for, 153

Forecasting. See Climate forecasting; Weather forecasting

Fossil fuels, consumption of, 23

Franklin, Benjamin, 14

Frontal cyclones, mesoscale, 173

Fundamental condensed phase processes, 111

Fundamental understanding of the atmosphere, 26-27

Fuzzy logic, 32

FY. See Fiscal Year

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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G

Gas exchange, conducting large-scale studies of, 152

GCM. See General circulation models

GCOSs. See Global climate observing systems

GDP. See Gross Domestic Product

GEM. See Geospace Environment Modeling

General circulation models. atmospheric (GCMs), 66-67, 77, 260, 292, 315

construction and evaluation of, 321

Earth-ocean coupling of, 299, 311

parameterizing, 84-85

progress in, 300-301

Geomagnetic storms, 231-232

Geophysical fluid flow, fundamental problem of, 40-41

Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM), 243

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), 181

GEWEX. See Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

GISS. See Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Global changes

affecting lower atmosphere, 8

affecting middle and upper atmosphere, 203

and environmental quality, 22-23

Global climate observing systems (GCOSs), 274, 306, 308

Global electrical circuit, as measure of stability and temperature, 78, 93-94

Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), 45, 308, 321

Global observing system, 110

Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS), 275, 308, 312, 320-321

Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), 267-268

Global Positioning System (GPS), 194-195

accuracy of, 235

observations from, 31

radio occultation technique with, 37

Global rawinsonde network, halting deterioration in, 8, 173-174

Global stratospheric sulfate layer, 162

Global telecommunication system (GTS), 281

Global transport system, 14

GOALS. See Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System

Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), 288

GOES. See Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GONG. See Global Oscillation Network Group

GPS. See Global positioning system Gravity waves, 90

Great Salinity Anomaly, 283

Greenhouse forcing of climate, 294

Greenhouse gases, 7, 22-23, 116, 123-126, 147-157, 289

conducting large-scale studies of gas exchange, 152

conducting multiyear flux measurements over different ecosystems, 151-152

conducting surface-based measurements near source regions, 152

devising new systems to make accurate concentration measurements, 153-154

expanding monitoring networks to include vertical profile measurements, 151

improving and developing models, 154

improving methods of measuring fluxes from oceans, 153

maintaining current concentration monitoring networks, 150-151

primary, 150

water vapor, 156-157

Gross domestic product (GDP), contributions made by weather and climate information, 24-25

GTS. See Global telecommunication system

H

Halogen Occultation Experiment, 157

Heaviside, Oliver, 210

Helioseismology, 267-268

Heterogeneous chemistry, 111, 224

facilities needed for studying, 7, 139

HF. See High frequency

High frequency (HF) events, 184, 234

Holistic research strategy, need to develop, 135

Human health

affected by weather and climate, 15

research recommended in, 44

space weather effects on, 8

Hurricane Andrew, 17-18, 21

Hurricane forecasting, 178-180

delineating optimal measurement system combinations for, 8

greatest opportunity to save lives and property, 178

Hurricane statistics, 19

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Hydrological cycle

improving understanding of, 171

and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7

Hydrometeors, predicting size distributions of, 75-76

I

ICAS. See Interdepartmental Committee for Atmospheric Sciences

Ice formation in the atmosphere, 75, 87

Ice nucleus (IN) population, 76

IGAC. See International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project

IMF. See Interplanetary magnetic field

Immune system, affected by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 15

Incoherent scatter (IS), 251

Incorporating atmospheric information into decision making, weather-dependent enterprises, 5

