NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
This project was made possible with funding support from the United States-Japan Foundation and the National Research Council.
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations that provided support for the project.
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COMMITTEE ON JAPAN
Erich Bloch, Chairman
Council on Competitiveness
Richard J. Samuels, Vice-Chairman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sherwood L. Boehlert
U.S. House of Respresentatives
Lewis M. Branscomb
G. Steven Burrill
Burrill & Company
Lawrence W. Clarkson
The Boeing Co.
Mildred S. Dresselhaus
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
David A. Duke
Corning, Inc. (retired)
Daniel J. Fink
D. J. Fink Associates, Inc.
John O. Haley
University of Washington
Jim F. Martin
Rockwell Science Center
Joseph A. Massey
Mike M. Mochizuki
The Brookings Institution
Hugh T. Patrick
John D. Rockefeller IV
United States Senate
Robert A. Scalapino
University of California, Berkeley
Susan C. Schwab
University of Maryland
Ex Officio Members:
Harold K. Forsen, Foreign Secretary,
National Academy of Engineering
F. Sherwood Rowland, Foreign Secretary,
National Academy of Sciences
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL TASK FORCE ON MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS
Donald N. Frey
G. Frank Joklik
Kennecott Corp. (retired)
Donald E. Petersen
Ford Motor Co. (retired)
Hubert J.P. Schoemaker
Edson W. Spencer
E. Joseph Zemke
JAPAN SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENCE COMMITTEE 149
MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS WORKING GROUP
Michiyuki Uenohara Executive Advisor,
Tsuneo Nakahara Vice Chairman,
Junichi Baba Advisor,
Hiroshi Sakurai Executive Director,
Engineering Academy of Japan
Ryoichi Nakagawa Advisor,
Sogo Okamura President,
Tokyo Denki University
Hiroshi Inose Director General,
National Center for Science Information Systems
Yoshikazu Ito Chairman,
Yumi Akimoto President,
Chikara Hayashi Chairman,
Shigeo Hosoki Advisor,
Tsutomu Kanai President,
Fumio Kodama Professor,
University of Tokyo
Eiichi Kumabe Senior Managing Director,
Noboru Makino Chairman,
Mitsubishi Research Institute
Noboru Miura Senior Managing Director,
Masahiko Morizono Counselor & Executive Advisor,
Teruhisa Noguchi Senior Executive Vice President,
Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co.
Yoichi Ogawa Auditor,
Morio Onoe Senior Executive Vice President,
Sakae Shimizu Executive Advisor,
Hideo Sugiura Auditor,
former Senior Executive Vice President,
Takuya Urakawa Executive Director,
Business Research Institute(
former Vice President,
Takuma Yamamoto Chairman,
Keizo Yamazi Vice Chairman,
Naoya Yoda Executive Advisor,
Toray Corporate Business Research
National Institute of Research Advancement
Research Institute for Science and Technology Policy
General Manager, Sumitomo Electric
Mitsui & Co.
OFFICE OF JAPAN AFFAIRS
Since 1985 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering have engaged in a series of high-level discussions on advanced technology and the international environment with a counterpart group of Japanese scientists, engineers, and industrialists. One outcome of these discussions was a deepened understanding of the importance of promoting a more balanced two-way flow of people and information between the research and development systems in the two countries. Another result was a broader recognition of the need to address the science and technology policy issues increasingly central to a changing U.S.-Japan relationship. In 1987 the National Research Council, the operating arm of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, authorized first-year funding for a new Office of Japan Affairs (OJA). This newest program element of the Office of International Affairs was formally established in the spring of 1988.
The primary objectives of OJA are to provide a resource to the Academy complex and the broader U.S. science and engineering communities for information on Japanese science and technology, to promote better working relationships between the technical communities in the two countries by developing a process of deepened dialogue on issues of mutual concern, and to address policy issues surrounding a changing U.S.-Japan science and technology relationship.
REPORT OF THE U.S. WORKING GROUP
REPORT OF THE JAPANESE WORKING GROUP