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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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Index

A

Abecedarian Project, 150, 152

ADA, see Americans with Disabilities Act

Adams, Marilyn, 174-175

Adult education, 9

Adults, 9, 98

child-adult discourse, 148, 167, 19, 321, 323

listening/reading comprehension, 4-65

see also Parents; Teachers

African Americans, 27, 31, 155-156, 42, 243, 316

dialect speakers, 156, 239-242, 246, 41

first grade, 205

NAEP, 97

poverty, 155-156

Alliteration, 53, 149, 187

Alphabetic principle, 3, 4, 15, 22, 23, 48, 315-316

bilingualism, 157

deaf children, 164

early childhood development, 42, 44, 47, 51, 56

first grade, 207

first-third grades, 6, 7, 321

kindergarten, 80, 179, 183, 184-189

phonemic awareness and, 47, 153- 154, 248, 285, 314

preventive interventions, 278

second grade, 212

second-language speakers, 157, 324

teacher education, 285, 288, 294- 295, 296, 330

tutoring, 259, 261

see also Letter identification and mapping; Print media; Word recognition

American Federation of Teachers, 317

America Reads/Reading Excellence Challenge, 305

Americans with Disabilities Act, 18

Assessment, see Evaluation

Attention, 80, 211

Attention deficits, 103, 105

Attitude, see Motivation and attitude

Audiovisual presentations

for children, 59, 69

for parents, 9, 319

school-based factors, 130

teacher-assistance vs, 214

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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teacher education, 289-290

third grade, 83

see also Computer-assisted instruction; Pictures; Television

Auditory impairments, see Hearing impairments

Australia, 186

Automaticity, 23, 33, 90, 343

computer-assisted instruction, 252-253

early childhood development, 67, 75, 79

second-third grades, 210

teacher education, 285

tutoring, 259

word recognition, 75, 79, 90, 252-253;

see also Sight words

Awards and prizes

students, 130

teachers, 306

B

Basal reading, 173, 334, 344

curricular design, 173, 189-194, 206-207

first grade, 198, 206-207, 208-210

kindergarten, 189-194

school restructuring, 231

second grade, 212, 215

third-fourth grades, 214

Basic skills, 175-176

Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print, 174-175

Beliefs, see Motivation and attitude

Bermuda Day Care Study, 148

Big books

defined, 181

first grade, 196, 200, 203, 204

kindergarten, 181, 188, 189

school restructuring, 231-232

Bilingual education, 28-29, 136, 157, 234, 236, 324-325, 340

federal funding, 18

teacher education on, 285, 288, 297-298, 330

Black persons, see African Americans

Book Buddies, 259

Book reading

early childhood development, 49, 58, 139, 148, 149, 170

family environment, 121, 139, 145, 263

kindergarten, 9, 80, 189, 323

language-impaired children, 165-166

poverty and, 148

predictable books, 182

second grade, 211

small-group instruction, 263

tutoring, 255, 257, 259, 261

see also Big books; Rebus books; Storybooks; Textbooks

Birth weight, 104, 162

Blindness, see Visual impairments

Bridge, 240-241

C

California, 295-296, 301, 302

California Achievement Test, 169

Canada, 90, 235

Capitalization, letters

first grade, 80, 81, 198

kindergarten, 80

CARE, 155

Categorical models of risk, 88-91, 102

CD-ROM, 59, 264

Certification, see Teacher certification

Chall, Jeanne, 173-174

Chapter I, see Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Chinese, 22

Choral reading, see Group reading

Classificatory analysis, 117

Class size, 11, 26, 130, 226, 229-230, 257, 327, 328

kindergarten, 178-179

poverty, 229

see also Student-teacher ratios

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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Cognitive deficits, 24, 90, 103-104, 132, 137, 315, 317, 319

see also Special education

Cognitive skills, general, 43, 60, 106

minority cultures, 244

parental involvement, 142

preschool, 9, 148, 280

teacher education, 280, 282

third grade, 219

Community-based factors, see terms beginning ''Local . . ."

Comprehension, 4, 6-7, 62-65, 210-211

listening, 64-65, 280, 332

see also Reading comprehension

Comprehensive Child Development Program, 155

Computer-assisted instruction, 188, 248, 252-253, 264-266, 334, 342-343

automaticity, 252-253

CD-ROMs, 59, 264

cost factors, 266

minority/poor persons, 266

phonological awareness, 265

storybooks, 264

word recognition, 252-253

writing, 265

Concept Oriented Reading Instruction, 219-220

Conceptual knowledge, 3, 41-42, 217, 219-220, 317

early childhood development, 62, 280, 332

first grade, 195

first-third grades, 6, 323

space, concepts of, 280, 332

third grade, 219-220

Concurrent instruction, 136

Conferences, 2, 32

Connecticut, 88, 90

Consonants, 23

African American dialect, 239

alliteration, 53, 149, 187

first grade, 198, 202-203

invented spelling, 59

kindergarten, 188

silent, 23

syllable defined, 22

tutoring, 259

Contractions, 241

Conventional reading, see "Real reading"

Cooperative Research Program in First Grade Reading Instruction, 173

Correlational studies, general, 39, 101-103, 135, 178

Cost factors, 272, 337

computer-assisted instruction, 266

publishers, 308

risk factor assessment, 102, 132, 133

tutoring, 255, 258, 260

Counting, see Numeracy skills

Criterion-referenced testing, 95-96

see also National Assessment of Educational Progress

Cultural factors, 25, 33, 58, 147, 272

literacy as societal goal, 1, 17-20, 29-30, 33-34, 156, 170, 292, 324-325

preschool education, 148

preventive interventions, 136, 148

school-based factors, 68, 226, 227, 242-245

second-language speakers, 29, 123, 340

teacher education, 299

see also Dialects; English as a second language; Minority groups; Socioeconomic status

Curricular design, general, 100, 226, 323, 325, 336

basal reading, 173, 189-194, 206-207

curriculum casualties, 25-26

first grade, 195

first-third grades, 7, 323

Hawaiian natives, 244

ideological entrenchment, 225

local action, 304-305

parent education, 143-144

publishers and, 307-308

second-third grades, 210

small-group instruction, 263

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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special education, 167-170, 269-270

specialists, 231

state-level action, 300-301, 302, 304

teacher education, 279-282, 294, 296, 330

tutoring, 255, 258, 259, 261

see also Instructional materials; Teaching methods

D

Day care, see Group care

Deafness, see Hearing impairments

Decoding, 111, 272, 320, 343

African American dialect speakers, 240

deaf children, 164

direct code instruction, 199, 202, 204, 205-206

early childhood development, 52, 57, 60, 65, 67, 70, 71, 76, 79, 81, 82

embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206

first grade, 173-174, 199, 206, 208, 209

kindergarten, 188, 191, 251

nonstandard dialects, 240

reading disabled children, 254

school restructuring, 232

second grade, 82

storybook reading, 143

tutoring, 258, 261

Demographic factors, 23, 27-31, 176;

see also English as a second language; Families; Local factors; Minority groups; Rural areas; Socioeconomic status; Urban areas

Denmark, 186

Department of Education, 1, 32, 89, 305-306, 318

Department of Health and Human Services, 1, 306

Developmental factors, see Early childhood development

Dewey, John, 167

Diagnostics, see Screening and identification

Dialects, 27-28, 119, 124, 127, 132, 330, 341

African American, 156, 239-242, 246, 341

decoding, 240

discrimination against, 124

grammar, 238, 241

phonology, 24

letter-sound relations, 27-28, 124, 238-239

poor persons, 124

school-based factors, 227, 238-242

teachers and, 124, 241-242

Dialogic reading, see Paired reading

Dimensional models of risk, 91-93, 102

Direct code instruction, 199, 202, 204, 205-206

Direct Instruction Model, 176

Disabilities, general, 4, 24-25, 106, 330

familial factors, 119-120

phonics, 173-174

screening and identification, 9, 132-133, 158, 159, 162-163, 318, 319

secondary symptoms, 103, 132

state policy, 282

see also Attention deficits; Cognitive deficits; Dyslexia; Early language impairments; Hearing impairments; Interventions; Learning disabilities; Speech impairments; Visual impairments

