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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Appendix B
PARTICULATE-MATTER RESEARCH INVENTORY (IN PROGRESS)

Prepared by

Maria Costantini, Health Effects Institute

John Vandenberg, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

CONTENTS

   

PARTICULATE-MATTER RESEARCH INVENTORY TABLE

 

142

   

INSTITUTIONS THAT HAVE PROVIDED INFORMATION

 

 

   

AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE

 

159

   

CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD

 

161

   

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY

 

162

   

COORDINATING RESEARCH COUNCIL

 

162

   

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

 

163

   

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY)

 

163

   

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE

 

164

   

ENGINE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

 

167

   

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

 

167

   

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

 

168

   

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

 

169

   

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

 

172

   

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

 

173

   

EUROPEAN UNION/DG XI

 

179

   

HEALTH CANADA

 

181

   

HEALTH EFFECTS INSTITUTE

 

181

   

LOVELACE RESPIRATORY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

 

183

   

MICKEY LELAND NATIONAL URBAN AIR TOXICS RESEARCH CENTER

 

184

   

NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE

 

185

   

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

 

185

   

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES

 

186

   

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

 

189

   

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT, BILTHOVEN (NL)

 

191

   

UNITED KINGDOM DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

 

192

   

UNIVERSITY OF WAGENINGEN (NL)

 

194

   

VERBANDES DER AUTOMOBILINDUSTRIE (D)

 

194

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Particulate-Matter Research Inventory (in progress), March 16, 1998 Summaries of Studies in Each Category Organized by Funding Institution*

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

API (13)

Analyze uncertainties and statistical artifacts in PM epidemiologic studies to address issues of conflicting results, confounders, and measurement error (including using results of personal monitoring data); possibly reanalyze existing studies. (2-3)

 

 

Characterize the effect of inhaled PM (including role of soluble metals) on ECG changes in dogs (see Lovelace). Evaluate susceptibility to inhaled particles using animals with diseases (supported also by EPRI and AAMA). (2)

 

Determine degree of correlation among stationary, micro-environmental and personal measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 (and other pollutants) in a group of COPD patients in Boston and Nashville and in elderly individuals in Baltimore. Characterize morphology and size distribution and elemental composition of PM on filters collected in Nashville/Boston. (3)

 

Refine and validate personal exposure models using mutlipollutant monitoring studies. Evaluate PM chemistry and air quality models (see CRC). (2)

Characterize PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from refinery sources after pilot study, from oil and gas production field combustion units, and from gasoline and diesel vehicles (including size distribution) (see CRC). (3)

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

CARB (25)

Prospective study to evaluate hospital admissions and ER visits in cities a high PM area in CA in relation to PM10, PM2.5, ultrafine, and PM composition. (1)

Evaluate the impact of community air pollution (including PM10 and PM2.5) on lung growth and respiratory health in children. (1)

Evaluate the health impact of exposure to smoke (derived from agriculture and silviculture) and the toxicology of air pollutants (ozone, nitric acid, nitrates, and carbon. (3)

Effects of exposure to fine and ultrafine ammonium nitrate and carbon particles on cell function and cardio-pulmonary response in young and old rats. (1)

 

Determine the level of particles and vaporphase organics inside cars. (1)

 

Determine spatial and temporal variability of California atmosphere (including field and laboratory studies to characterize gaseous precursors, organic, carbonaceous, and nitrate species. (12)

Evaluate stationary and mobile source emissions of PM-size distribution and chemistry-including effects of fuels and operating conditions. (6)

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

CIIT (5)

 

 

Compare the proliferative and neoplastic response in rats, mice, and hamsters exposed to fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide and correlate responses with lung overload. (1)

Compare molecular and cellular end-points in vitro and in vivo (such as altered apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules) after exposure to fibrous and non fibrous particles. (2)

Develop models for the deposition and clearance of particles in humans and animals, identify the factors influencing the delivered dose. Determine particle deposition efficiency in the rat nasal passage and the inhalability factor for particles as function of diameter. (2)

 

 

 

 

 

CRC (5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determine contribution of vehicle emission to ambient carbonaceous PM and analyze PM in Denver. (2)

Study mechanisms of production of secondary organic aerosols. Review UAMAERO model. (2)

Characterize primary particle emissions from light-duty motor vehicles. (1)

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

DOE (5)

 

 

 

 

 

Research on ultrafine instrumentation nad aerosol optical properties. (1)

Research on global aerosol models and chemical dynamic processes governing aerosols. (4)

 

 

 

DOE/NREL (2)

 

 

 

 

 

Characterization and evolution of secondary aerosols during PM2.5 and PM10 episodes in the SoCAB. (Planned with CRC) (1)

 

 

Size distribution of in-use heavy-duty vehicle particulate emissions (1)

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

EPRI (16+?)

Investigate possible statistical artifacts in time-series studies and determine influence of measurement error and alternative statistical approaches. Reanalyze Harvard 6-cities mortality data. Study the relationship between ambient monitoring for several PM fractions mortality and morbidity. Conduct a prospective study of mortality and morbidity. Study relationship between health parameters and air pollution in COPD patients. Study relationship between PM/ozone exposure and emergency room visits by asthmatics. (8)

 

Cardio-pulmonary effects of exposure to model particles in healthy and COPD adults and of heavy occupational exposures in workers. (2)

Review literature to identify plausible mechanisms. Investigate homeostasis disruption as possible mechanism. (2) Additional mechanistic studies planned.

 

Collect outdoor monitoring data for PM and other pollutants. Determine indoor/outdoor and personal exposure for a group of elderly individuals (2)

 

Develop and test plume and grid models, characterize total aerosol, define secondary organic formation (1)

 

Integrated risk management framework including regional source characterization, transfer module, cost components, and management options (1)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

EMA (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Particle size distribution from modern diesel engine (1) Planned

 

EPA/NCEA, NERL, NHEERL, NRMR (55)

Develop and apply methods to assess PM2.5, PM10 and copollutant exposures and cardiac, pulmonary, and inflammatory effects in elderly population in Baltimore. Study effects of outdoor and indoor PM on children's lung function in China. Study daily mortality and morbidity associated with PM and copollutants. (6)

Collaborate with USC and CARB to assess morbidity and mortality effects of ozone and copollutants (including PM) in Seventh Day Adventist children and in other communities. (3)

Evaluate effects of PM and co-exposure (viral infection, allergens) on cardiopulmonary system, and evaluate physicochemical properties and toxicity of PM. (8)

In vivo and in vitro research to characterize potential cardiac, pulmonary inflammatory and neurogenic causal mechanisms. Identify key components (metals and organics) of PM in causing health effects. Develop and evaluate models of susceptibility (COPD, CVD, asthma). (10)

Apply serial bolus technique to measure dose of course, fine, and ultrafine PM in lung regions of normal and diseased humans. Model air flow dynamics and regional particle deposition. (6)

Develop/apply new semi-continuous personal PM monitor. Ambient, indoor, outdoor, personal monitoring and determination of air exchange rates in and around elderly residential facilities (Baltimore epi study), and homes of COPD patients in a second city. Study of PM and PAH source strength and decay rates in occupied homes. (5)

