NATHAN M. NEWMARK
September 22, 1910-January 25, 1981
BY WILLIAM J. HALL
NATHAN MORTIMORE NEWMARK, internationally known educator and engineer, died January 25, 1981, in Urbana, Illinois. Dr. Newmark was widely known for his research in structural engineering and structural dynamics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, for his contributions to the design of earthquake-resistant structures—including the Latino Americana Tower in Mexico City—and, most recently, for his work on the design of the trans-Alaska pipeline.
EDUCATION AND EARLY CAREER
Nathan M. Newmark was born in Plainfield, New Jersey, on September 22, 1910, to Abraham S. and Mollie Nathanson Newmark. He married Anne May Cohen on August 6, 1931, and is survived by his wife and three children, Richard, Linda (Mrs. James Bylander), and Susan (Mrs. Paul Mayfield).
After receiving his early education in North Carolina and New Jersey he attended Rutgers University. There he accumulated a number of prizes and graduated in 1930 with high honors—including special honors in civil engineering—giving evidence of his unusual skills and talents at a young age. He then enrolled as a graduate student at the University of Illinois in Urbana where he worked under the late professors
Hardy Cross, Harold M. Westergaard, and Frank E. Richart, receiving his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in 1932 and 1934, respectively.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
Beginning in 1930 as a graduate research assistant, Nate Newmark held a succession of positions for over half a century at the University of Illinois. He was appointed research professor of civil engineering in 1943, skipping the intermediate rank of associate professor. Early in his career he contributed significantly to the fields of structural analysis and structural materials and received national and international recognition for his work pertaining to highway bridges. His contributions in the area of structural dynamics, including consideration of impact, wave action, wind, blast, and earthquakes, greatly influenced structural and mechanical design throughout the world.
In 1956 he was appointed head of the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a position he held until 1973. He retired from his university position in 1976. Although the reputation of the department had been great almost since its founding, under Professor Newmark's leadership its stature rose to new heights.
From 1947 to 1957 he was chairman of the Digital Computer Laboratory at the university. During this period he had a major hand in developing one of the first modern, large-scale, digital computers (ILLIAC-II)—work that eventually led to the university's eminent position as a developer of computer science for engineering.
Newmark served in many important leadership capacities in the university and had the distinction of the longest tenure to date on the University Research Board. This board was in large part responsible for making the university one of the
world's great research institutions, and Nate's vision and foresight played no small role in the success of this effort.
THE WORLD'S EARTHQUAKE ENGINEER
During World War II Dr. Newmark was a consultant to both the National Defense Research Committee and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Part of his national service time was spent in the Pacific War Zone. In 1948, he was awarded the President's Certificate of Merit. In addition to serving on numerous Department of Defense boards and panels, he made major contributions to the development of the Minute Man and MX missile systems.
As a practicing engineer he was instrumental in developing the design criteria for many of the largest and most complex projects of the world.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Newmark served as the earthquake consultant on the forty-three story Latino Americana Tower in Mexico City. A plaque is mounted on that building, which withstood a strong earthquake in 1957 without damage, attesting to his design accomplishment.
Newmark was also responsible for developing the seismic design criteria for many other large projects, including the Bay Area Rapid Transit System and the trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline System, now the largest privately financed project in the history of the world. During the seventeen years before his death he carried the major responsibility for developing earthquake design and review criteria for about seventy nuclear power plants and for proposed liquid natural gas facilities on the West coast; at the time of his death, he was the consultant on seismic design for the Alaska-Canada Gas Pipeline.
Professor Newmark's publications include over 200 papers, books, and chapters in books. He is the coauthor of the following books on earthquake engineering: Design of Multi-
Story Reinforced Concrete Buildings for Earthquake Motion, with John A. Blume and Leo Corning (Chicago: Portland Cement Association, 1961) and Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering, with Emilio Rosenblueth (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971).
HONORS AND AWARDS
Nate played a major role in many of the most important technical activities of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He was one of the founding members of the Engineering Mechanics Division and a prime mover in furthering the Society's computer application activities. Having received virtually every major award given out by the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Engineering Foundation Founders Society, he was an honored member of the many learned societies to which he belonged.