Infectious diseases, affected by weather and climate, 15, 44

Inferential observation-based studies, 161

Information. See Atmospheric information

Infrastructure

initiatives needed. 135-139, 200

modeling, 13

needed to advance research in atmospheric chemistry, 7, 110-111

observational, 13

Inhomogeneity, effect on boundary layer, 80

Institutional arrangements for climate research, 323

Instrument development programs, 7, 111, 139

Integrated assessments, support, 161

Integrated field campaigns, continue implementation of, 160-161

Integrating observing systems

to assimilate new forms of data, 32

with increased computing power, 31

with modeling efforts, 31

through international collaboration, 32

using information organizing systems, 32

using multiple data bases, 32

Intelligent systems, 98

Interactions

among atmospheric phenomena of different scales, 3, 89-92

among atmospheric phenomena of different sorts, 7

between atmosphere and other Earth system components, 3

complexity of, 63-64

land-atmosphere, 184-185

long-term, 38-39

modeling studies of, 3, 252, 254

nonlinear, 41

observational studies of, 3

of planetary boundary layer, surface characteristics, and clouds, 81

resolving, 37-41

surface, 38

theoretical studies of, 3

water substance, 65

Interdepartmental Committee for Atmospheric Sciences (ICAS), 52-53

Interdisciplinary studies needed, 4, 43-45

in climate, weather, and health, 4

in management of water resources in changing climate, 4

in rapidly increasing emissions to the atmosphere, 4

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 23, 292

International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, 87

International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, 42

International Solar-Terrestrial Program, 243

Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), 37, 204

Interplanetary space, 204-205

Intrastratospheric transport, 146

Ionosphere, 8, 206, 210, 233, 234, 240, 251-254

IPCC. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

K

Kennelly, Arthur E., 210

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), 269

L

Lagrangian experiments, 165, 192-193

Land-atmosphere interaction, 184-185

Large eddy simulation (LES) models, 80

Large-scale models

effects of moist convection in, 82

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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incorporation of surface-induced flows into, 83

Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) instrument, 196

Laser systems, for atmospheric analysis, 14

Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent, 114

LAWS. See Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder

Leadership and management, 4-5, 46-59

LES. See Large eddy simulation

Lidar systems, 36, 88-89. See also Differential absorption lidar

Life and property

need for forecasts and warnings, 18-21

protection of, 17-22

Life sciences, 15

Lightning

and Benjamin Franklin, 14

global monitoring of, 78

as measure of stability and temperature, 78, 93-94

propagation of, 94-96

M

Magnetic fields, 37, 226

Magnetic storms, 209

Magnetosphere, 205

Magnetospheric storms, 231

Marconi, Guglielmo, 210

Massively parallel processors (MPPs), 190, 197

Maunder Minimum period, 265

Maximum usable frequency (MUF), 234

MCS. See Mesoscale convective system

Measurements. See also Concentration measurements, Flux measurements, Observing systems

central importance of, 198

conducting surface-based near source regions, 152

of exchange of water, heat, and trace atmospheric constituents, 80-81

improving capabilities for making, 6, 103-106

Measurement systems

satellite-based, 195

surface exchange, 7, 138

Measurement technologies

for critical gas- and condensed-phase species, 143-145

for tropospheric aerosols, designing and implementing new suites of. 163-164

Mechanisms of charge separation in clouds, 78

Medium frequency (MF), 251

Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), 82, 91, 181

Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST), 251

Microphysical processes influencing clouds, 182, 202, 224

parameterizing, 76-77

Microwave Limb Sounder, 157

Middle-atmosphere, 206, 208

nature and sources of discharges, 78, 94-96

Middle-upper atmosphere

global change in, 201, 209, 245-255, 254-255

monitoring inputs to, 251-252

monitoring sensitive parameters of, 251

Midlatitude cyclones, small-scale features in, 82-83

Mission to Planet Earth satellite program, 252

Model development, 186

Modeling fluxes, 78

Modeling infrastructure, 13

Models and modelling

in atmospheric chemistry

in aerosol research, 165, 166

in chemistry, dynamics and radiation coupling, 147

in integrated assessments, 161

long-term biogenic greenhouse gases, 154

and operational chemical forecasting, 138

overarching research challenge, 134

predicted ozone column change, 124

in toxic and nutrient investigation, 168

in atmospheric dynamics and weather forecasting

adaptive observations, 188

adjoint models, 176

in atmospheric convection studies, 180-187

ensemble forecasting, 187-188

massively parallel processors, used for, 190, 197

numerical techniques, 191-193

in orographic effects. 185-186

parameterization for, 190-191

for tropical cyclones, 178

in atmospheric physics

radiation transfer, 71-72, 84-85

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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rapidly increasing computational power, 98-99

representation in cyclones, 82-83

in climate and climate change research

construction and evaluation of comprehensive models, 275, 321

in coupled atmosphere-ocean research, 290, 301, 310-311

in decade-to-century variability, 284, 286-289

in ENSO prediction, 298

linkages between climate model prediction and human relevance, 316-317

data for improvement of, 30

fundamental aspects, 26

fundmg for, 55

in upper atmosphere and near-Earth space research

atmospheric effects of aircraft, 220-221, 224

interactive radiative-dynamic-chemistry models, 217

in middle and upper atmosphere research, 252, 254

in space weather forecasting, 243

stratospheric-tropospheric interactions, 222, 224, 225

Model vertical coordinates, 192

Moist convection, 88

effects in large-scale models, 82

Monitoring. See Climate monitoring

Monitoring networks. See Observing systems

''Montreal Protocol,'' 22, 216

Motion of tropical cyclones, physics of, 8

Mt. Pinatubo, 218-219, 286, 288

MPPs. See Massively parallel processors

MST. See Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere

MUF. See Maximum usable frequency

N

NAAQS. See National Ambient Air Quality Standard

NARSTO. See North American Research Strategy on Troposphere Ozone

NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 54, 98, 223, 241, 243, 308-309, 319