Develop PM Federal Reference and Equivalent Methods and advanced methods for particle speciation. Conduct intensive ambient PM monitoring, including size speciation, in three cities. Provide ambient particles for toxicology tests and reanalyze selected filter samples from the Harvard Six City Study. (4)

Establish the chemical and physical processes that control the organic and inorganic composition and size of fine particulate matter; incorporate these into the next generation, integrated air quality model (Model-3); evaluate the model's sensitivity against field data prior to application. (4)

Characterize primary fine PM emissions and their composition from stationary, fugitive, and mobile sources. Develop emission factors for emission inventory. develop receptor modeling tools and apply these in analysis of field data sets. (6)

Evaluate integrated controls for PM and toxic and acid gases. Analyze data on soiling of building materials from PM for cost analyses. Develop criteria document (3)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

EPA/NCERQA (43)

Studies of daily mortality and acidic PM in 3 US cities, of respiratory health and ultrafine PM in children with respiratory symptoms, of hospital admission and air pollution. Evaluate confounders in time series studies of PM and mortality. Determine association between asthma indices and exposure to fine particles and formaldehyde and between transition metals and sources of fine particles on mortality. (6)

 

Compare pulmonary toxicity of PM and ozone in vivo and determine effects of PM on respiratory bronchioles. (2)

Pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with exposure to CAP in vivo. Inflammatory mediators production induced by PM in vitro. (4)

 

 

Measure and apportion to sources human exposure to air pollutants. Develop methods for measuring components of PM10 and PM2.5, including semi-volatile particulate species. Monitor particle composition,\morphology, and size in ambient air. (18)

Atmospheric fate and deposition of soot using an isotopic tracer. Chemistry of secondary aerosol formation. and reactivity of aerosols. Develop and test a model for regional and urban photochemistry of PM. Develop population-based exposure models and source apportionment models. (12)

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

European Union (8 multicenter studies)

Investigate respiratory and cardiovascular deaths, including mortality displacement, in relation to air pollution (APHEA 2). Follow elderly persons with measurements of health indices (ULTRA II). Establish dose-response relationships for cancer risk from exposure to air pollutants. Assess risk of development of allergy, asthma, etc., in children in relation to exposure to air pollution. (4)

 

 

 

 

Measure personal and microenvironmental exposure to air pollutants and develop predictive exposure models (EXPOLIS). Compare particle counters and assess size and elemental composition of fine particles in cites. Conduct measurements of platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the environment. (3)

Determine soluble elements in PM10 within PEACE study framework. (1)

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

Health Canada (5)

Relation between hospital admission and indices of air pollution (including PM). (1)

Respiratory health of children and adolescents in relation to long-term exposure to acidic particulates in New Brunswick. Long-term follow-up to the 24-cities studies of students in grades 11 and 12 in British Columbia. (2)

Interactive effects of ozone and PM in vivo. (1)

Relationship between atmospheric aging of PM and their potency in vitro. (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

HEI (16)

Identify people at risk, factors that increase risk of mortality, PM components more strongly associated with mortality increases. Relationship between PM exposure and sudden cardiac death. Relationship between air pollution and mortality/morbidity in a large number of US cities (NMMAPS). (5)

Reanalyze epidemiologic studies on effects of longterm exposure to PM. (1)

Compare effects of exposure to CAP or DE on production of inflammatory mediators in humans. (1)

Mechanisms of toxicity (inflammation, ECG changes, susceptibility to infections) of CAP and ultrafine particles in rodents and dogs with induced heart or lung disease. Reactivity of model particles and their components in causing cellular changes in rats. Role of particle aging and chemical form of iron on oxygen radical production and role of iron on production of inflammatory mediators in vitro. (8)

Role of particle binding on the dose of iron or benzo(a)pyrene in the blood of exposed dogs. (1)

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

Lovelace Respiratory Research Inst. (11)

 

 

Effects on airway inflammation and reactivity of combined exposure to cigarette smoke and other agents inflammation and reactivity in mice. (1)

Compare effects of different particles on production of inflammatory mediators and DNA changes in vitro and pulmonary responses in animals and humans. Study changes in cancer-related genes in PM-induced human and animal lung tumors. Study effects of PM on heart function in dogs. Review utility of animal models of disease. (6)

Distribution of particles in the lungs of humans, monkeys, and rats with light and heavy burdens of particles. Effect of particle size and flow rate on particle deposition in the upper airways. Interspecies comparison of particle retention in the lungs of rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Bioavailability of particle-borne organics (4)

 

 

 

PM emissions from portable kerosene heaters to assess exposure of soldiers during gulf war. (1)

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

Mickey Leland Natl Urban Air Toxics Res Ctr (2)

 

 

 

 

 

Determine personal exposure to VOC, aldehydes, PM2.5, and metals over time of students in NYC and LA and residents of CA, TX, and NJ and evaluate the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor concentration and personal exposure (2)

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

NHLBI (5)

 

 

Correlate daily symptoms and expiratory flows with air pollution in asthmatic children. Develop magnetic resonance microscopy to measure structure and function changes after exposure to PM and quantify lung injury (using aerosol deposition and wash-out measures) in animals with emphysema. (3)

 

Modeling of aerosol deposition for PM applicable from birth to old age using aerosol deposition measures in hollow airway models. Mathematical analysis of aerosol behavior in the periphery of animal lungs. (2)

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

NIAID (7)

 

Inner city asthma study: Test efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a protocol designed to reduce exposure and sensitization to allergens. Co-funded by NIEHS and EPA (7 centers)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NIEHS (24)

Relationship between air pollution (PM and acid aerosols) and cardiovascular morbidity and other effects in various subgroups of the population (infants and mothers, adolescents, elderly). (7)

 

Effects of PM and other air pollutants on lung function; studies of environmental justice related to asthma and air pollution. (7)

Cellular, biochemical, and immunologic mechanisms by which PM cause effects. (9)

 

 

Identity and sources of mutagens in ambient aerosols (1)

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

NIOSH (31)

 

Relationship between lung cancer and diesel exhaust (2)

Responses and susceptibility of humans to particles; causes of occupational asthma and predictors of respiratory disease. (4)

Mechanisms, responses, and biomarkers after exposure to dusts (including metals) (13)

Analysis of tissues and particles (1)

Characterization of exposures to inorganic dusts (1)

Monitoring of dust exposures (6)

Characterization of particle surface chemistry (1)

Evaluation of diesel exhaust emission controls (1)

Control and reduction of occupational exposures. Risk analysis of emerging hazards (4)

NIPHE (NL) (15)

Cardiovascular effects in elderly people. (1)

Study in panels of children and asthmatics. (1)

 

Studies on the causality of PM health effects using inhaled CAP, fine and ultrafine particles, instilled PM10/PM2.5 in animals with diseases. In vitro studies using PM10 and PM2.5. (4)

Dosimetry modeling of PM in healthy and compromised airways. (1)

 

Ambient PM monitoring program. (2)

Modeling of emission inventories to determine levels of PM10, PM2.5, PM carbonaceous, PM secondary. (2)

 

Predict PM health effects in general population and specific subgroups and risk reduction based on emission and traffic reductions. Conduct cost-benefit analysis. (4)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

UK Deptm. Health (14)