Discrimination

against dialects, 124

against minority groups, 123

DNA, 25

Dramatic play, 148, 281

Dropouts, 20-21, 234, 316

retention in grade and, 267

Dyadic reading, see Paired reading

Dyslexia, 88-89, 91, 271, 282, 297, 313

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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E

Early childhood development, 2, 41-84, 135-171

alphabetic principle, 42, 44, 47, 51, 56

automaticity, 67, 75, 79

book reading, 49, 58, 139, 148, 149, 170

conceptual knowledge, 62, 280, 332

decoding, 52, 57, 60, 65, 67, 70, 71, 76, 79, 81, 82

families, 57, 69, 139, 145-147, 171

fluency, 75-79

grammar, 48

infants, 155, 160

letter identification and mapping, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 70, 71-72, 116, 319

deaf children, 164

longitudinal studies, 72

media influences, 57

television, 57, 59, 278, 311-312

memorization, 71

memory, 63-64, 76, 77

monitoring, 63-64, 76, 77

morphology, 73-74, 110, 111, 319

phonology, 46-47, 51-57, 59, 60, 332

phonemic awareness, 47, 51-57, 60, 71-73, 80, 81

phonological awareness, 51-57, 60

poverty, 58

print

awareness of, 59-60, 70-71, 80

concept of, 45, 69

reading comprehension, general, 60, 62-65, 75-78

semantics, 53, 77, 83

sentences, 48-49, 50, 108

sounds, 46-47, 51-57, 59, 332

spelling, 42, 43-44, 60, 66, 67, 70-71, 73

deaf children, 164

spoken words, 42, 46-47, 49, 50, 51, 320, 321, 324

storybooks, 62-63, 80

syntax, 48, 53, 74, 75, 318, 332

vocabulary, 47, 57, 63, 67, 75, 79, 107, 109

word recognition, 50, 53, 62, 65-67, 70-75, 79, 80, 111

writing, 42, 57, 59-60, 69-70, 142, 149

deaf children, 164

see alsoPreschool education

Early childhood education, seeEmergent reading; First grade; Kindergarten; Preschool education; Primary grades; Second grade; Third grade;

Early Childhood Environment Rating, 148

Early Intervention in Reading, 262

Early language impairments, 5, 103, 104-108, 132, 163

infants, 155, 160

preventive interventions, 137, 163, 165-166

Early Literacy Project, 269-270

Economic factors, 98

literacy as economic goal, 1, 17-19

see alsoCost factors; Employment and unemployment; Funding; Poverty

Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 227-229, 263-264, 305

Embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206

Emergent reading, 69, 81, 261

teacher education, 288, 296, 297, 331, 332

see alsoPretend reading

Emergent writing, 42, 57, 59-60, 69-70, 81, 141, 149, 168, 171, 310

kindergarten, 183-184, 188, 189, 191

teacher education on, 288, 296, 297, 330, 331, 332

see alsoInvented spelling

Employment and unemployment, 20, 316

criterion-referenced testing, 96

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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teachers, 331

salaries, 280, 300, 302

England, 76

English as a second language

alphabetic principle, 157, 324

cultural factors, 29, 123, 340

first grade, 236

immersion programs, 235-236, 236

kindergarten, 28, 181, 236

late-exit programs, 236

phonology, 11, 27-28, 324-325

poor persons, 28, 123, 155-156

preventive interventions, 137

reading comprehension, general, 236-237

recommendations, 10-11, 324-325, 328, 339-340

retention in grade, 267

risk factors associated with, 5, 18, 19, 27-30, 123, 131, 156-158

school-based factors, 227, 233-238, 246, 333

second grade, 236

socioeconomic status, 235

syntax, 11, 325, 340

teacher education, 296, 297-299, 330, 332

theoretical issues, 237-238

transfer of skills, 236-237

tutoring, 260

vocabulary development, 11, 325

word recognition, 236-237

see also Bilingual education; Spanish and Spanish speakers

Erikson Institute, 281

Error detection

by child, 51, 63, 81, 83, 169, 195, 213, 223, 237, 322, 323

nonstandard dialect students and, 124, 241-242

Ethnic groups, see Minority groups

Etymology, 23

Evaluation, 336-337

performance-based, 199

school-based factors, 27

textbooks, 304

see also Research methodology; Screening and identification; Standards; Tests and testing

Even Start Family Literacy Program, 146, 155

Explicit instruction, general, 11, 172-225 (passim), 322, 323

first grade, 198, 208

kindergarten, 177, 178-194, 250

teacher education on, 287

see also specific methods

F

Families, 100, 277

age factors affecting learning, 122, 128

book reading, 121, 139, 145, 263

early childhood development, 57, 69, 139, 145-147, 171

educational level of, 119

literacy environment, general, 121-122, 123, 138, 139, 142, 143

narrative comprehension, 139, 143

preschool education, 119-128 (passim)

risk factors, 86, 100, 103, 119-128, 158, 159

siblings, 119

socioeconomic status, 31, 119, 121, 125-127

teacher education, 297

verbal interaction opportunities, 121, 122-123, 127, 139-141, 143, 171

see also Parents

Federal government, 2, 18, 275, 277, 305-306

bilingual education, 18

Goals 2000, 228-229, 300

Office of Education, 173

poverty programs, 97-98, 228-230

Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 227-229, 263-264, 305

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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Head Start, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338

welfare reform, 320

teacher education, 284, 289, 294, 306

see also Legislation; terms beginning "Department . . ."

Fetal alcohol syndrome, 104

Fingerpoint reading, 181, 188

First grade, 5, 33, 79, 195

accomplishments of successful learner, 81, 194-195

African Americans, 205

alphabetic principle, 207

basal reading, 198, 206-207, 208-210

big books, 196, 200, 203, 204

capitalization, 81, 198

class size, 230

conceptual knowledge, 195

consonants, 198, 202-203

decoding, 173-174, 199, 206, 208, 209

embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206

explicit instruction, general, 198, 208

fluency, 206, 209

frequency of reading, 195;

rereading, 81, 195

frustration level, 195, 322

group reading, 196, 197, 200, 202

independent reading, 194, 196, 197, 198, 209, 322

instructional materials, 195-196

invented spelling, 81, 195

letter identification and mapping, 81, 198

letter-sound relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322

metalinguistic factors, 195, 204

minorities, 205

monitoring, reading comprehension, 81, 195

motivation, 172, 198, 206

oral reading, 81, 194, 206, 209

paired reading, 196, 197

phonology, 81, 195, 199, 200-204, 208, 262, 322

letter-sound relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322

phonemic awareness, 194, 195, 199, 206, 208

phonics, 174, 199, 201-204, 205, 209

poverty, 205

print media, 194, 322

reading comprehension, general, 81, 195, 206, 209

reciprocal teaching, 222

rereading, 81, 195

retention in grade, 267

school restructuring, 232

second-grade transition, teacher assessment of, 211

second-language speakers, 236

sight words, 194, 322

small-group instruction, 262-264

sounds, 81, 195, 199, 200-204, 208, 262, 322;

letter-sound relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322

spelling, 81, 194, 195, 197, 198, 201-204, 206

syntax, 6, 321, 322, 343, 344

teachers, 196-199, 207

teaching methods, 172, 173, 177-178, 194-210

tutoring, 207, 260, 327

vocabulary, 81, 203

whole language instruction, 199-201, 205-206

word recognition, 194, 198, 204, 205-206, 262

writing, 81, 196, 197, 198, 200, 204, 207, 209

see also Primary grades, general

Fluency, 4, 6, 7, 33, 223

early childhood development, 75-79

first grade, 206, 209

second grade, 82, 213, 214-216

special education, 270

third grade, 83, 213

tutoring, 253, 259, 261

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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see also Frustration level; Reading comprehension; Word recognition