National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), 126, 131

National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 36, 97

National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 42, 188

National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN), 168

National economic vitality

benefits of weather and climate information, 24-26

enhancing, 24-26

National Lightning Detection Network, 94

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 21, 196, 241, 243, 287, 303, 309, 319

Aircraft Operations Center, 36

International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, 42

National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 42

Office of Global Programs, 34

National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), 319

National Research Council (NRC), 199, 204, 210

Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP), 199, 204

Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR), 199, 204

National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), 58

National Science Foundation (NSF), 223, 241, 243, 309

National Space Weather Program (NSWP), 241-243

National weather information system, rapid changes in, 4-5

National Weather Service (NWS), 21, 47-49

National well-being

contributions of the atmospheric sciences to, 17-27, 65, 106, 111, 202, 271, 324

enhancing national economic vitality, 24-26

maintaining environmental quality, 22-24

protection of life and property, 17-22

strengthening fundamental understanding, 26-27

Nature and sources of middle-atmosphere discharges, 78

NCAR. See National Center for Atmospheric Research

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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NCEP. See National Centers for Environmental Prediction

NCLAN. See National Crop Loss Assessment Network

NDSC. See Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change

Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), 155-157

Newton, Sir Isaac, 14

Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), 48, 175, 181

NIMBUS-7 experimental environmental research satellite, 217, 257-258

NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Noctilucent clouds. 245, 247

Nonlinearity, fundamental problem of, 40-41, 119-121, 184

Nonspherical particles, radiation transfer through a medium containing, 72

North American Atmospheric Observing System, 32

North American Research Strategy on Troposphere Ozone (NARSTO), 159

North American Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone program, 58

"Nowcasting," 201

NOx, 120, 143-145

production by lightning, 79, 96-97

NPOESS. See National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

NRC. See National Research Council

NSF. See National Science Foundation

NSTC. See National Science and Technology Council

NSWP. See National Space Weather Program

Numerical computer models of the atmosphere, 3-4

Numerical techniques, 191-193

for advection, 192-193

model vertical coordinates, 192

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, 181, 190

Nutrients, 7, 132, 149, 166-168

carrying out process-oriented field studies for algorithm development and evaluation, 168

designing and implementing ecosystem exposure monitoring networks, 167-168

developing and evaluating techniques for measuring deposition fluxes, 166-167

NWP. See Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models

NWS. See National Weather Service

O

Observational technologies, improving understanding of interactions among atmosphere, ocean, land, 13, 101

Observations

adaptive strategies for making, 31

from commercial aircraft, 30-31, 193

deterioration of, 173, 302-306

from the Global Positioning System (GPS), 31

in near-Earth space, 37

new opportunities for, 30-31, 100-101

preserving free and open exchange of, 1, 47, 50-51, 302-306

in the stratosphere, 36

of water in the atmosphere, 34-35

of wind, 35-36

Observing systems

for atmospheric chemistry research, 110-111, 136-138, 150-154, 155-156, 160-161, 162-165, 167-168

for atmospheric physics research, 88, 97, 103-105

for climate and climate change research, 274, 281, 301-306, 308-309, 318-320

for dynamics and weather forecasting research, 193-197

for upper atmosphere and near-Earth research, 216-218, 244, 258

Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs), 2, 33, 173, 177

Oceanography, close partner of atmospheric sciences, 15

Oceans

critical boundary for atmosphere, 15

data needed from over, 8, 36

fluxes over, 38-39

long-term interactions with, 38-39

Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM), 56, 58. See also Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Operational community, interacting with research community, 2