Effect of air pollution on daily mortality, hospital admission, and physician consultation and on cardiorespiratory health. Role of PM and other pollutants on prevalence and history of asthma and on respiratory function and symptoms in children. Relationship between PM exposure and blood coagulation factors. Effects of lowering traffic congestion on pollutant exposure and respiratory mortality. (6)

Role of indoor air pollution on chronic respiratory symptoms in adolescents. Effects of cumulative air pollution exposure on chronic respiratory effects in a national cohort. Effects of occupational exposure to coal dust on health (3)

Effect of PM exposure in patients with respiratory disease. Lung function and biochemical changes after acute exposure to DE in normal and asthmatic volunteers. Response to allergen challenge after exposure to fine and ultrafine particles in asthmatic volunteers. (3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess the impact of health advice on respiratory health and the health-related cost of PM air pollution. (2)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Funding institution (no. of projects)

Epidemiology

Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro)

Dosimetry

Exposure assessment and relationships

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Acute effects

Long-term effects

Health effects

Mechanisms

University of Wagenin gen (NL) (3)

Relationship between highway traffic and respiratory health (1)

Long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality. Development of asthma and other chronic respiratory conditions in young children (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VDA (2)

 

 

 

Comparative pulmonary response of humans and animals to dust exposures. (1)

 

 

 

 

Characterize particles from sources (1).

 

* Prepared by Maria Costantini, Health Effects Institute, and John Vandenberg, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

PARTICULATE-MATTER RESEARCH INVENTORY

(In progress), March 18, 1998

Prepared by Maria Costantini (Health Effects Institute) and John Vandenberg (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

LIST OF RESEARCH PROJECTS FUNDED IN THE U.S. AND ABROAD (organized by institutions and categories)

AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE

Epidemiology/acute effects

''Analysis of time-series PM data to assess uncertainties, Phase II".

Contractor: Fred Lipfert.

"Analysis of uncertainties and statistical artifacts in PM epidemiology studies".

Contractor: TBA

Experimental/mechanisms

"Impact of inhaled particles on canine electrocardiography-Examination of the role of soluble metals in the toxicity of particulate matter".

Contractor: Joe Mauderly, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute.

"Impact of inhaled particles on canine electrocardiography" (cont.)

Contractor: Joe Mauderly, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute.

"Use of compromised animal models to evaluate the susceptibility to inhaled PM".

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Contractor: Joe Mauderly, Lovelace Respiratory Research. (Funded also by EPRI and AAMA)

Exposure assessment and relationships

"Personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter monitoring".

Contractor: Petros Koutrakis, Harvard School of Public Health.

"Microscopic analysis of filters from Nashville/Boston COPD study"

Contractor: Petros Koutrakis, Harvard School of Public Health.

"Measurement of personal exposure to multiple criteria and hazardous air pollutants".

Contractor: Petros Koutrakis, Harvard School of Public Health, and Ted Johnson, TRJ Environmental.

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

"Personal PM exposure model".

Contractor: TBA

Emission characterization and source apportionment

"Characterization of PM emissions from petroleum sources(refinery) sources. Phase I and II".

Contractor: EER.

Characterization of emissions from oil and gas production field combustion units".

Contractor: Radian Corporation.

"Measurement of exhaust PM emissions from various vehicles, under different driving conditions with various fuel specifications".

Contractor: CRC.

"Evaluation of PM chemistry and air quality models able to address PM standards".

Contractor: CRC.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD

Epidemiology/acute effects

Prospective study to evaluate hospital admissions and ER visits in cities a high PM area in CA in relation to PM10, PM2.5, ultrafine, and PM composition. (1)

Epidemiology/long-term effects

Evaluate the impact of community air pollution (including PM10 and PM2.5) on lung growth and respiratory health in children. (1)

Experimental/health effects

Evaluate the health impact of exposure to smoke (derived from agriculture and silviculture) and the toxicology of air pollutants (ozone, nitric acid, nitrates, and carbon. (3)

Experimental/mechanisms

"Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Ammonium Nitrate and Carbon Particles on: Cytotoxicity, Cell Proliferation, Particle Clearance, Histopathology, Oxidative Stress, Macrophage Function, Production of NO, Cardio-Pulmonary Response, in Young, Adult, and Old Rats"

U CAL Davis and U CAL Irvine Collaborative PM Research

Exposure assessment and relationships

Determine the level of particles and vapor-phase organics inside cars. (1)

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Determine spatial and temporal variability of California atmosphere (including field and laboratory studies to characterize gaseous precursors, organic, carbonaceous, and nitrate species. (12)

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Evaluate stationary and mobile source emissions of PM-size distribution and chemistry-including effects of fuels and operating conditions. (6)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY

Experimental/mechanisms

Interspecies differences in proliferative and neoplastic response to insoluble particles (talc, diesel exhaust, titanium dioxide, carbon black) and correlation of these responses with lung overload.

Comparison of molecular and cellular end-points in vitro and in vivo (such as altered apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules).

Dosimetry

Develop models for the deposition and clearance of particles in humans and animals, identify the factors influencing the delivered dose of particles, measure particle deposition efficiency in the nasal passage of rats.

Determine the inhalability factor for particles as a function of diameter, and evaluate endotracheal intubation of rats as a means of bypassing the nose.

COORDINATING RESEARCH COUNCIL

Aerosol methods and monitoring

"Contribution of Vehicle Emissions to Ambient Carbonaceous Particulate Matter"

"Carbon Isotopic Analyses for the Norther Front Range Air Quality Study's Summer and Winter 1966-1997 Program"

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

"Mechanisms for Production of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Their Representation in Atmospheric Models"

"Review of the UAM-AERO Model"

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Emission characterization and source apportionment

"Primary Particle Emissions from Light-Duty Motor Vehicles"

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Research on global aerosol models and chemical dynamic processes governing aerosols. (3)

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Research on freshly nucleated ultrafine particles and the development of instrumentation to measure down to 3mm-10mm diameter.

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Evaluation of global aerosol models and satellite-and surface-based aerosol optical deposition data and surface concentration data to estimate the direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols.

Research on the optical properties of aerosols and lab studies of carbonaceous aerosols.

Development of global sulfate aerosol models utilizing surface meteorological data as input

Research on the chemical and dynamic processes governing atmospheric aerosols.

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY)

Aerosol methods and monitoring

"Characterization and evolution of secondary aerosols during PM2.5

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

and PM10 episodes in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB)" (Planned with CRC)

Principal investigators: Glen Cass and Suzanne Herring

Emission characterization and source apportionment

"Size distribution of in-use heavy-duty vehicle particulate emissions" Contract under negotiation

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Epidemiology/acute effects

Investigation of artifact-analyses of data sets to rule out the existence of an artifact in statistical analyses of time series data; review of econometric issues in data analysis.

Contractor: Fred Lipfert (parts jointly funded with API)

Determination of influence of alternative statistical approaches to analyze time series data analyses of daily mortality air quality data for Harvard six-cities using a wide variety of statistical approaches in order to investigate robustness of results.

Contractor: Klemm Analysis Group

Determine influence of measurement error in statistical analyses; statistical analyses of alternative error structures on alternative data sets.

Contractor: Fred Lipfert.

Reanalysis of Harvard six-cities mortality air quality data (analyses to consider gaseous pollutant data as well as alternative methodologic approaches).