Follow Through, 175-177

Foreign countries, 234

see also specific countries

Foreign language speakers, see English as a second language; Japanese

Fourth grade

basal reading, 214

reading level requirements, 207, 210, 211

slump, 78-79, 344

word recognition, 214

French immersion programs, 235

Frequency of reading, 3, 211, 314

first grade, 195

first-third grades, 7, 324

second grade, 211

third-fourth grades, 214

see also Practice; Rereading

Frustration level

first grade, 195, 322

first-third grades, 8, 324

second grade, 213

Funding, 18

parent-child reading programs, 144, 147

poor children, funding for, 227-230, 320;

see also Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Head Start programs

G

Games, see Play-based instruction

Gender differences, 91, 116

retention in grade, 267

Genetic factors, 24-25, 88, 91, 92, 119

Goals 2000, 228-229, 300

Government role, see Federal government; Local government; State government

Grammar

early childhood development, 48

nonstandard dialects, 238, 241

teacher education, 298

see also Syntax

Group care, 8-9, 57, 148-149, 150, 161, 170, 277, 300

Group reading, 6

first grade, 196, 197, 200, 202

first-third grades, 6

kindergarten, 188-189

preschool, 148

reciprocal teaching, 221

special education, 270

see also Small-group instruction

H

Hawaiian children, 243-245

Head Start programs, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338

Health care professionals, 101, 158, 159

see also Pediatricians

Health care services, 158-163

Hearing impairments, 5, 16, 55, 89, 103, 104, 132, 133, 315, 319

chronic otitis media, 103, 104, 161

developmental factors, 164

preventive interventions, 137, 159, 161, 163-165

High-risk children, see Risk factors

High school, 20-21, 98, 316

preschool intervention and success in, 150, 343

socioeconomic status, 125

vocabulary size, 48

High School and Beyond, 20

High/Scope program, 167, 168-170

Hispanic persons, see Spanish and Spanish speakers

Home environment, see Families; Parents

Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters, 144

Homework

first-third grades, 8, 324

parental assistance, 128

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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Hyperactivity disorder, see Attention deficits

Hypertension as analogy for reading difficulty, 92-93

I

Identification of problems, see Screening and identification

IEP (Individualized educational program), see Tutors and tutoring

Immersion programs, 235-236

Improving America's School Act, 228-229

Income, see Poverty; Socioeconomic status

Independent reading, 218

first grade, 194, 196, 197, 198, 209, 322

first-third grades, 6, 8, 322, 323, 324

oral reading, impact on, 219

reciprocal teaching, 221

second grade, 82, 211, 213, 214, 322-323

teacher education, 296

third grade, 213

tutoring, Reading Recovery, 255

see also Homework; Oral reading

Individual instruction, see Tutors and tutoring

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 89, 269-269, 305

Infant Health Development Program, 155

Infants, 155, 160

Inference, 7

first grade, 195

second-third grade, 222

Instructional materials, 2-3, 6, 11, 175, 272, 300, 307, 333-334, 344

basal reading, 189

case-based teacher education, 289-290

family environment, 121, 128

first grade, 195-196

lack of, 26

nonstandard dialects, 239-241

school-based risk factors, 129

see also Audiovisual presentations; Book reading; Curricular design; Pictures; Publishers; Textbooks

Instructional methods, see Teaching methods

Intelligence quotient, 24, 88, 94-95, 106-107, 109, 116, 118, 150, 318

reading disabilities, defined, 268-269

International dimension, see Foreign countries; specific countries

International Reading Association, 317

Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, 295

Interventions, 101, 247-274, 343-344

controversial, 271

defined, 247

older children, 247-248

teacher education on, 287

see also Preventive interventions; Remedial interventions; Special education

Invented spelling, 7-8, 59, 70, 80, 168, 272, 323

first grade, 81, 195

tutoring, 259-260

Iowa, 88

IQ, see Intelligence quotient

J

Japanese, 21

K

Kamehameha Early Education Project, 244-245

Kentucky, 301

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6023.
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Kindergarten, 111, 116-118, 136, 277

accomplishments of successful learner, 80, 179

alphabetic principle, 80, 179, 183, 184-189

basal reading, 189-194

book reading, 9, 80, 189, 323

big books, 181, 188, 189

capitalization, 80

class size, 178-179;

student-teacher ratios, 9, 133, 318-319

consonants, 188

decoding, 188, 191, 251

emergent writing, 183-184, 188, 189, 191

explicit instruction, general, 177, 178-194, 250

group reading, 188-189

instructional strategies, 177, 178-194, 250

lack of, 79

letter identification, 9, 80, 113-115, 180, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249-250, 322

motivation, 179

multiple risk factors, 116-117

oral reading, 80, 179-181, 188-189, 191

phonology,

letter-sound relations, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251

phonemic awareness, 80, 179, 187, 189, 191, 193

phonological awareness, 54, 112, 151, 185-189, 192-193, 248-252

predicting, reading comprehension, 80, 180-181

print media, 179, 180, 181, 188, 189, 191, 322

real reading, 68

recall, 80, 108-109, 118

recommendations, 6, 9, 321-324

retention/prekindergarten, 149, 266, 341-342

rhymes and rhyming, 80, 182, 187, 191

risk factor analysis, 102, 113-118, 151

screening, 9, 133, 318-319

school-based factors, 130

second-language speakers, 28, 181, 236

semantics, 111

sentences, 80, 111, 116, 118

sight words, 182, 189

sounds, 9;

letter-sound relations, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251

spelling, 80, 187-188, 189

spoken words, 80, 179, 186-187, 188

state role, 190, 194

storybooks, 179-180, 183, 188

student-teacher ratios, 9, 133, 318-319

syllables, 182, 185

syntax, 111

teachers, 180-181, 192

verbal memory, 108-110, 323

vocabulary skills, 80, 109

word recognition, 180, 181-182, 188, 189, 249, 251, 322

writing, 183-184, 188, 189, 191

Kinesiology, 271

L

Language development, general, 45, 46-50, 73, 75-76, 82, 106-108, 319

impairments, 5, 103, 104-108, 163, 165-166

preventive interventions, 137, 163, 165-166

parental involvement, 142, 145

speech impairments, 105, 165, 315

teacher qualifications involving, 282

see also Early childhood development; Early language

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impairments; Metalinguistic factors

Language-minority children, see English as a second language

Language-rich environments, 69, 100, 142, 199

Language skills, general, 108-110, 132, 315, 317, 319, 323

first grade, 195

K-3, 176, 191, 284, 285

preschool, 9, 108-109, 111, 116, 137, 147-148, 282

teacher education, 282, 284, 285, 330

see also specific skills

Lead poisoning, 104

Learning disabilities, 3, 18, 88-91

attention deficits, 103, 105

decoding, 254

reading disabilities defined, 268

statistics on, 89

see also Cognitive deficits; Dyslexia; Special education

Learning to Read/Reading to Learn, 306

Learning to Read: The Great Debate, 173-174

LEAs, see Local government

Legislation

Americans with Disabilities Act, 18

Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 227-229, 263-264, 305

Improving America's School Act, 228-229

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 89, 268-269, 305

state action, 302

Letter identification and mapping, 44, 101, 110, 113, 137, 215

age factors, general, 71

capitalization, letters, 80, 81, 198

early childhood development, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 70, 71-72, 116, 319

deaf children, 164

first grade, 81, 198

first-third grades, 6, 7, 321

sound-letter relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322

kindergarten, 9, 113-115, 180, 249-250, 322

sound-letter relations, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251

parental behavior, 142

second grade, 82

sound-letter relations, 7, 22-23, 44, 71-72, 80, 81, 82, 112, 115, 152-153, 154, 223, 316