Operational models, 102

Orographic influences on weather, 172, 185-186

Oscillation effects, quasi-biennial, 220

OSSE. See Observing system simulation experiment

Overarching Research Challenges, atmospheric chemistry, 129-131

Ozone destruction, 8, 246

Ozone layer. See stratospheric ozone

Ozone, tropospheric. See tropospheric photochemical oxidants

Ozonsonde program, 155

P

Paleoclimatic records, 299, 309-310

Parameterization, 69-70, 101

Pattern recognition, 98

PCBs. See Polychlorinated biphenyls

Phenomena. See Atmospheric phenomena

Photochemical oxidants. See tropospheric photochemical oxidants. See also Smog

Photoionization, 240

Physical processes. See also Atmospheric physical processes

interactions between radiation and, 74

occurring on subgrid scales in climate models, 84

parameterizing, 190-191

Physics. See Atmospheric physics,

Phytotoxics, 149

Planetary boundary layer, surface characteristics of, 81

A Plan for a Research Program on Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 87

Polarimetric radar, 181-182

Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), 118

Polychlonnated biphenyls (PCBs), 166

Power grid operation, space weather effects on, 8, 227

Pre-chlorofluorocarbon era, 141-142

Precipitation, radars for measuring. 14

Precipitation formation, 70, 100

improved understanding of, 75

Predictability, 186

Prediction. See Weather forecasting

Predictive models

developing capability, 165-166

improving numerical, 2

need to develop, 7, 134

Priestley, Joseph, 114

Primary greenhouse gases, 150

Private meteorological sector

in fashioning the agenda, 59

in leadership and management, 46

in preparing predictions, 24

in providing weather services, 47-49

Process study observation, 102

Production of NOx by lightning, 79

PSC. See Polar stratospheric cloud

Publicly-funded data acquisition, preserving open access to, 5, 50-51

Q

QBO. See Quasi-biennial oscillation

Quantification and characterization of critical gas-phase and heterogeneous mechanisms, 147

Quantitative descriptions, developing, 102-103

Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), 220, 250

Quasi-geostrophic theory, 83

R

Radars

early data networks, 21

measuring precipitation for atmospheric analysis, 14

measuring wind for atmospheric analysis, 14

Radiation. See Atmospheric physics

Radiation transfer models, 71-72

using observational data, 84-85

Radiation transfer through a medium containing nonspherical particles, 72

Radiative forcing of climate

instantaneous, 294

by trace gases and aerosols, 73-74, 293

Radiative transfer, 70

in cloudy atmospheres, 72

Radioacoustic sounding system (RASS), 195

Radio occultation technique with GPS, 37

Radiosonde networks, 34, 36

deterioration of, 303

early, 21

worldwide, 32

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Radiosonde observational networks, early, 21

Rainfall events, variability in location of, 35

RASS. See Radioacoustic sounding system

Rawinsonde tracking, 193

Recommendations of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC), 3-5, 37-45

Remote sensing capabilities

exploiting, 88-89

improving, 1, 163

satellites for atmospheric analysis, 14

Rossby waves, 26, 220

S

SAGE. See Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

SAR. See Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research

Satellites and atmospheric chemistry research

global chemistry measurement of greenhouse gases on a range of scales, 153

recommendation for optimal combinations of remote sensing and in situ observations, 173

satellite inferences of storm-associated rain rates, 179

satellite measurement of stratospheric aerosol, 162

small satellites useful to study chemistry at high altitudes, 147

Satellites and atmospheric physics research

GCM parameterization compared with data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, 85

inferring hydrometeor and cloud characteristics from satellite observations, 101

innovative approaches to the analysis of data from, 72

process study parameterizations generalized and extrapolated by satellite data, 102

satellites for characterizing precipitation over the oceans, 103

Satellites in atmospheric dynamics and weather forecasting research

GPS receiver and satellite transmissions for water vapor measurement, 194-195

satellite measurement of wind using Doppler lidar, sea surface scatterometers, 195-197