Contractors: Klemm Analysis Group, Harvard School of Public Health.

Acute mortality/morbidity analyses using air quality data from data collected at outdoor monitoring sites, for several PM fractions and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

gaseous pollutants (health data to be collected from cities where monitoring was undertaken).

Contractor: TBA.

Prospective cohort study (using data from a cohort for which detailed individual data are available, mortality/morbidity rates will be related to ambient air quality data in the cities where cohort members reside).

Contractors: TBA

A panel of COPD patients has been observed for an extended period of time; various cardio-pulmonary health parameters were collected for this population on a daily basis and will be compared to ambient and indoors air quality.

Contractor: Henry Gong, Rancho Los Amigos.

Study of asthmatic response to PM/ozone exposure: daily emergency room visits by asthmatics in Atlanta are to be related to daily ozone, PM exposures (analyses will consider weather, socioeconomic factors).

Experimental/health effects

Chamber studies of healthy adults, COPD, and asthma patients. (Subjects will be exposed to clean air and fixed concentrations of ammonium nitrate and oxalic acid (cardio-pulmonary responses associated with exposures will be examined).

Contractor: Henry Gong, Rancho Los Amigos

Investigation of a heavily-exposed occupational group: personal exposures measurements and pre-and post-exposure measures of ACG and lung function were made for a groups of workers who cleaned out boiler interiors of a coal-fired power plant. (Particulate exposures over 2000 μg/m3 were recorded. Health exposure data have been collected, but analyses are not complete.)

Contractor: J. Hicks, Geomatrix.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Experimental/mechanisms

Review of epidemiology/mechanisms literature. (Review of literature to understand how epidemiology literature relates to what is known about potential mechanism.)

Contractor: Robert Frank, Johns Hopkins University.

Investigation of disruption of homeostasis as a mechanism to explain mortality response to air pollution; development of an appropriate animal model, testing of the animal model with alternative exposures to PM and other environmental factors.

Contractor: C. Tankersley, Johns Hopkins University

Additional studies of mechanisms planned:

  1. to understand alternative toxicological models

  2. to investigate influence of alternative pollutants, PM fractions.

Contractors; TBA

Exposure assessment and relationships

Determination of outdoor/indoor/personal air quality measures for a suite of pollutants for a group of senior citizens in two seasons.

Contractors: Harvard School of Public Health; TRJ Consultants (jointly funded with API)

Collection of extensive daily outdoor monitoring data for criteria pollutants and PM10/PM2.5 fractions at several monitoring site (initial sites are near final selection, and monitoring will begin Jan 1998).

Contractors: TBA

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Develop and test plume and grid models, characterize total aerosol, define secondary organic formation

Contractors: TBA

Risk assessment and management/cost benefit

Integrated risk management framework including regional source

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

characterization, transfer module, cost components, and management options

Contractors: TBA

ENGINE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Determination of the particle-size distribution of the exhaust emissions of a modern diesel engine. (Research under planning.)

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Epidemiology/acute effects

Relative effects of PM2.5 versus PM(1.0-2.5) on respiratory health indicators.

Principal investigator: Douglas Dockery, Harvard School of Public Health

Analysis of daily mortality in Dublin, Ireland, in relation to particulate air pollution control.

Principal investigator: Douglas Dockery, Harvard School of Public Health

Respiratory health in relation to outdoor and indoor PM exposure in Chinese cities.

Robert Chapman and William Wilson

Experimental/health effects

Study of occupational silica exposure and its relationship to pulmonary fibrosis.

Jeffrey Gift

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Dosimetry

Upgrade of RDDR particle dosimetry model: Clearance, hygroscopicity and human ventilation activity patterns.

Principal investigator: Anthony James, ACI Associates

Revision of regional respiratory tract deposition model for laboratory animal species.

Principal investigator: Anthony James, ACI Associates

Exposure assessment and relationships

Mean group PM2.5 exposure in an asthmatic panel.

Principal investigator: Thomas Stock, University of Texas School of Public Health

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Soiling of building materials from exposure to particulate matter.

Principal investigator: Ray Fornes, North Carolina State University

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

Exposure assessment and relationships

Collaborative exposure/epidemiological study.

Relationship of personal exposure of high risk sub-populations to ambient concentrations of fine particles.

Use of innovative monitoring techniques to estimate source strengths and decay rates for several important sources of fine particles.

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Regulatory methods and quality assurance.

PM research methods.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

PM Environmental Characterization: Baltimore, Phoenix, Fresno.

Atmospheric chemistry, physics, meteorology and modeling

Chemistry and physics of atmospheric aerosols.

Chemical and physical process and mechanism modeling.

Community multiscale air quality modeling system.

Model evaluation/testing and application.

Emissions characterization and source apportionment

Pm source apportionment and receptor modeling.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

Epidemiology/acute effects

Cardiopulmonary responses in elderly persons exposed to ambient particulate air pollution.

Principal investigator: John Creason

Air pollution and morbidity and mortality among California Kaiser Permanente members.

Principal investigator: Steven VanDenEeden, Kaiser Foundation Research Institute

Epidemiologic studies of criteria pollutant particles and gases.

Principal investigator: Diane Gold, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Epidemiology/long-term effects

Respiratory health in non-smoking California residents with differing long-term ambient ozone levels.

Principal investigator: David Abbey, Loma Linda University

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Short-term and long-term exposure to ozone and particulate air pollution and respiratory health in Southern California children.

Principal investigator: Ed Avol, University of Southern California

Epidemiologic investigation to identify chronic health effects of ambient air pollutants in Southern California

Principal investigator: Helene Margolis, California Air Resources Board

Experimental/health effects

Particulate matter effects on animal models of asthma.

Principal investigator: Steve Gavett

Combined effects of particle exposure, dust mite allergy, and viral infection in the Brown Norway rat.

Principal investigator: Ian Gilmour

Changes in electrocardiographic waveform parameters after exposure to residual oil fly ash in cold-acclimated and cardiovascular-compromised rats.

Principal investigator: Matthew Campen and Penn Watkinson

In vivo toxicity of emission and ambient air particles in animal models of cardiopulmonary disease.

Principal investigator: Sarah Gardner and Urmila Kodavanti

Effect of particles on innate immune responses to infection: Antimicrobial peptide gene expression and cytokine production by lung cells exposed to endotoxin and particles in vitro.

Principal investigator: Lisa Ryan

Physicochemical properties and pulmonary toxicity of air particulate matter.

Principal investigator: Kevin Dreher

Lung cell injury induced by diesel exhaust particles in vivo and in vitro.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Principal investigator: Michael Madden

Experimental/Mechanisms

Pulmonary toxicity of Utah Valley PM: Are empirical indices of adverse health effects coherent with epidemiology?

Principal investigators: Robert Devlin and Dan Costa

Oxidant generation and pulmonary inflammation induced by iron-containing particles.

Principal investigators: John Lay and Andrew Ghio

Role of biogenic material and transition metals in particle-induced activation of human alveolar macrophages in vitro.

Principal investigator: Susanne Becker

Transition metal components of fine particulate air pollutants: Evaluation of airway epithelial cell response.

Principal investigators: William Reed and James Samet

Activation of intracellular signaling pathways in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to combustion-derived metallic particles.