first grade, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322

kindergarten, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251

nonstandard dialects, 27-28, 124, 238-239

school restructuring, 232

second grade, 82, 212, 322-323

teacher education, 285, 294-295

third grade, 83

tutoring, 259, 261

testing for, 115

tutoring, 255, 259, 261

see also Alphabetic principle; Capitalization, letters

Libraries and librarians, 8, 324, 327

school, 11, 130

state-level action, 300

Limited-proficiency English, see English as a second language

Listening comprehension, 64-65, 280, 332

see also Oral reading

Literacy, general

ability range, 41-42

deaf children, 164

defined, 42

economic goals, 1, 17-19

enjoyment, source of, 33, 138, 139, 142, 143, 171

family environment, 121-122, 123, 138, 139, 142, 143

minority groups' views on, 29-30

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preschool, 282

societal goals, 1, 17-20, 29-30, 33-34, 156, 170, 292, 324-325

statistics on, 19-20, 98

teacher education on, 282, 284

Local factors, general, 2, 8, 86, 128-130, 277, 324, 331

curricular design, 304-305

socioeconomic status, 126

see also Rural areas; School-based factors; Urban areas

Local government, 2, 18, 275, 277

teachers, 305

textbooks, 304

Local risk factors, 1-3, 100, 128-130, 304-305

see also School-based factors

Longitudinal studies, 20

early childhood development, 72

interventions, 248, 267

preschool education, 146, 156

risk factors, 87-88, 90, 97-98, 103, 105, 113, 118, 121-122

school-based factors, 228

see also High School and Beyond; National Assessment of Educational Progress

Louisiana, 129

M

Mapping letters, see Letter identification and mapping

Maryland School Performance Assessment Program, 220

Massachusetts, 160

Media influences, 2, 275, 310-312, 318, 319, 327

controversial interventions, 271

early childhood development, 57

see also Television

Medical professionals, see Health care professionals

Memory, 75, 108-109, 116, 322

phonological awareness and, 112

preschool children, 108-109

sentences, 108-109, 132

special education, 166, 169

see also Automaticity; Recall; Sight words

Mental retardation, see Cognitive deficits; Special education

Metacognition

defined, 45

preventive interventions, 278

reading comprehension and, 64, 76, 220-223

teacher education, 286

teaching methods, 220-223

Metalinguistic factors, 45, 46, 49-50, 53, 106-108, 111-112, 217, 319, 323

age factors, general, 50

defined, 45

first grade, 195, 204

tutoring, Reading Recovery, 258

see also Phonology

Methodology, see Research methodology

Middle school, 343

socioeconomic status, 125

Success For All, 232

Minority groups, 4, 17-18, 19, 27-30, 97-98, 242-245, 315, 316

computer-assisted instruction, 266

discrimination against, 123

English as a second language, general, 123

first grade, 205

Hawaiian children, 243-245

literacy, views on, 29-30

poverty affecting, 29-30

preventive interventions, 30, 136

remedial interventions, 30

retention in grade, 267

see also African Americans; Cultural factors; English as a second language; Spanish and Spanish speakers

Miscue analysis, 73

Mississippi, 302

Models and modeling

basic skills, 175-176

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categorical models of risk, 88-91, 102

children's, 44-45, 57

dimensional models of risk, 91-93, 102

hypertension as analogy for reading difficulty, 92-93

parental, 142

reading comprehension, 62-63, 71

reading difficulties/risk factors, 87-96, 98-99, 102, 310

school-wide restructuring, 326

screening and identification, 87-96, 98-99

special education, 89, 167

spelling development, 44-45, 72

teacher in-service education, 291-292

word recognition, 66

Monitoring, 4, 6, 7, 223, 314, 344

early childhood development, 63-64, 76, 77

error detection, 51, 63, 81, 83, 169, 195, 213, 223, 237, 322, 323

first grade, 81, 195

reciprocal teaching, 221

second-third grades, 222

Morphology, 23, 153, 341, 343

defined, 22, 46

early childhood development, 73-74, 110, 111, 319

teacher education, 330

Motivation and attitude, 4, 5, 100, 147, 278, 315, 316

administrative personnel, 26

awards, public, 130, 306

basic skills models, 175

dyslexia and, 89

family environment, 121

parental attitudes, 138, 139, 142, 146, 162, 219

fear of school, 147

first grade, 172, 198, 206

kindergarten, 179

limited-proficiency English speakers, 29

literacy as societal goal, 1, 17-20, 29-30, 33, 142, 170

literacy as source of enjoyment, 33, 138, 139, 142, 143, 171

preschool children, 8, 138, 139, 142, 143, 146, 147

special education, 167-170

teachers, toward students, 26, 124, 229, 288, 331, 332

see also Frustration level

Motor skills, 116, 280, 332

kinesiology, 271

N

NAEP, see National Assessment of Educational Progress

Naming, 113, 115, 116, 132, 280, 332

serial naming, 109-111, 118

see also Letter identification and mapping

Narrative comprehension, 116, 143

family environment, 139, 143

language-impaired children, 165

phonological awareness and, 112

preschool education, 149

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 88, 96-97, 302

socioeconomic status, 126-127

National Association for the Education of Young Children, 282, 317

National Association of Family Day Care, 282

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 296, 301-302

National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 284, 289

National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education, 294-295

National Education Association, 317

National Education Longitudinal Study, 20

National Evaluation Information System, 146

National Governors Association, 282, 299

National Institutes of Health, 306

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National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 156

National Reading Research Center, 196

National Science Foundation, 299, 306

Native Americans, 243-245, 316

Netherlands, 236-237

Neurology and neuroscience, 24-25, 271

Nevada, 304

New Jersey, 304

New Zealand, 90, 255

Non-English speakers, see English as a second language

Nonstandard dialects, see Dialects Norm-referenced testing, 95-96, 330

North Carolina, 148, 302

Norway, 186

Numeracy skills, 44, 101, 150

Nutrition, 103-104, 158, 160, 271

O

Office of Education, 173

Ohio, 301, 302

Onset-rime, 51, 185, 206, 259

Oral reading

first grade, 81, 194, 206, 209

first-third grades, 6, 83

independent reading, impact on, 219

kindergarten, 80, 179-181, 188-189, 191

miscue analysis, 73

parent-child, 121, 128, 142-143, 144-145, 147, 148, 166, 171, 180, 218-219, 310, 317, 319, 324

reciprocal teaching, 221

second grade, 215-216

small-group instruction, 263

speech impairments, 105, 165, 315

third grade, 83

waiting room volunteers, 162

see also Group reading; Paired reading

Oregon, 301

Orthography, see Spelling

Otitis media, 103, 104, 161

Outlier schools, 128-129, 130

Outreach, 2, 32

see also Conferences

P

Paired reading

first grade, 196, 197

first-third grades, 6, 322

parent-child, 121, 128, 142-143, 144-145, 147, 148, 166, 171, 180, 218-219, 310, 317, 319, 324

preschool education, 142-143, 144-145, 148, 171

school restructuring, 232

second grade, 215

special education, 270

Parents, 1, 2, 8, 9, 57, 58, 31, 32, 101, 128, 132, 136, 138-147, 171

African American, 31, 241

age of child as factor, 128

attitudes of, 138, 139, 142, 146, 162, 219

audiovisual presentations for, 9, 319

cognitive skills, parental involvement, 142

curricular design, 143-144

education to teach children, 143-147, 319

federal action, 306

health care providers and, 158

language development, general, 142, 145

language-impaired children, 166

letter identification and mapping, 142

models of, 142

monitoring of child's reading, 128, 263, 324

pre/perinatal programs, 160

preventive interventions, 138-147

print media, 139, 142, 145

questioning of children by, 139, 140-141, 143, 144-145

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reading difficulties, parents with, 5, 119-121, 127, 132, 137, 315, 318

reading to children by, 121, 128, 142-143, 144-145, 147, 148, 166, 171, 180, 218-219, 310, 317, 319, 324