Satellites in climate and climate change research

intersatellite measurement bias, 303-305

stratospheric temperatures from satellite measurement, 287, 288

Satellites in upper-atmosphere and near-Earth space research

satellite measurement of solar irradiance, 257-259

satellites showing space environment effects, 235

UARS measurements of chemistry of the stratosphere, 213

weather satellite damage from space weather disturbances, 227, 228

Scales of flow, resolving interactions among different, 37-41

Schumann resonances, 78

Scientific strategy

initiatives supporting, 65

key components of, 64-65

SEASAT (sea satellite) oceanographic satellite, 196

Seasonal climate forecasting, 8, 183-184

Sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs), 282

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs), 298, 312

Semigeostrophic theory, 83

Semi-Lagrangian approach, 192-193

Signal processing, 98

Skin cancer, affected by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 15

"Skycam" operations, 195

Small-scale dynamics, 6

effects of moist convection in large-scale models, 82

incorporation of surface-induced flows into large-scale models, 83

interactions with larger-scale processes. 89-92, 99-102

recommended research strategies, 67, 81-83

representation of small-scale features in midlatitude cyclones, 82-83

Small-scale features, dynamical representation of in midlatitude cyclones, 82-83

SMM. See Solar Maximum Mission

Smog, 22, 116, 120-121

Society, greater confidence in forecasts, 1, 13

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), 267-268

Solar effects, 219-220

separating from anthropogenic, 259-263

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Solar energetic particles (SEPs), 229, 231

Solar energy output, over a solar cycle, 257-259, 267-268

Solar influences, 210, 256-271

Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft, 257

Solar phenomena

interactions with near-Earth space, 26

long-term changes in, 268

near-Sun wind, 37

streams from flares, 14

Solar-terrestrial system, need for models of, 9

Solar variability, 8

effects on global climate system, 8

and global change, 203-204

Space climate, 228-229

Space physics activities, near-Earth, improving predictive numerical models for, 2

Space weather, 209, 225-245

disturbances, 228

forecasting, 3, 6, 9, 43, 200-201

ionospheric, 240

magnetospheric, 239

research needed in, 8, 203

Space weather system, 229-234

Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 35, 178

SST. See Sea surface temperature

SSTAs. See Sea surface temperature anomalies

STE. See Stratosphere-troposphere exchange

Stratosphere

observations in the, 36, 224

recommended research strategies for, 202-204

roles played in climate system, 200-201, 203, 222-223

Stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE), 221-222

better characterization of, 225

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), 155-156

Stratospheric aerosols, 224

maintaining and expanding measurement capability, 162-163

Stratospheric aircraft, 8

Stratospheric modeling, 224

Stratospheric ozone, 7, 122-123, 140-147, 202, 213-218, 223-224

coupling between chemistry, dynamics, and radiation, 145-147

and environmental quality, 22

measuring critical gas- and condensed-phase species, 143-145

monitoring distribution of, 142-143

quantification and characterization of critical gas-phase and heterogeneous mechanisms, 147

Stratospheric processes, 8, 208-209, 211-225

Stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, 146

Studies needed. See Interdisciplinary studies needed

Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research (SAR), 52-53, 58

Subgrid-scale influences of clouds, parameterizing, 76-77

Subgrid scale (SGS), 84

Sulfate concentrations in atmosphere, 106

Sulfate layer, global stratospheric, 162

Sun, 204-205, 229-234

evaluating state of, 265

Sun-Earth connections, 226

Sunspot records, 261

Sun's Radiative Inputs from Sun to Earth (SUNRISE) program, 243

Surface effects, quantifying and parameterizing, 87-88

Surface exchange measurement systems, 7, 110, 138

Surface-induced flows, incorporation into large-scale models, 83

Surface UV network, 216

monitoring, 224

T

TAO. See Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array

Teamwork, importance of, 6, 323

Technology transfer programs, 7, 111, 139

Terrain scale, 185-186

Time lagging, 187

TOGA. See Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program

TOGA-TAO array. See Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmospheric Ocean array

Topography, continuous scales of, 185-186

Tornado dynamics, 181

Tornado statistics, 19

Toxics, 7, 132, 166-168

carrying out process-oriented field studies for algorithm development and evaluation, 168

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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designing and implementing ecosystem exposure monitoring networks, 167-168

developing and evaluating techniques for measuring deposition fluxes, 166-167

Trace chemical species, 86-87, 115. See also Environmentally Important Atmospheric (chemical) species

Trace gases, direct radiative forcing of climate by, 73-74

Transport, 70

global, 14

intrastratospheric, 146

turbulent, 100

vertical, 33, 39

Triggering, 186

TRMM. See Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission

Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array, 38, 274, 281, 305

Tropical cyclones, 177-180

changes in intensity of, 8

dynamics of, 172

and interactions with upper ocean layers, 8

midlatitude, 82-83

physics of motion of, 8

Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, 42, 91, 274, 281, 298, 305-306, 311, 321

Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmospheric Ocean (TOGA-TAO) array, 34, 38, 319

Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), 35

Tropopause

exchange of material through, 224-225

role in atmospheric dynamics, 172

Troposphere, exchanges with other layers, 3

Tropospheric aerosols, designing and implementing new suites of measurement technologies for, 163-164