Principal investigator: James Samet

The role of neuropeptides in particulate (PM10/PM2.5) induced airway inflammation

Principal investigators: Bellina Veronesi and Susanne Becker

Effect of air particulate matter exposure on the cardiovascular compromised host.

Principal investigators: Kevin Dreher and Penn Watkinson

Reactive oxygen species mediate induction of cytotoxicity and cytokine gene expression in airway epithelial cells exposed to residual oil fly ash.

Principal investigator: Ian Dye

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: What can a rat model tell us

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

about the mechanism of PM-associated mortality and morbidity?

Principal investigator: Urmila Kodavanti

Role of matrix metalloproteinase in emission and ambient air PM-induced lung injury?

Principal investigators: Kevin Dreher and Wei Yi Su

Dosimetry

Fine-mode aerosol deposition in human and rat lungs.

Principal investigator: Ted Martonen

Assessment of regional deposition dose of inhaled ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles in humans.

Principal investigator: Chong Kim

Particle deposition characterization in bifurcating airway models.

Principal investigator: Chong Kim

Effect of age on lung deposition dose of inhaled fine particles: Comparison between children, young and old adults.

Principal investigators: William Bennett and Chong Kim

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

Exposure assessment and relationships

Determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor particle size distribution and concentrations and the mechanisms of penetration through building shells which influence this relationship.

Principal investigator: Ronald Mosley

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Comparison of sampling devices used to measure the size of particles from fugitive sources.

Principal investigator: Bruce Harris

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Fine PM emissions from residential wood combustion.

Principal investigator: Robert McCrillis (Co-funded by AWMA)

Chemical and physical characteristics of fine pm emissions from combustion sources.

Principal investigator: William Linak and Andy Miller (Coordinated with NHEERL)

Fine particle emissions from on-road heavy duty diesel trucks.

Principal investigator: Bruce Harris

Fugitive particle emissions from construction sites.

Principal investigator: Charles Masser

Ammonia emissions from animal waste

Principal investigator: Bruce Harris

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Determine performance of upgraded fine PM control technologies.

Principal investigator: Charles Sedman (Cooperative agreement with Southern Research Institute)

Characterize technical issues associated with management of PM2.5 emissions and develop tool to evaluate fine PM management options.

Principal investigator: Charles A. Miller

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

Epidemiology/short-term effects

''The Reactive Associations of Transition Metals and Sources of Fine Particulate Matter to Increased Daily Mortality" (R82-6245) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Lucas M. Neas, Harvard University ($211,733 - total)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Acidic Particulate Matter and Daily Human Mortality in Three U.S. Cities" (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: George D. Thurston, New York University Medical Center. ($383,000 - total)

"Ultrafine Particle in Urban Air and Respiratory Health Among Children with Respiratory Symptoms". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Joel Schwartz, Harvard School of Public Health. ($196,000 - total)

"Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions in Washington State". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Suresh H. Moolgavkar, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. ($420,000 - total)

"An Evaluation of Confounders in PM10/Mortality Associations". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Kazuhiko Ito, New York University Medical Center. ($363,000 - total)

"Asthma Indices Associated with Ambient Submicron Particles and Formaldehyde in Ambient Air Pollution". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Kevin P. Fennelly, National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine. ($179,000 - total)

Experimental/health effects

"Particle Toxicity and the Respiratory Bronchiole" (R82-6246) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Kent E. Pinkerton, University of California at Davis ($525,000 - total)

"Pulmonary Toxicity of Particulate Matter and Ozone". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Lung Chi Chen, New York University Medical Center. ($172,000 - total)

Experimental/mechanisms

"Mechanism of PM Induced Acute Health Effects" (R82-6244) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Terry Gordon, New York University Medical Center ($600,799 - total)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Mechanisms of Particulate-Induced Mediator Expression Human Airway Epithelial Cells" (R82-6270) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: William Reed, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ($374,174 - total)

"Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Mortality Associated with Exposure to Concentrated Particulate Urban Air Toxics". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: John Godleski, Harvard School of Public Health. ($521,000 - total)

"Cellular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Inflammation by Environmental Particles" (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Lester Kobzik, Harvard School of Public Health. ($547,000 - total)

Aerosol methods and monitoring

"Morphological and Chemical Characteristics of the Submicron Atmospheric Aerosol: Implication for Standards" (R82-6232) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Sheldon K. Friedlander, University of California at Los Angeles ($ 345,247 - total)

"The Contribution of Biomass Combustion to Ambient Fine Particle Concentrations in the United States" (R82-6233) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Glen R. Cass, California Institute of Technology ($532,642 - total)

"Real-Time Measurement of the Size and Composition of Atmospheric Particulate Matter" (R82-6234) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Anthony S. Wexler, University of Delaware ($374,833 - total)

"Real-Time Monitoring of Individual Atmospheric Aerosol Particles: Establishing Correlations between Particle Size and Chemical Speciation" (R82-6240) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Kimberly A. Prather, University of California at Riverside ($547,000 - total)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particulate Formation in California and the Northeastern United States" (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: TBA ($1,500,000 - total)

"Southern Center for the Integrated Study of Secondary Air Pollutants" (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: TBA ($1,500,000 - total)

"Investigations of Factors Determining the Occurrence of Ozone and Fine Particles in Northeastern USA" (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: TBA ($1,500,000 - total)

"Field-Useable Compact Capillary Based Ion/Liquid Chromatography. Real Time Gas/Aerosol Analyzers" (R82-5344) (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Purnendu Dasgupta, Texas Technology University ($333,141 - total)

"Measurement and Source Apportionment of Human Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Gregory C. Pratt, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, MN. ($554,000 - total)

"Development of a Semi-continuous Monitor for Determination of Trace Elements and Heavy Metals in Ambient Aerosol Particles". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: John M. Ondov, University of Maryland. ($396,000 - total)

"Real-Time Analysis of PAY Bound to Size-Resolved Atmospheric Particles by Tandem Time of Flight Mass Spectrometers" (R82-5391) (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Kenneth Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ($375,000 - total)

"Development and Evaluation of a Novel Sampling Method to

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Determine the Phase Partitioning of Semi-volatile Organic Compounds". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Petros Koutrakis, Harvard School of Public Health. ($410,000 - total)

"Development of a Continuous Monitoring System for PM10 and Components of PM2.5" (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Morton Lippmann, New York University Medical Center. ($436,000 - total)

"Continuous Measurement of PM2.5 and Associated Semi-volatile Particulate Species". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Delbert J. Eatough, Brigham Young University. ($353,000 - total)

"Development and Validation of a Novel Technique to Measure Ambient Particle Properties: Bound Water, Mass Density and Mean Diameter". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Petros Koutrakis, Harvard School of Public Health. ($380,000 - total)

"Distribution of H+ and Trace Metals in Ultrafine Ambient Aerosol". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Beverly S. Cohen, New York University Medical Center. ($590,000 - total)

"Speciation of Volatile and Reacting Compounds in Particulate Matter" (R82-3980) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Murray Johnston, University of Delaware ($334,445 - total)

"Determination of Trace Atmospheric Gases by Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). Size-Selective Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Particles by CE-based Analyzer" (R82-1117) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Purnendu Dasgupta, Texas Technological University ($353,188 - total)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