He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1962, a founding member of the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1966. Among his many NAE/ NAS/NRC activities were the following: NAE Council, 1964-1968; NAE/NAS Joint Board, 1966-1968; NAE Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research, 1965-1970; NAS/ NAE Committee on Scientific and Technical Communication, 1966-1969; and NAE/NRC Committee on Natural Disasters, 1971-1977 (member and chairman).
In 1968, Nathan Newmark received the National Medal of Science from President Lyndon B. Johnson. A year later he received the Washington Award—a joint award given annually by the major engineering societies of the United States. In 1979, Dr. Newmark was presented the John Fritz Medal, an all-engineering society award. In 1980 he received the sixteenth Gold Medal in the fifty-seven-year history of the Institution of Structural Engineers of Great Britain—the
second American engineer to be so honored. He also received honorary degrees from several universities: Rutgers University (his alma mater) in 1955, the University of Liège in Belgium in 1967, the University of Notre Dame in 1969, and the University of Illinois in 1978.
On February 19, 1981, three weeks after his death, the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois renamed the Civil Engineering Building the Nathan M. Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, in commemoration of his contributions to the university.
Nate Newmark was a university unto himself. Whether in academia or professional practice, engineers young and old sensed the challenge of this man's education and intellect. His penetrating insight, his keen engineering judgment, and his genuine interest in people were a constant source of inspiration to all who had the privilege of working with him.
Professor Newmark possessed an unusual ability to attract young people to the field of civil engineering, to inspire them with the confidence for undertaking new and varied tasks, and to guide but not direct their thinking. He insisted they receive appropriate recognition as individuals for their accomplishments. His unceasing devotion to research, his noteworthy and continuing contributions to the betterment of structural design practice, and his leadership in engineering education, teaching, and professional activities had a profound influence on civil engineering. It is no accident that there grew up around him one of the most active research centers in civil engineering in this country, or that the alumni of this group have assumed broad leadership in education, industry, and government throughout the world.
1933 With W. M. Wilson. The strength of thin cylindrical shells as columns. Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Bull. 255. 45 pp.
1935 Simplified computation of vertical pressures in elastic foundations. Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Cir. 24. 19 pp.
1936 Interaction between rib and superstructure in concrete arch bridges. Proc. ASCE 62: 1043-61, based on Newmark's doctoral dissertation. See also author's closure to discussion, Proc. ASCE 64(1938): 341-43 and Trans. ASCE 103(1938): 62-88, with discussions.
1938 A distribution procedure for the analysis of slabs continuous over flexible beams. Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Bull. 304. 118 pp.
1941 Note on calculation of influence surfaces in plates by use of difference equations. J. Appl. Mech. 8: A-92.
1942 Influence charts for computation of stresses in elastic foundations. Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Bull. 338. 28 pp.
1943 Numerical procedures for computing deflections, moments, and buckling loads. Trans. ASCE 108: 1161-1234.
1947 Influence charts for computation of vertical displacements in elastic foundations. Univ. Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Bull. 367. 11pp.
With E. C. Colin, Jr. A numerical solution for the torsion of hollow sections. J. Appl. Mech. 14: A313-15.
1948 Design of I-beam bridges and highway bridge floors—a symposium. Proc. ASCE 74: 305-30.
With F. E. Richart, Jr. An hypothesis for the determination of cumulative damage in fatigue. Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat. 48: 767-98.
1949 Numerical methods of analysis of bars, plates, and elastic bodies. In: Numerical methods of analysis in engineering, ed. L. E. Grinter, pp. 138-68. New York: MacMillan.
A simple approximate formula for effective end-fixity of columns. J. Aeronaut. Sci. 16: 116.
1950 With W. H. Bruckner. Axial tension impact tests of structural steels. Weld. J. 29: 212-16.
With C. P. Seiss. Moments in two-way concrete floor slabs. Univ. Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Bull. 385. 124pp.