teacher collaboration, 297, 344

vocabulary development, 139, 319

see also Families

Parents as Teachers program, 144

Partner reading, see Paired reading

Patterned books, see Predictable books

Pediatricians, 9, 133, 158, 159, 162-163, 318, 319

Phonemic awareness, 15, 112, 149, 176, 223, 315, 321, 323

age factors, general, 53, 151-154

alphabetic principle, 47, 153-154, 248, 285, 314

defined, 52

early childhood development, 47, 51-57, 60, 71-73, 80, 81

first grade, 194, 195, 199, 206, 208

invented spelling and, 195

kindergarten, 80, 179, 187, 189, 191, 193

nonstandard dialects, 240

preschool education, 152-154

reading disabled children, 252-254

second grade, 212

small-group instruction, 263

state action, 302

teacher education, 296, 298

tutoring, 258, 259

Phonetic cue reading, 71

Phonics, 52, 55, 56, 81, 173-174

first grade, 174, 199, 201-204, 205, 209

second grade, 205-206

state action, 302

teacher education, 296

tutoring, 259, 260

vocabulary and, 173

word recognition and, 173, 259

Phonological awareness, 23, 107, 110, 111-112, 116, 118, 132, 319, 320, 321

age factors, general, 53, 151-154

alliteration, 53, 149, 187

computer-assisted instruction, 265

deaf children, 164

defined, 52, 248

early childhood development, 51-57, 60, 151-154

experimental studies, 152-153, 249-250, 252-253

language-impaired children, 166

kindergarten, 54, 112, 151, 185-189, 192-193, 248-252

interventions, 248-251

memory and, 112

narrative comprehension and, 112

preschool education, 151-155

preventive interventions, 151, 249-251

reading disabled children, 252-254

recall and, 112

small-group instruction, 250, 252

storybooks, 112

teacher education, 284, 288, 298, 330

theory on, 52, 54, 248

see also Rhymes and rhyming

Phonological decoding, see Decoding

Phonological sensitivity, 71-73, 111-112, 137, 186, 188, 317

Phonology, 5, 6, 7, 9, 15, 54-55, 66

alliteration, 53, 149, 187

defined, 22, 46, 52

early language development, 46-47, 51-57, 59, 60, 332

first grade, 81, 195, 199, 200-204, 208, 262, 322

letter-sound relations, 7, 22-23, 44, 71-72, 80, 81, 82, 112, 115, 152-153, 154, 223, 316

first grade, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322

kindergarten, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251

nonstandard dialects, 27-28, 124, 238-239

school restructuring, 232

second grade, 82, 212, 322-323

teacher education, 285, 294-295

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third grade, 83

tutoring, 259, 261

see also Decoding

neurological research, 24

nonstandard dialects, 24, 27-28, 124, 238-239

second-language speakers, 11, 27-28, 324-325

speech discrimination, general, 52, 54-55, 56

spelling relations, general, 3, 22-23, 80-83, 194, 195, 198, 298, 322, 330, 343

teacher education, 280, 298, 330, 332

tutoring, 255, 259

letter-sound relations, 259, 261

phonemic awareness, 258, 259

phonics, 259, 260

see also Dialects; Hearing impairments; Phonemic awareness; Phonological awareness; Phonological sensitivity; Rhymes and Rhyming; Spoken words

Piaget, Jean, 167

Pictures, 59, 69, 109, 142, 152, 162, 180, 200, 262, 323

see also Rebus books

Play-based instruction, 59, 183-184, 188, 189-190, 191, 223, 306, 320, 321

see also Dramatic play; Rhymes and rhyming; Word games

Poems, see Rhymes and rhyming

Political factors

curricular ideologies, 225

limited-proficiency English speakers, 29, 123

state-level, 299, 304

textbooks, 304

Poverty, 4, 5, 16, 17, 18-19, 30-31, 97-98, 119, 125-127, 131, 315, 327-328

African Americans, 155-156

book reading, 148

class size, 229

computer-assisted instruction, 266

early childhood development, 58;

see also ''preschool" infra

federal programs, 97-98, 230

Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 227-229, 263-264, 305

Head Start, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338

welfare reform, 320

first grade, 205

Hispanics, 123, 155-156

infant nutrition, 160

limited-proficiency English speakers, 28, 123, 155-156

minority status and, 29-30

narrative comprehension, 143

nonstandard dialect speakers and, 124

preschool education, 8-9, 147, 150, 154, 155, 282, 320

Head Start programs, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338

reciprocal teaching, 222

retention in grade, 267

school-based factors, 26, 227-230

second grade, 205-206, 214-216

teacher education, 296

tutoring, 260

welfare reform, 320

Practice, 75, 196, 217, 223, 314

see Frequency of reading; Homework; Rereading

Practicum techniques, teacher education, 290

Pragmatics, 49

defined, 46, 49

teacher education on, 288

Predictable books, 182

Predicting, reading comprehension

first grade, 195

first-third grades, 6, 7, 322, 323

kindergarten, 80, 180-181

school restructuring, 232

second-third grades, 222

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Predictors of reading difficulties, see also Risk factors

Predictors of successful reading achievement, 100

Preschool education, 19, 33, 42-84, 108-119, 137-171, 277, 317-321, 338

cognitive skills, general, 9, 148, 280

cultural factors, 148

deaf children, 164

family environment, 119-128 (passim)

group reading, 148

Head Start, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338

high school, preschool interventions and success in, 150, 343

lack of, 4, 5, 79

language skills, general, 9, 108-109, 111, 116, 137, 147-148, 282

literacy, general, 282

longitudinal studies, 146, 156

motivation, 8, 138, 139, 142, 143, 146, 147

narrative comprehension, 149

paired reading, 142-143, 144-145, 148, 171

phonemic awareness, 152-154

phonological awareness, 151-155

poverty, 8-9, 147, 150, 154, 155, 282, 320

Head Start programs, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338

print

awareness of, 139, 164, 165, 170

concepts of, 139, 145, 149, 164, 165

recommendations, 5-6, 8-9, 317-321, 338

retention in grade, prevention, 149, 150

risk factors, 8, 108-119, 317-320

screening, 9, 318-319

social development, 150, 168

special education, 150, 166-170

spoken language, 108

state-level action, 277, 282, 300

teacher education, 10, 279-283, 331-332

verbal memory, 108-109

vocabulary, 107, 109-111, 148, 170, 280, 318, 319, 320, 321

see also Early childhood development; Families; Head Start programs; Parents; Preventive interventions

Pretend reading, 33, 58, 59, 69, 81

Preventive interventions, 2, 6, 16, 85, 135-171, 277-278, 316, 317-321, 338

alphabetic principle, 278

cultural factors, 136, 148

defined, 16, 159, 316

early language impairments, 137, 163, 165-166

Head Start, 145, 157

hearing impaired children, 137, 159, 161, 163-165

metacognition, 278

minority groups, 30, 136

multicomponent, 135

parental, 138-147

phonological awareness, 151, 249-251

research methodology, 135-136

retention in grade, prevention, 149, 150

school-based factors, 136, 137

second-language speakers, 137

socioeconomic status and, 136, 137

special education, 150, 166-170

state action, 302

teacher education, 10, 287, 332

writing, 278

Primary grades, general, 6-7, 19, 32

alphabetic principle, 6, 7, 321

comprehension skills, 6-7, 210-211

conceptual knowledge, 6, 323

curricular design, 7, 323

frequency of reading, 7, 324

frustration level, 8, 324

group reading, 6

homework, 8, 324

independent reading, 6, 8, 322, 323, 324

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language skills, 176, 191, 284, 285

letter identification and mapping, 6, 7, 321

sound-letter relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322

listening/reading skills, 64-65

oral reading, 6, 83

paired reading, 6, 322

predicting, reading comprehension, 6, 7, 322, 333

preschool and outcomes in, 149

reading comprehension, 6-7, 81, 82, 83, 322, 323

recommendations for, 6-8, 10-11, 321-324

rereading, 7, 8, 81, 324

rhetorical structures, 6, 322, 324

second-language speakers, 28

spelling, 6, 7-8, 321, 323-324, 343

state-level action, 300

summarizing, reading comprehension, 6, 7, 322, 323

syntax, 6, 321, 322, 343, 344

teacher education, 10, 283-299, 329-331

vocabulary size, 6, 48, 321, 322, 344

writing, 6, 7, 285, 321-322

see also First grade; Kindergarten; Second grade; Third grade

Primary prevention, see Preventive interventions

Principals, 130

Print media, 3, 139, 218-219

awareness of, 9, 318, 321

early childhood development, 59-60, 70-71, 80

kindergarten, 179, 180, 181, 188, 191, 322

preschool education, 139, 164, 165, 170

concepts of, 259, 315, 318, 319-321, 322, 323, 332

deaf children, 164

early childhood development, 45, 69

preschool education, 139, 145, 149, 164, 165

risk factors regarding, 110, 115, 116

second/third grades, 218, 223

first grade, 194, 322

language-impaired children, 165-166

parental behavior, 139, 142, 145

reading for meaning, 81, 314

small-group instruction, 263

teacher education on, 288, 332

see also Letter identification and mapping

Prizes, see Awards and prizes

Problem identification, see Screening and identification

Problem-solving activities

for children, 142, 166, 169

for teachers, 290

Professional education and development, 9-10

day care providers, 149

principals' involvement, 130

see also Teacher education

Professionals, 1-2, 32

day care providers, 149

see also Health care professionals; Libraries and librarians; Principals; Publishers; Specialists; Teachers