"Investigations of the Chemistry of Secondary Aerosol Formation Using Thermal Desorption Particle Beam Mass Spectrometry" (R82-6235) (FY 97)

Principal Investigator: Paul J. Ziemann, University of California at Riverside ($294,762 - total)

"Development of Population-Based Particle Exposure Models for Human Health Risk Assessment". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: Halak Ozkaynak, Harvard School of Public Health. ($500,000 - total)

"Atmospheric Fate and Dry Deposition of Urban Soot to Great Waters Using a Novel, State-of-the-Art Isotopic Particulate Tracer". (FY 96)

Principal Investigator: John Ondov, University of Maryland ($455,000 - total)

"Development and Testing of a State-of-the-Art PMx Particulate Module for Regional and Urban Photochemical Models". (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Spyros N. Pandis, Carnegie Mellon University. ($412,000 - total)

"Product Formation and Identification in the Photo Degradation of PAY in Models of Atmospheric Particulate: Effects of the Surface Physical and Chemical Properties" (R82-3328) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Rafael Arce, University of Puerto Rico, Rio-Piedras ($254,723 - total)

"Tracer Studies of SO2 in Clouds (R82-3422) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Liquat Husain, New York State Department of Health ($335,659 - total)

"Formation and Physical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol" (R82-3514) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Spyros Pandis, Carnegie Mellon University ($382,668 - total)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Effects of Non-Uniform Cloud Drop Composition on Pollutant Transformation and Removal In Winter Clouds" (R82-3979) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Jeffrey Collett, Colorado State University ($339,273 - total)

"Applications of Receptor Modeling to Time Series Data for Aerosol Chemical Components" (R82-1288) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Sheldon Friedlander, University of California at Los Angeles ($287,900 - total)

"A Study of Absorptive Gas/Particle Partitioning to Ambient Aerosol Organic Material" (R82-2312) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: James Pankow, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology ($305,433 - total)

"Influence of Organic Films on Reactivity and Hygroscopicity of Sulfuric Acid Aerosol" (R82-2476) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Morton Lippmann, New York University Medical Center ($387,276 - total)

"Development of Multivariate Receptor Models for the Determination of the Sources of Airborne Pollutants" (R82-2482) (FY 95)

Principal Investigator: Philip Hopke, Clarkson University ($349,359 - total)

EUROPEAN UNION/DG XI

Epidemiology/acute effects

APHEA 2. "Short-term effects of air pollution on health: A European approach to methodology, dose-response assessment, and evaluation of public health significance" (32 European cities, 20 centers)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Coordinator: Klea Katsouyanni, University of Athens, Athens

ULTRA II. "Exposure and risk assessment for fine and ultrafine particles in ambient air" (3 centers)

Coordinator: J. Pekkanen, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki

"Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution: A dose-response study" (8 centers)

Coordinator: S. Kyrtopoulos, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens.

"Risk assessment for exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the development of inhalant allergy, asthma, and other chronic respiratory conditions in children"

Coordiantor: B. Brunekreef, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, Wageningen

Exposure assessment and relationships

EXPOLIS. "Air pollution exposure distribution of adult urban populations in Europe" (8 centers)

Coordinator: M Jantunen, National Public Health Institute, Finland

ULTRA I. "Exposure and risk assessment for fine and ultrafine particles in ambient air" (3 centers)

Coordinator: J. Pekkanen, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki

CAPLACA. "Assessment of environmental contamination risk by platinum, rhodium, and palladium from automobile catalyst" (12 centers)

Coordinator: A. Palacios, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Aerosol methods and monitoring

"Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) sampled in European countries within the framework of the PEACE study" (2 centers)

Coordinator: A. Schutz, Lunds Universitet, Lund

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

HEALTH CANADA

Epidemiology/acute effects

Relation between hospital admission and indices of air pollution (including PM).

Epidemiology/long-term effects

Study of the respiratory health of children and adolescents in relation to long-term exposure to acidic particulates in New Brunswick.

Long-term follow-up to the 24-cities studies of students in grades 11 and 12 in British Columbia.

Experimental/health effects

Interactive effects of ozone and PM in vivo.

Experimental/mechanism

Relationship between atmospheric aging of PM and their potency in vitro.

HEALTH EFFECTS INSTITUTE

Epidemiology/acute effects

"Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Montreal, Quebec, 1984-1993"

Principal investigator: John Bailar, McGill University (RFA 94-2)

"A case-crossover study of fine particulate air pollution and sudden cardiac arrest"

Principal investigator: Harvey Checkoway, University of Washington (RFPA 96-2)

"Association of PM components with daily mortality and morbidity in urban populations" Principal investigator: Mort Lippmann, New York University Medical Center (RFPA 94-3)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Erfurt (East Germany)"

Principal investigator: H.-Erich Wichmann, GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Germany (RFA 94-2)

"National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study"

Principal investigator: Jon Samet, Johns Hopkins University (RFQ 94)

Epidemiology/long-term effects

"Reanalysis of cohort studies of long-term mortality and particulate air pollutants"

Principal investigator: Daniel Krewski, University of Ottawa (RFQ 97)

Experimental/health effects

"Inflammatory mechanisms with exposure to air pollution particles"

Principal investigator: Stephen Holgate, University of Southampton (RFA 96-1)

Experimental/mechanisms

"Mechanisms of morbidity and mortality from exposure to ambient air particles"

Principal investigator: John Godleski, Harvard School of Public Health (RFA 94-2)

"Adverse health effects of ambient PM10 in compromised animal models"

Principal investigator: Terry Gordon, New York University Medical Center (RFA 94-2)

"Ultrafine particles as inducers of acute lung injury: Mechanisms and correlation with age and disease"

Principal investigator: Günter Oberdörster Oberdörster, University of Rochester (RFA 94-2)

"Immunomodulation as a mechanism for PM10-induced effects upon host mortality"

Principal investigator: Judith Zelikoff, New York University Medical Center (RFPA 94-3)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

''Particle characteristics responsible for effects on human lung epithelial cells"

Principal investigator: Ann Aust, Utah State University (RFA 96-1)

"The effects of atmospheric gases/reductants and sunlight on the liability and hydroxyl-radical generating capability of iron in particulate matter from different sources"

Principal investigator: Bruce Faust, University of California at Los Angeles (RFA 96-1)

"Role of peroxides and macrophages in fine particulate matter toxicity"

Principal investigator: Debra Laskin, Rutgers University (RFA 96-1)

"Mechanisms of particle toxicity in the respiratory system"

Principal investigator: Kent Pinkerton, University of California at Davis (RFA 96-1)

Dosimetry

"Epithelial penetration and clearance of particle-borne compounds"

Principal investigator: Alan Dahl, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (RFA 96-1)

LOVELACE RESPIRATORY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Experimental/health effects

Study of the effects of combined exposures to cigarette smoke and other noxious agents on the induction of adverse health effects

Experimental/mechanisms

Standardization of an in vitro screening test for the toxicity of particles using cultured cells, co-cultured cells, and lung slices

Study of the effect of particle size on toxicity in vivo

Study of electrocardiographic changes in dogs exposed to noxious aerosols

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Study of the comparative pulmonary responses of humans and animals with known heavy exposures to inhaled particles (diesel soot, carbon black, coal dust, silicates) deriving information from animal and human pathology material.