1952 With A. S. Veletsos. A simple approximation for the natural frequencies of partly restrained bars. J. Appl. Mech. 19: 563.
Bounds and convergence of relaxation and iteration procedures. Proc. 1st Nat. Congr. Appl. Mech., pp. 9-14.
A review of cumulative damage in fatigue. In: Fatigue and fracture of metals, pp. 197-228. New York: John Wiley and Cambridge: MIT Press.
1954 With C. P. Siess. Research on highway bridge floors at the University of Illinois, 1936-1954. Proc. Highway Res. Board 33: 30-53. (Also issued as Univ. Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta., reprint no. 52)
1955 With L. E. Goodman and E. Rosenblueth. Aseismic design of firmly founded elastic structures. Trans. ASCE 120: 782-802.
1956 An engineering approach to blast-resistant design. Trans. ASCE 121: 45-64.
With Leonardo Zeevaert. Aseismic design of Latino Americana Tower in Mexico City. Proc. World Conf. Earthquake Eng., pp. 35(1)-35(11). Berkeley: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
1957 With A. S. Veletsos. Natural frequencies of continuous flexural members. Trans. ASCE 122: 249-85.
1958 With L. A. Harris. Effect of fabricated edge conditions on brittle fracture of structural steels. Welding Res. Suppl., Welding J. 37: 137.
1959 With S. T. Rolfe and W. J. Hall. Brittle-fracture tests of steel plates containing residual compressive strain. Welding Res. Suppl., Welding J. 38: 169(S)-175(S).
The place of the university in the education of civil engineers. 1. Undergraduate study and the curriculum, pp. N10-11. II. Postgraduate education, pp. N18-19. III. The place of engineering research in universities, pp. N24-25. IV. Concluding remarks, p. N24. Proc. Inst. Civil Eng., Great Britain, vol. 12.
1961 With A. S. Veletsos. Effects of inelastic behavior on the response of simple systems to earthquake motions. Proc. 2nd World Conf. Earthquake Eng., Tokyo, vol. 2, pp. 895-912.
Failure hypotheses for soils. Opening address, Res. Conf. Shear Strength Cohesive Soils, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 17-32.
With J. A. Blume and Leo Corning. Design of multi-story reinforced concrete buildings for earthquake motions. Chicago: Portland Cement Association. 350 pp.
1962 Educación en ingenieria. Ingenieria (Mexico City) 32: 73-78.
A method of computation for structural dynamics. Trans. ASCE 127: 1406-35, with discussion. Paper No. 3384.
1963 Design of structures for dynamic loads including the effects of vibration and ground shock. Symposium on Scientific Problems of Protective Construction, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, pp. 148-248.
1965 Structural engineering. In: Listen to leaders in engineering, eds. Albert Love and James Saxon Childers, pp. 73-84. Atlanta: Tupper and Love.
Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments. Fifth Rankine Lecture, Institute of Civil Engineers, London. Geotechnique 15: 139-59.
With A. S. Veletsos and C. V. Chelapati. Deformation spectra for elastic and elasto-plastic systems subjected to ground shock and earthquake motions. Proc. 3rd World Congr. Earthquake Eng., New Zealand, vol. 2: (II)663-(II)682.
1968 With W. J. Hall. Dynamic behavior of reinforced and prestressed concrete buildings under horizontal forces and the design of joints (including wind, earthquake, blast effects). 8th Congr., Intl. Assoc. Bridge Struct. Eng., September 1968, New York. Preliminary publication, pp. 585-613 (with French and German translations).
With M. A. Sozen, P. C. Jennings, R. B. Matthiesen, and G. W. Housner. Engineering report on the Caracas earthquake of 29 July, 1967. Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research, Division of Engineering, NRC-NAE. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 217 pp.
1969 Relation between wind and earthquake response of tall buildings. Proc. 1966 Ill. Struct. Eng. Conf., February 1969, pp. 137-56.