Tropospheric photochemical oxidants

instrumentation development, measurements documentation assessment, 7, 126-129, 157-161

Tropospheric stability, 78

Turbulence, 64

and entrainment, 80

U

UARS. See Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

UAV. See Unmanned aerospace vehicle

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 14, 213-218

health effects of, 15, 44

increasing intensity of, 254-255

solar, 206

variability in, 262

U.S. Air Force, 241

U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), 241, 243

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), 241, 243, 319

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 98, 241

U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), 241

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 126, 131

U.S. Geological Survey, 241

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 3, 21, 23, 37, 55, 58, 279

U.S. National Climate Program, 279

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 210

U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP), 3, 21, 37, 170

Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs), 98

Upper-atmosphere processes, 199-271

growing emphasis on prediction of, 14

recommended strategies for studying, 8-9

research in, 8-9

stratospheric processes affecting, 8

Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 157, 217, 224, 257, 262-263

Upper ocean layers, and interactions with tropical cyclones, 8

Upper-troposphere, water vapor in, 64

USGCRP. See U.S. Global Change Research Program

USWRP. See U.S. Weather Research Program

UV-B radiation, 212-213

UV flux, 217-218

V

Verification, 69-70, 186

Vertical profiles, 195

Vertical transport mechanisms, 33, 39

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 122

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Volcanic effects, 8, 202, 218-219, 219, 224

Vorticity. potential, 172

W

Water in soil, 184-185

and hydrology, 174

Water in the atmosphere and on land

aerosols and clouds, 130-131

from aircraft, 220

cloud physics, 74-77

cloud radiative properties, 85-86

deposition in precipitation, 167

distributions in the atmosphere, 102-103

enhanced observation of water in all forms, 307

in EOS and GEWEX, 308

hydrometeors, 75

ice, 87

interaction with chemical species, 86-87

liquid in clouds, 191

measurements of, 156-157, 182, 194-195, 274

phase change and atmospheric circulation, 174

precipitation mechanisms, 92-93

run off,

vapor, 34, 174

water vapor as a greenhouse gas, 149, 290

WCRP. See World Climate Research Programme

The Weather Channel, 48

Weather damage, 20-21

Weather-dependent enterprises, incorporating atmospheric information into decision making, 5, 47

Weather fatalities, 18-21, 174

Weather forecasting research, 225. See also Climate forecasting

convection, 180-183

data acquisition, 193-197

data manipulation, 188-190

ensemble forecasting, 187-188

numerical techniques, 191-193

recommendations, 173-175

and storms, 175-180

Weather forecasts, 169-198

economic benefit of, 24-26

four-way partnership for providing, 17-18

initiating experimental, 3, 49

new systems for providing, 47-48, 171

spatial scales relevant to, 2-3

temporal scales relevant to, 2-3

Weather modification, 93-94

Weather satellites, 21

Weather-sensitive enterprises, 25

Weather Service Radar (U.S. National Weather Service) 1988 Doppler Weather Radar System (WSR-88D), 35-36, 181

Weinberg, Alvin M., 15

Wind

developing new capabilities for observing, 2

observations of, 35-36

radars for measuring, 14

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization

WOCE. See World Ocean Circulation Experiment

World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), 45, 275-276, 279, 313-315, 320-321

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 302, 306

World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 308

World Weather Watch (WWW), 302

World Wide Web (WWW), 48

WSR-88D, 35, 36, 181

X

XBT. See Expendable bathythermograph

X-rays, 263-264

Y

YMP. See CRAY supercomputers

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6021.
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Technology has propelled the atmospheric sciences from a fledgling discipline to a global enterprise. Findings in this field shape a broad spectrum of decisions--what to wear outdoors, whether aircraft should fly, how to deal with the issue of climate change, and more.

This book presents a comprehensive assessment of the atmospheric sciences and offers a vision for the future and a range of recommendations for federal authorities, the scientific community, and education administrators.

How does atmospheric science contribute to national well-being? In the context of this question, the panel identifies imperatives in scientific observation, recommends directions for modeling and forecasting research, and examines management issues, including the growing problem of weather data availability.

Five subdisciplines--physics, chemistry, dynamics and weather forecasting, upper atmosphere and near-earth space physics, climate and climate change--and their status as the science enters the twenty-first century are examined in detail, including recommendations for research. This readable book will be of interest to public-sector policy framers and private-sector decisionmakers as well as researchers, educators, and students in the atmospheric sciences.

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