Study to determine the changes in protein expression that occur in response to DNA damage from air pollutants, including particles, in vitro

Review utility of animal models for research on mechanisms, susceptibility, and risk.

Dosimetry

Study the kinetics of inhaled ultrafine particles administered by various routes in rats and monkeys.

Quantify the distribution of particles in the lungs of humans, monkeys, and rats with light and heavy burden of particles.

Study of the deposition of ultrafine particles in the upper tracheobronchial airway to determine effects of particle size and flow rate on the differential deposition of ultrafine particles.

Study of interspecies comparison of particle retention in the lung of rats, guinea pigs and dogs.

Emission characterization and source apportionment

PM emissions from portable kerosene heaters to assess exposure of soldiers during gulf war.

MICKEY LELAND NATIONAL URBAN AIR TOXICS RESEARCH CENTER

Exposure assessment and relationships

"Urban air toxic exposures of high school students".

Patrick Kinney, Columbia School of Public Health

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Contribution of outdoor sources to indoor concentrations and personal exposure to air toxics"

Clifford Weisel, EOHSI, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE

Experimental/health effects

"Ancillary study to Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP): Air quality and asthma symptoms in childhood asthma"

Shapiro Gail and Jane Koenig, University of Washington (add-on to a 8-canter study of the long-term effects of asthma treatments on lung growth and physical and psychosocial development)

"In vivo MR microscopy of environmental lung disease"

Johnson Allan, Duke University Medical Center

"Aerosol probes of lung injury in a chronic disease model"

Rosenthal Frank, Purdue University

Dosimetry

"Age and body size factors in inhaled particle deposition"

Phalen Robert, University of California at Irvine

"Chaotic mixing of aerosol in rhytmically expanding lung"

Tsuda Akira, Harvard School of Public Health

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Epidemiology/Long-term effects

National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study (1996-2000) (Co-funded by NIEHS and EPA)

"National cooperative inner city asthma study" 1-U01-AI-39761-01, Shapiro Gail, University of Washington ($280,001 - FY 96)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Trial of interventions to reduce asthma morbidity"

1-U01-AI-39769-01, O'Connor George, Boston University School of Medicine ($279,876 - FY 96)

"Targeting the environment and asthma management"

1-U01-AI-39900-01, Crain Ellen, Albert Einstein College of Medicine ($280,979 - FY 96)

"National asthma inner city study-Tucson field center"

1-U01-AI-39785-02, Morgan Wayne, University of Arizona ($259,188 - FY 96)

"National cooperative inner city asthma study"

1-U01-AI-39901-02, Kattan Meyer, Mount Sinai School of Medicine ($321,909 - FY 96)

"Chicago inner city asthma study"

1-U01-AI-39902-02, Evans, Richard, III, Children's Memorial Hospital ($280,435 - FY 96)

"Data Coordinating Center for NCIASII"

1-U01-AI-39776-02, Mitchell Herman, New England Research Institutes, Inc. ($431,228 - FY 96)

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES

Epidemiology/acute effects

"Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Morbidity"

I-R29-ES-0724-03, Morris Robert, Tufts University ($94,544 - FY 96)

"Air Pollution Health Effects in a U.S. Population Sample"

5-R01-ES-07410-02, Schwartz Joel. Harvard University ($128,569 - FY 96)

"Effects of Acid Aerosols and Ozone on Urban Populations"

5-R01-ES-06239-05, Dockery, Douglas, Harvard University ($810,499 - FY 96)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Health Effects of Particulate Acids in Late Adolescence"

1-R01-ES-08391-01, Speizer, Frank, Harvard University ($326,346 - FY 96)

"Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions of the Elderly"

1-R01-ES-07937-01A1, Schwartz Joel, Harvard University ($148,910 - FY 96)

"Environmental Agents-Asthma Development and Severity"

5-R01-ES-07456-03, Leaderer Brian, John B. Pierce Lab, Inc. ($676,567 - FY 96) (Co-funded by NIAID)

"Acid Aerosol-Respiratory Effects in Infants and Mothers"

5-R01-ES-05410-08, Leaderer Brian, John B. Pierce Lab, Inc. ($566,577 - FY 96)

Experimental/health effects

"Toxic Effects of Particles and Oxidants on Lung Function"

5-R01-ES-02679-17, Utell Mark, University of Rochester ($434,702 - FY 96)

"Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Human Lung Function"

5-P30-ES-02147-23 (S-0064), Utell Mark, University of Rochester ($785,069 - FY 96)

"Mechanisms of morbidity/mortality due to air particles"

5-P01-ES-8129, John Godleski, Harvard School of Public Health ($1,041,583 - FY 96)

"Baltimore Environmental Justice Project"

R25-ES-07734, Dr. Sattler, University of Maryland ($165,000 - FY 96)

"Community-Based Asthma Intervention in Pregnant Women"

R21-ES-08716, Dr. Persky, University of Illinois-Chicago ($356,000 - FY 96)

"Lower Price Hill Environmental Leadership Coalition"

R21-ES-07717, Dr. Hansel, University of Cincinnati ($154,000 - FY 96)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

"Case Management and Environmental Control in Asthma"

R21-ES-08711, Dr. Fisher, Washington University ($366,000 - FY 96)

Experimental/mechanisms

"Mechanisms of Air Pollutant-Induced Airway Permeability"

5-R01-ES-03251-12, Bhalla Deepak, Wayne State University ($235,328 - FY 96)

"Inhaled Pollutants-Mechanisms of Injury and Adaptation"

5-K04-ES-00256-05, Gordon Terry, New York University Medical Center ($69,174 - FY 96)

"Mechanisms of Particle Induced Lung Injury"

5-R01-ES-04872-09, Oberdorster Gunther, University of Rochester ($347,565 - FY 96)

"Biological Determinants of Environmental Airway Injury"

5-R01-ES-07498-03, Schwartz David, University of Iowa ($221,179 - FY 96)

"Epigenetic Mechanisms of Toxicity of Environmental Metal"

5-R01-ES-0543-09, Chou, lih-Nan, Boston University ($209,286 - FY 96)

"Mechanisms of Particulate Chromate Carcinogenesis"

5-R01-ES-05304-07, Patierno Steven, George Washington University ($241,000 - FY 96)

"Role of Ozone in Modulating Chromium-Induced Lung Immunotoxicity"

5-R01-ES-06783-03, Schlesinger Richard, New York University Medical Center ($301,000 - FY 96)

"Grain Dust, Endotoxin and Air Flow Obstruction"

5-R01-ES-06537-04, Schwartz David, University of Iowa ($256,000 - FY 96)

"Cellular and Biochemical Mechanisms of Particle-Induced Lung Disease"

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Z01-ES-25030-10, Bonner JC, Intramural, NIEHS

Aerosol methods and monitoring

"Mutagens in Ambient Airborne Organic Aerosols-Identity and Sources"

3-P01-ES-07168-03S1, Sarofim Adel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