Design criteria for nuclear reactors subjected to earthquake hazards. Proc. IAEA Panel on Aseismic Design and Testing of Nuclear Facilities, pp. 90-113. Tokyo: Japan Earthquake Promotion Society. (Supplement by N. M. Newmark and W. J. Hall, pp. 114-19)
Torsion in symmetrical buildings. Proc. 4th World Conf. Earthquake Eng., 1969, Santiago, Chile, vol. 2, pp. (A3)19-(A3)32.
With W. J. Hall. Seismic design criteria for nuclear reactor facilities. Proc. 4th World Conf. Earthquake Eng., 1969, Santiago, Chile, vol. 2, pp. (B4)37-(B4)50.
With S. J. Fenves. Seismic forces and overturning moments in buildings, towers, and chimneys. Proc. 4th World Conf. Earthquake Eng., Santiago, Chile, vol. 2, pp. (B5)1-(B5)12.
1970 Current trends in the seismic analysis and design of high rise structures. In Earthquake Engineering, ed. Robert L. Weigel, pp. 403-24. Englewood Cliffs, N J.: Prentice-Hall.
1971 With E. Rosenblueth. Fundamentals of earthquake engineering. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.
1972 Earthquake response analysis of reactor structures. Nuclear Eng. Des. 20: 303-22.
1973 With W. J. Hall. Procedures and criteria for earthquake resistant design. Building practices for disaster mitigation, National Bureau of Standards Building Science Series 46, vol. 1: 209-36.
With J. A. Blume and K. K. Kapur. Seismic design spectra for nuclear power plants. Proc. ASCE 99: 287-303.
With W. J. Hall and B. Mohraz. A study of vertical and horizontal earthquake spectra. Directorate of Licensing, U.S.A.E.C. Report WASH-1255, April 1973.
1974 With W. J. Hall. Seismic design spectra for trans-Alaska pipeline. Proc. 5th World Conf. Earthquake Eng., Intl. Assoc. Earthquake Eng., Rome 1974, vol. 1, pp. 554-57.
Interpretation of apparent up-throw of objects in earthquakes. Proc. 5th World Conf. Earthquake Eng., Intl. Assoc. Earthquake Eng., Rome 1974, vol. 2, pp. 2338-343.
1975 Seismic design criteria for structures and facilities, trans-Alaska pipeline system. Proc. U.S. Natl. Conf. Earthquake Eng., June 1975, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Earthquake Eng. Res. Inst., pp. 94-103.
With W. J. Hall. Pipeline design to resist large fault displacement. Proc. U.S. Natl. Conf. Earthquake Eng., June 1975, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Earthquake Eng. Res. Inst., pp. 416-25.
1976 With W. J. Hall and B. Mohraz. Statistical studies of vertical and horizontal earthquake spectra. Division of Systems Safety, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Comm. Report NUREG-0003.
With W. J. Hall. Vibration of structures induced by ground motion. In Shock and vibration handbook, 2nd ed., eds. Cyril M. Harris and Charles E. Crede, pp. 1-19. New York: McGraw-Hill.
1978 With W. J. Hall. Development of criteria for seismic review of selected nuclear power plants. U.S. Nuc. Reg. Comm. Report NUREG/CR0098.
N. M. Newmark et al. Tentative provisions for the development of seismic regulations for buildings. Appl. Tech. Council Report ATC 3-06, NBS Special Publ. 510; NSF Publ. 78-8, June 1978. 506 pp.
With W J. Hall. Seismic design criteria for pipelines and facilities. Proc. ASCE 104: 91-107.
1980 With Anil K. Chopra. Analysis. In: Design of earthquake resistant structures, ed. E. Rosenblueth. London: Pentech Press.
With R. Riddell. Inelastic spectra for seismic design. Proc. 7th World
Conf. Earthquake Eng., September 8-13, 1980, Istanbul, vol. 4, pp. 129-36.
1982 With R. Villaverde. Computation of seismic response of light attachments to buildings. Proc. 7th World Conf. Earthquake Eng., September 8-13, 1980, Istanbul, vol. 5, pp. 343-50.
With W. J. Hall. Earthquake spectra and design. Berkeley, Calif.: Earthquake Eng. Res. Inst. Monogr. Ser.