Project Read, 270

Prospects study, 97-98, 228

Psychological factors, 174

controversial interventions, 271

deaf children, 165

severe pathologies, 104

teacher education, 285, 286, 287, 288, 292

see also Motivation and attitude

Public education, 310-312, 318, 319

see also Pediatricians; Social workers; Speech-language therapists

Publishers, 1, 2, 32, 275, 306-310, 333-334

standards, 300

see also Instructional materials; Textbooks

Punctuation, 81

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R

Race-ethnicity, see Minority groups

Reach Out and Read, 159, 162

Readiness, see Reading readiness

Reading aloud, see Oral reading

Reading comprehension, general, 3, 4, 173, 315

adults, 64-65

conceptual knowledge and, 219-220

early childhood development, 60, 62-65, 75-78

first grade, 81, 195, 206, 209

first-third grades, 6-7, 81, 82, 83, 322, 323

kindergarten, 80, 180-181

listening comprehension and, 64-65

metacognition and, 64, 76, 220-223

models of, 62-63, 71

neuroscience on, 24

print exposure and, 218-219

reciprocal teaching, 221-222

school restructuring, 232

second grade, 82, 213, 214-215, 222

second-language speakers, 236-237

state action, 302

teacher education, general, 296, 330

third grade, 83, 213, 219-220, 222

tutoring, Reading Recovery, 258

vocabulary and, 63, 67, 216-219, 220

see also Fluency; Monitoring; Narrative comprehension; Predicting, reading comprehension; Recall; Summarizing

Reading for meaning, 81, 314, 320, 324

Reading level

first-third grades, 7, 21

high school graduation and, 21

reading disabilities, defined, 268-269

second grade, 211-212

special education, results, 270

Reading lists, see Summer reading lists

Reading One-One, 260-262

Reading readiness, 113, 116, 261

Reading Recovery program, 250, 253, 255-258

Reading specialists, 12, 248, 296, 298, 327, 333

"Real reading," 15-16, 42, 68, 81, 181, 232

Rebus books, 182, 204

Recall, 82, 132, 319

kindergarten, 80, 108-109, 118

phonological awareness, 112

second grade, 82, 213

third grade, 213

see also Frustration level

Reciprocal teaching, 139, 221-222

Remedial interventions, 2, 3, 12, 24, 278

defined, 16

dyslexia, 271, 313

minority groups, 30

nonstandard dialects, 240

teacher education on, 287, 298

Title I, 228

see also Special education; Tutors and tutoring

Repeating (grade level), see Retention in grade

Rereading, 214

first grade, 81, 195

first-third grades, 7, 8, 81, 324

second grade, 82

third-fourth grades, 214

tutoring, Reading Recovery, 255

Research methodology, 33, 34-39, 176, 256-257

classificatory analysis, 117

correlational studies, general, 39, 101-103, 135, 178

error of measurement, 115

prevention efforts, 135-136

prospective analyses, 37-38, 90

systematic replication, 34-35

see also Models and modeling

Retardation, see Cognitive deficits; Special education

Retention in grade, 248, 266-267, 341-342

first grade, 267

kindergarten, 149, 266, 341-342

minority groups/poor persons, 267

preschool prevention, 149, 150

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Retrospective studies, general, 37

Rhetorical structures

first grade, 195

first-third grades, 6, 322, 324

teacher education, 280, 285, 288

Rhymes and rhyming, 51, 53, 143, 149, 151, 278, 320, 321

first grade, 203

kindergarten, 80, 182, 187, 191

Riddles, 223

Rime, see Onset-rime

Risk factors, 1, 2, 4-5, 11, 16, 85-86, 100-133, 317-319

categorical models of, 88-91, 102

cost of assessment, 102, 132, 133

dimensional models, 91-93, 102

familial, 86, 100, 103, 119-128, 158, 159

parents with reading difficulties, 5, 119-121, 127, 132, 137, 315, 318

kindergarten, 102, 113-118, 151

local factors, 1-3, 100, 128-130, 304-305

longitudinal studies, 87-88, 90, 97-98, 103, 105, 113, 118, 121-122

media information about, 310

models of, 87-96, 98-99, 102, 310

multiple, 116-119, 123, 125, 127, 131, 230, 313-314

nature of, general, 85-86

parents with reading difficulties, 5, 119-121, 127, 132, 137, 315, 318

preschool, 8, 9, 108-119, 317-320

print, concepts of, 110, 115, 116

second-language speakers, 5, 18, 19, 27-30, 123, 131, 156-158

syntax, 107, 110

teacher education, poor training, 26, 289, 291

see also Interventions; School-based factors; Screening and identification; specific risk factors

Rural areas, 98, 290, 315

S

School-based factors, 11, 25-27, 86, 100, 103, 128-130, 131, 226-246, 304-305, 315, 337-338

African Americans, 227, 238-242

audiovisual presentations, 130

basal reading, 231

big books, 231-232

cultural factors, 68, 226, 227, 242-245

curriculum casualties, 25-26

decoding, 232

dialects, nonstandard, 227, 238-242

libraries, 11, 130

Hispanics, 123

institutional accreditation, 293-295, 300, 301-302

kindergarten, 130

outlier schools, 128-129, 130

paired reading, 232

poverty, 26, 227-230

preventive interventions, 136, 137

principals, 130

school-wide restructuring, 11, 230-233, 272, 325-326, 338

second-language speakers, 227, 233-238, 246, 333

socioeconomic status, 126, 128-129

specialists, use of, 333

teacher education vs, 288

time-on-task rates, see Time-on-task rates

university partnerships, 293

vocabulary development, 231, 232

see also Class size; Student-teacher ratios; Teachers

Screening and identification, 2, 85, 101-133, 159, 278

cost of, 102, 132, 133

deaf children, 164-165

disabilities, 9, 132-133, 158, 159, 162-163, 318, 319

error detection by child's monitor, 72-73, 76, 213

kindergarten, 9, 133, 318-319

miscue analysis, 73

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models of, 87-96, 98-99

pediatricians, 9, 133, 158, 159, 162-163, 318, 319

preschool/kindergarten, 9, 318-319

prevalence, general, 96-99

research agenda, 336, 342, 344

secondary symptoms, 103, 132

second grade, 211-212

state action, 302

teacher education for, 279, 290, 296, 297, 298, 330, 332

see also Risk factors

Secondary education, see High school

Secondary prevention, see Remedial interventions

Secondary symptoms, 103, 132

Second grade, 82, 210-211

accomplishments required, 82, 210-211

alphabetic principle, 212

automaticity, 210

basal reading, 212, 215

book reading, 211

decoding, 82

direct code instruction, 205-206

fluency, 82, 213, 214-216

frequency of reading, 211

frustration level, 213

independent reading, 82, 211, 213, 214, 322-323

letter identification, 82

letter-sound relations, 82, 212, 322-323

monitoring, 222

oral reading, 215-216

paired reading, 215

phonemic awareness, 212

phonics, 205-206

poverty, 205-206, 214-216

print, concepts of, 218, 223

reading comprehension, general, 82, 213, 214-215, 222

reciprocal teaching, 222

rereading, 82

school restructuring, 232

screening and identification, 211-212

second-language speakers, 236

socioeconomic status, 214-216

spelling, 82, 212

teachers, 211-212

teaching methods, 207-223

vocabulary, 215

vowels, 212

whole language instruction, 205-206

word recognition, 205-206, 212-213, 322-323

writing, 82

see also Primary grades, general

Second-language speakers, see English as a second language

Semantics, 321, 340, 343

age factors, 53, 77, 83

comprehension and word knowledge, 63, 77

deaf children, 164

defined, 46

kindergarten, 111

storybook reading, 143

teacher education on, 288

vocabulary development and, 48

word form changes, 73

Sentences, 7

early childhood development, 48-49, 50, 108

first grade, 81

kindergarten, 80, 111, 116, 118

small-group instruction, 263

tutoring, Reading Recovery, 255

verbal memory, 108-109, 132

see also Grammar; Syntax

Serial naming, 109-111, 118

SES, see Socioeconomic status

Sesame Street, 57, 59, 278, 311-312

Sex differences, see Gender differences

Shared reading, see Group reading; Paired reading

Siblings, 119

Sight words, 6

deaf children, 164

first grade, 194, 322

kindergarten, 182, 189

tutoring, 259

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Small-group instruction, 12, 148, 192, 228, 231, 248, 262-264