Epidemiology/Long-term effects

Mortality Follow-up of Diesel Exposed Miners

Cohort and Case Control Study of Lung Cancer and Diesel Exhaust

Experimental/Health Effects

Cough Sounds and Aerosols as a Predictors of Respiratory Disease

Occupational Asthma: High and Low Molecular Weight Asthmagens VAG909

Pulmonary Responses to Occupational Dusts VAG913

Identification of Sub-populations Susceptible to Particle Exposure

Experimental/Mechanisms

Identification of Sub-populations Susceptible to Particle Exposure VAGN31

Biomarkers of Occupational Disease Risk: Role in Human Carcinogenesis

Investigation of Occupational Diseases Caused by Metals

Metals: Asthma and Hard Metal Disease

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Toxic Respirable Particle Biological Surface Interactions

Molecular Mechanisms of Metal Carcinogenesis

Pulmonary Responses to Occupational Dusts

Occupational Asthma Disease Models

Susceptibility of Workers to Lung Infection After Exposure to Different Occupational Dusts and Fibers

Role of Adhesion Molecules in the Pathogenesis of Lung Disease

Asphalt Fumes: Inflammatory Effects and Pulmonary Injury

South African Biomarker Study

Role of dextran powder in latex hypersensitivity VGN 33

Dosimetry

Particulate and Tissue Analysis Research and Service VOT387

Exposure assessment and relationships

Characterization of Inorganic Dust Exposures VAGN12

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Respirable Dust Measurement and Analysis (Instrumentation) VRE015

Development of a Portable XRF Unit for Air Sample Screening VAG830

Evaluation of LIF Technology for Bioaerosol Screening

Development of a Portable XRF Unit for Air Sample Screening

Improved Application and Monitoring of Dust Control Parameters

Monitoring Cristalline Silica Dust

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Surface Chemistry Characterization of Respirable Particles

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Emission characterization and source apportionment

Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Emission Controls VQCN14

Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits

Risk from Emerging Hazards: Asphalt Fumes, Coal Dust, Diesel Exhaust

Control of Silica Dust Exposures in Underground Coal Mining

IEQ Intervention Study

Prevention of Silicosis in Surface Miners

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT, BILTHOVEN (NL)

Epidemiology/acute effects

Study of cardiovascular effects in elderly people.

Epidemiology/long-term effects

Study in panels of children and asthmatics.

Experimental/mechanisms

Studies on the causality of PM health effects using inhaled CAP, fine and ultrafine particles, instilled PM10/PM2.5 in animals with asthma, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension. In vitro studies using PM10 and PM2.5. (4)

Dosimetry

Dosimetry modeling of PM in healthy and compromised airways.

Aerosol methods and monitoring

Long-term air quality monitoring programme though the Dutch air monitoring network

Specific monitoring campaigns for urban sites and smog episodes.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling

Modeling of emission inventory to determine levels of PM10, PM2.5, PM carbonaceous, PM secondary.

Source apportionment program

Risk assessment and management/cost-benefits

Integrating exposure and exposure-effect models to predict effects in the (Dutch) general populations and specific risk groups.

Development of cost-benefit analysis techniques.

Risk reduction predictions based on emission/concentration reduction scenario's.

Importance of traffic emissions and reductions measures during wintertime smog episodes.

UNITED KINGDOM DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

Epidemiology/acute effects

"Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Mortality, Admissions, and General Practitioner Consultations in London"

Principal Investigator: Ross Anderson, St. George's Hospital Medical School

"The Relationship Between Urban Pollution and Cardiorespiratory Health"

Principal Investigator: Raymond Agius, University of Edinburgh

"Study of the Aetiological Effect of Vehicle Traffic Pollution in the Prevalence and Natural History of Asthma in Norttingham School children"

Principal Investigator: John Britton, Nottingham City Hospital

"Effect of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Acid Aerosols on Respiratory Function and Symptoms in Schoolchildren"

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Principal Investigator: S. Walters, University of Birmingham

''Air Pollution and Cardiovascular disease: An Investigation of the Relationship Between Particulate Air Pollution and Blood Coagulation Factors"

Principal Investigator: A. Seaton, University of Aberdeen

"The Effects of Relieving Traffic Congestion on Pollutant Exposure and Respiratory Morbidity".

Principal Investigator: Michael Burr, University of Wales

"The Acute Effects of Particulate Air Pollution in Patients with Respiratory Disease"

Principal Investigator: C. Luczynska, McAughey, et al

Epidemiology/long-term effects

"Chronic Respiratory Health Effects of Cumulative Air Pollution Exposure: A National Birth Cohort Study"

Principal Investigator: David Strachan, St. George's Hospital Medical School.

"Indoor Air Pollution as a Risk Factor for Chronic Respiratory Symptoms in Adolescents"

Principal Investigator: Joanne Clough, Southampton General Hospital

"Do Particulates from Opencast Coal Mining Impair Health?"

Principal Investigator: T. Pless-Mulloli, D. Howel, J. Tate, University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Experimental/health effects

"Study of Lung Function and Biochemical and Cellular Consequences of Acute Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Normal and Asthmatic Subjects"

Principal Investigator: A. Frew, T. Sandstrom, S. Holgate, Southampton General Hospital

"To Assess the Effect of Challenge with Fine and Ultra-Fine Particles

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

on Airway Diameter and on Subsequent Response to Allergen Challenge in Patients with Asthma"

Principal Investigator: J Ayres, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital

Risk assessment and management/cost-benefits

"Public Awareness of Air Quality and Respiratory Health: Assessing the Impact of Health Advice"

Principal Investigators: Suzanne Moffatt, Christine Dunn, University off Newcastle upon Tyne

"Towards Assessing and Costing the Health Impacts of Ambient Particulate Air Pollution in the UK"

Principal Investigator: J. Hurley Institute of Occupational Medicine

UNIVERSITY OF WAGENINGEN (NL)

Epidemiology/Short-term

"Highway traffic and respiratory health"

Epidemiology/Long-term

"Long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality"

"Development of asthma and other chronic respiratory conditions in young children"

VERBANDES DER AUTOMOBILINDUSTRIE (D)

Experimental/mechanisms

"Comparative Pulmonary Response of Humans and Animals to Dust Exposures"

Principal investigator: Fletcher Hahn/ITRI/Albuquerque

Emission characterization and source apportionment

"Quellen der Partikelimmission in der Atemluft des Menschen (Sources of Particles)"

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×

Principal Investigators: R. Niener, University of Munich, U. Heinrich, ITA, Hanover (supported in cooperation with "Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungsmotore", Frankfurt/Main.)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 157
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 180
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 181
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 182
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 183
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 184
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 185
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 186
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 187
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
×
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 190
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 191
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 192
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 193
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B." National Research Council. 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6131.
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Page 195
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New National Ambient Air Quality Standards for airborne particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers, called PM2.5, were issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) amidst scientific uncertainty and controversy. In response to a request from Congress, Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter, the first of four books in a series, offers a conceptual framework for an integrated national program of particulate-matter research, identifies the 10 most critical research needs linked to key policy-related scientific uncertainties, and describes the recommended timing and estimated costs of such research.

The committee concludes that EPA should devote more resources to investigating the relationships between fixed-site outdoor monitoring data and actual human breathing-zone exposures to ambient particulate matter and to identifying the most biologically important constituents and characteristics of particulate matter through toxicological studies. The recommended research activities are critical to determining actual exposures of human subpopulations most susceptible to harm from the most hazardous constituents of particulate matter. Future research will be an investment in public health and a means to ensure that resources spent on control technology and regulatory compliance will have a reasonable probability of success.

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