phonological awareness, 250, 252

see also Group reading

Social development, 9, 15, 43, 44, 158

first grade, 262-264

listening skills, 64-65

literacy as societal goal, 1, 17-20, 29-30, 33-34, 156, 170, 292, 324-325

preschool intervention, 150, 168

special education, 168

teacher education, 285, 286, 292

word recognition, 262, 263

see also Pragmatics

Social workers, 9, 318

Socioeconomic status, 25, 27, 29-31, 94, 125-127

defined, 127

educational achievement and, 21

family factors and, 31, 119, 121, 125-127

phonics, 173

preventive interventions, 136, 137

school-based factors, 227

second grade, 214-216

second-language speakers, 235

vocabulary size and, 47

see also Poverty

Sounds, see Phonology

Space, concepts of, 280, 332

Spanish and Spanish speakers, 23, 27, 28-29, 123, 127, 156-158, 238, 316

first grade, 205

invented spelling, 59

kindergarten, 181

NAEP, 97

poor persons, 123, 155-156

Special education, 89-90, 166-170, 248, 268-271

curricular design, 167-170, 269-270

fluency, 270

group reading, 270

memory, 166, 169

models of, 89, 167

motivation, 167-170

paired reading, 270

preschool preventive measures, 150, 166-170

referral for, 27

social development, 168

storybooks, 168

teachers, 167-168, 196, 269, 296-299, 333

word recognition, 270

Specialists, 10, 248, 328

see also Pediatricians; Reading specialists; Speech-language

therapists; Teachers

Special Strategies studies, 98

Speech, see Listening comprehension; Oral reading; Phonology; Spoken words

Speech impairments, 105, 165, 315

Speech-language therapists, 9, 158-159, 164, 165, 318, 333

see also Reading specialists

Speech sounds, see Phonology

Spelling, 223, 314

defined, 22

early childhood development, 42, 43-44, 60, 66, 67, 70-71, 73

deaf children, 164

first grade, 81, 194, 195, 197, 198, 201-204, 206

first-third grades, 6, 7-8, 321, 323-324, 343

kindergarten, 80, 187-188, 189

models of development, 44-45, 72

nonstandard dialects, 238, 341

phonological considerations, general, 3, 22-23, 80-83, 194, 195, 198, 298, 322, 330, 343

second grade, 82, 212

teacher education, 296, 298, 330

third grade, 83

tutoring, 259, 260

vocabulary, 6, 321, 322, 344

see also Invented spelling; Morphology; Phonics

Spoken words, 2, 7, 315

early language development, 42, 46-47, 49, 50, 51, 320, 321, 324

kindergarten, 80, 179, 186-187, 188

school entry predictors, 108-109

continued on next page

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continued from previous page

speech impairments, 105

structure of, 3, 4, 314

teacher education on, 288

see also Alphabetic principle; Hearing impairments; Listening comprehension; Oral reading; Phonemic awareness; Phonological awareness; Phonology

Standards

criterion vsnorm referencing, 95-96

Head Start, 282

institutional accreditation, 293-295, 300, 301-302

national tests, 94; see also specific tests

publishers, 300

research agenda, 334-335

state-level actions, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 300-304, 307

teacher education, 282, 291, 293-296, 302

see also Intelligence quotient

State government, 2, 18, 275, 277, 299-304, 317-318

basal programs, 190

curricular design, 300-301, 302, 304

disabilities, 282

first-third grades, 300

kindergarten, 190, 194

legislation, 302

libraries, 300

phonics, 302

politics and, 299, 304

preschool education, 277, 282, 300

preventive interventions, general, 302

screening and identification, 302

standards, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 300-304, 307

teacher certification/standards, 282, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 301-302

textbooks, 300, 302-304, 307

Storybooks

computer-assisted, 264

decoding, 143

early childhood development, general, 62-63, 80

kindergarten, 179-180, 183, 188

parent-child reading, 142-143, 145

phonological awareness, 112

special education, 168

see also Big books

Storytelling, 200-201, 231, 232, 244, 246, 262, 280, 281, 318, 332

Student-teacher ratios, 11, 230, 231, 256, 282, 328

kindergarten, 178-179

see also Class size; Small-group instruction; Tutors and tutoring

Success For All, 230-233

Summarizing

first grade, 195

first-third grades, 6, 7, 322, 323

school restructuring, 232

third grade, 83

Summer reading lists, 8, 324

Sweden, 236

Syllables, 15, 21-22, 51, 54

African American dialect, 239

defined, 22

first grade, 81

kindergarten, 182, 185

onset-rime, 51, 185, 206, 259

rebus books, 182

Syntax

early childhood development, 48, 53, 74, 75, 318, 332

first-third grades, 6, 321, 322, 343, 344

kindergarten, 111

school-entry predictors, 107, 110

second-language speakers, 11, 325, 340

teacher education, 280, 288, 332

T

Talking books, 264

Teacher aids, 263

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Teacher certification, 282, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 301-302

Teacher education, 9-10, 11, 273, 278-299, 327, 329-331

alphabetic principle, 285, 288, 294-295, 296, 330

audiovisual presentations, 289-290

automaticity, 285

bilingual education, 285, 288, 297-298, 330

case-based instruction, 289-290

cognitive skills, 280, 282

cultural factors, 299

curricular design, 279-282, 294, 296, 330

emergent literary skills, 288, 296, 297, 330, 331, 332

explicit instruction, 287

families, 297

federal action, 284, 289, 294, 306

grammar, 298

group education, 292-293

independent reading, 296

institutional accreditation, 293-295, 300, 301-302

K-3, 10, 283-299, 329-331

language skills, general, 282, 284, 285, 330

letter-sound relations, 285, 294-295

literacy, general, 282, 284

metacognition, 286

models of, 291-292

morphology, 330

phonology, 280, 298, 330, 332

letter-sound relations, 285, 294-295

phonemic awareness, 296, 298

phonics, 296

phonological awareness, 284, 288, 298, 330

poor training as risk factor, 26, 289, 291

poverty as risk factor, 296

pragmatics, 288

preschool teachers, 279-283, 331-332

preventive interventions, 10, 287, 332

principals' involvement, 130

print media, general, 288, 332

problem-solving activities, 290

psychological factors, about, 285, 286, 287, 288, 292

reading comprehension, general, 296, 330

remedial education, about, 287, 298

rhetorical structures, about, 280, 285, 288

screening and identification, about, 279, 290, 296, 297, 298, 330, 332

second-language speakers, teachers of, 296, 297-299, 330, 332

semantics, 288

social development, 285, 286, 292

special education, 269

spelling, 296, 298, 330

spoken words, 288

standards, 282, 291, 293-296, 302

syntax, 280, 288, 332

theoretical issues, 292, 298, 329

time-on-task rates, 291, 329

tutoring, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 273

verbal abilities, general, 285, 288

vocabulary, 280, 332

word recognition, 285, 330

writing, 280, 285, 296, 298

see also Teacher certification

Teachers, 1, 2-3, 32, 101

attitudes of, 26, 124, 229, 288, 331, 332

awards for, 306

bilingual, 136

child-teacher interaction, 26, 124, 130, 177, 229, 230

employment issues, 331

salaries, 280, 300, 302

first grade, 196-199, 207

kindergarten, 180-181, 192

local government action, 305

nonstandard dialect students and, 124, 241-242

parent educators, 143

principals' involvement with, 130

publishers relations with, 307-309

continued on next page

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continued from previous page

school-based risk factors, 129-130

second grade, 211-212

special education, 167-168, 196, 269, 296-299, 333

state-level action, 282, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 301-302

see also Student-teacher ratios; Tutors and tutoring

Teaching materials, see Instructional materials

Teaching methods, 2, 3, 25-27, 32-33, 100, 172-178, 285, 314-315

computer-assisted instruction, 59, 188, 248, 252-253, 264-266, 334, 342-343

concurrent instruction, 136

debate over, 18, 19

direct code instruction, 199, 202, 204, 205-206

embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206

first grade, 172, 173, 177-178, 194-210

kindergarten, 177, 178-194, 250

metacognition, 220-223

modality teaching, 271

nonstandard dialects, 239-241

play-based instruction, 183-184, 188, 189-190, 191, 223, 306, 320, 321

reciprocal teaching, 139, 221-222

second and third grades, 207, 210-223

special education, 269

time-on-task rates, 129, 130

whole language instruction, 199-201, 205-206

see also Basal reading; Explicit instruction; Group reading; Homework; Preventive interventions; Small-group instruction; Teacher education; Tutors and tutoring

Television, 57, 59, 143, 278, 310-312

Tests and testing, 2

criterion vsnorm referencing, 95-96

family environment, 122

letter-sound correspondence, 115

multiple risk factors, 118

performance-based, 199

Qualitative Reading Inventory, 216

research agenda, 336-337

Spanish-language, 123

speech discrimination vsphonological awareness, 55

standard measures inadequate, 90-91, 94

vocabulary, 109

see also High School and Beyond; Intelligence quotient; National Assessment of Educational Progress

Texas, 304

Textbooks, 2, 334

local government, 304

political factors, 304

state-level action, 300, 302-304, 307

theoretical issues, 308

Theoretical issues, 34-39

controversial interventions, 271

parent-child reading, 144

phonological awareness, 52, 54, 248

research methodology, general, 33, 34-39, 176, 256-257

classificatory analysis, 117

correlational studies, general, 39, 101-103, 135, 178

prevention efforts, 135-136

prospective analyses, 37-38, 90

systematic replication, 34-35

second-language speakers, 237-238

teacher education, 292, 298, 329

textbooks, 308

vocabulary, 11, 325

word recognition, 236-237

Third grade, 83, 207, 210-223

accomplishments required, 83, 210-211

audiovisual presentations, 83

automaticity, 210

basal reading, 214

cognitive development, 219

conceptual knowledge, 219-220

continued on next page

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continued from previous page

fluency, 83, 213

frequency of reading, 214

independent reading, 213

letter-sound relations, 83

monitoring, 222

oral reading, 83

print, concepts of, 218, 223

reading comprehension, general, 83, 213, 219-220, 222

recall, 213

rereading, 214

spelling, 83

word recognition, 211, 214

writing, 83, 211

see also Primary grades, general

Time-on-task rates, 129, 130, 177, 229, 230, 238, 272

teacher education, 291, 329

tutoring, 255-256, 257, 261

Title I, see Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Toys, 59

Tutors and tutoring, 12, 207, 231, 248, 254-262, 326-327, 333

alphabetic principle, 259, 261

automaticity, 259

book reading, 255, 257, 259, 261

consonants, 259

cost of, 255, 258, 260

curricular design, 255, 258, 259, 261

decoding, 258, 261

experimental studies, 256, 257-258

first grade, 207, 260, 327

fluency, 253, 259, 261

independent reading, 255

invented spelling, 259-260

letter recognition, 255, 259, 261

metalinguistic factors, 258

phonology, 255, 259

letter-sound relations, 259, 261

phonemic awareness, 258, 259

phonics, 259, 260

poor children, 260

second-language speakers, 260

sentences, 255

sight words, 259

spelling, 259, 260

time-on-task, 255-256, 257, 261

training of, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 273

volunteer, 12, 162, 273, 328

vowels, 259

word recognition, 258, 261

writing, 259, 260

see alsoReading specialists

U

United Kingdom, 76, 88, 90

Urban areas, 30-31, 98, 229, 239, 290, 315, 327-328

V

Verbal abilities, general, 108-110, 302, 318, 322

family interactions, 121, 122-123, 127, 139-141, 143, 171

memory, 108-110, 132, 323

teacher education, 285, 288

see also Oral reading; Spoken words; Vocabulary

Videotapes, see Audiovisual presentations

Visual impairments, 89, 105, 271

Visual skills, 116

Vocabulary, 4, 223

African Americans, 156

comprehension and word knowledge, 63, 67, 216-219, 220

defined, 46-48

early language development, 47, 57, 63, 67, 75, 79, 107, 109

first grade, 81, 203

first-third grades, 6, 48, 321, 322, 344

high school, 48

kindergarten, 80, 109

parental involvement, 139, 319

phonics and, 173

preschool, 107, 109-111, 148, 170, 280, 318, 319, 320, 321

continued on next page

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continued from previous page

reading comprehension and, general, 63, 67, 216-219, 220

school restructuring, 231, 232

second grade, 215

second-language speakers, 11, 325

semantics and, 48

socioeconomic status, 47

spelling and, 6, 321, 322, 344

teacher education, 280, 332

tests and testing, 109

theoretical issues, 11, 325

see also Naming; Sight words; Word games; Word recognition

Voluntary reading, 81-83

Volunteer tutors, 12, 162, 273, 328

Vowels

African American dialect, 239

first grade, 198

invented spelling, 59

second grade, 212

syllable defined, 22

tutoring, 259

W

Welfare reform, 320

Whole language instruction, 199-201, 205-206

Word games, 143, 151-152, 187, 203, 204, 208

riddles, 223

see also Rhymes and rhyming

Word recognition, 4, 6, 7, 15, 220, 272, 315-316, 322, 343

automaticity and, 75, 79, 90, 252-253;

see also Sight words

computer-based interventions, 252-253

curriculum casualties, 25-26

early childhood development, 50, 53, 62, 65-67, 70-75, 79, 80, 111

first grade, 194, 198, 204, 205-206, 262

fourth grade, 214

kindergarten, 180, 181-182, 188, 189, 249, 251, 322

models of, 214

morphemes and, 73-74, 153

neuroscience, 24

onset-rime, 51, 185, 206, 259

phonics and, 173, 259

reading disabled children, 252-254

rebus books, 182, 204

second grade, 205-206, 212-213, 322-323

second-language speakers, 236-237

small-group instruction, 262, 263

social development and, 262, 263

special education, 270

teacher education, 285, 330

theoretical issues, 236-237

third-fourth grades, 214

third grade, 211, 214

tutoring, 258, 261

see also Alphabetic principle; Automaticity; Frustration level; Semantics; Spoken words; Word games

Writing, 272, 314, 323

computer-assisted instruction, 265

early childhood development, 42, 57, 59-60, 69-70, 142, 149

deaf children, 164

first grade, 81, 196, 197, 198, 200, 204, 207, 209

first-third grades, 6, 7, 285, 321-322

Head Start, 281

kindergarten, 183-184, 188, 189, 191

literacy defined, 42

preventive interventions, 278

second grade, 82

small-group instruction, 263

state action, 302

teacher education, 280, 285, 296, 298

third grade, 83, 211

tutoring, 259, 260

see also Alphabetic principle; Emergent writing; Spelling

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Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children Get This Book
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While most children learn to read fairly well, there remain many young Americans whose futures are imperiled because they do not read well enough to meet the demands of our competitive, technology-driven society. This book explores the problem within the context of social, historical, cultural, and biological factors.

Recommendations address the identification of groups of children at risk, effective instruction for the preschool and early grades, effective approaches to dialects and bilingualism, the importance of these findings for the professional development of teachers, and gaps that remain in our understanding of how children learn to read. Implications for parents, teachers, schools, communities, the media, and government at all levels are discussed.

The book examines the epidemiology of reading problems and introduces the concepts used by experts in the field. In a clear and readable narrative, word identification, comprehension, and other processes in normal reading development are discussed.

Against the background of normal progress, Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children examines factors that put children at risk of poor reading. It explores in detail how literacy can be fostered from birth through kindergarten and the primary grades, including evaluation of philosophies, systems, and materials commonly used to teach reading.

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