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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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INDEX.

A

Acid pollution, 64, 341, 474, 517

Aesthetics, 72, 105, 112

Africa

agriculture,

geospatial information, 278, 279

tropical invertebrates, 204, 205, 209-210

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 469

economic organization, 408

exotic species, 326

geospatial information, 277-280

human population growth, 307

indigenous hunter-gatherers, 421, 424, 425

insects, tropical, 204-212

preserves, 375

systematics science, 378

trade relations, 398-399

see also specific countries

African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science, 208, 209

Agriculture, 64, 65, 73, 76, 414, 515

geospatial information, 278, 279

tropical invertebrates, 204, 205, 209-210

CGIAR, 359, 389, 508

Colombia, 489, 490

Costa Rica, 575

countryside biogeography, 109-112

crop diversity loss, 64, 65, 414, 415-416

exotic species, 327, 328-329

fungal damage, 157

global warming, 340

historical perspectives, 13, 64, 65, 73, 407, 415-416, 424-430

human population growth, 304-305

insects, environmental services, 67-68, 75, 436

maize, 65, 209-210

mites, 195

nematodes, 179, 181, 182, 184

pollution, 472, 553

seeds and seed banks, 358-373, 509

slash-and-burn, 426-427, 522-523

soil factors, 226, 234, 235, 236, 245, 246, 472, 553

systematics research, 376

UN Food and Agricultural Organization, 351, 359, 389, 491

U.S., 75, 325, 329, 553

food globalization, 65-66

wheat, 64, 65

see also Rural areas

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Air pollution

acid pollution, 64, 341, 474, 517

forests, 341-343

ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, 64, 341, 508, 5654

see also Climate change

Alaska, 343

Albright, Madeleine, 512

Alexander von Humboldt Institute, 487-488

Algae

classification, 143-144, 147-148

marine, 92

number of species, 35, 37, 38, 143-146, 232

soil, 232

see also specific species

Alien species, see Exotic species

All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory, 288

Allen, Melody, 204-212

Allison, Allen, 281-290

Allopatric speciation, 48

Amazon Basin, 28, 343, 421, 427, 471, 509-510, 512, 534

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1-2

American Museum of Natural History, 60, 379, 462, 463-464

Apicomplexa, 142, 143, 148

Archaea, 23, 31, 118-126 (passim), 141

Archamoebae, 139

Area de Conservation Guanacaste, 521-528

Arid lands, see Deserts and desertification

Arroyo, Mary T. Kalin, 530-542

Arthropods, number of species, 35, 38, 77, 232-233

see also Insects

ASCEND 21, 347-348

Ascetospora, 142, 143

Asia

human population growth, 305

knowledge-based economies, 408

systematics science, 378

see also Southeast Asia; specific countries

Australia

exotic species, 75, 326

fungi, 163

insects, 216

mites, 194-195

soil, 236

systematics science, 378

B

Bacon, Francis, 12

Bacteria, 3, 23, 118-124, 508

biological control, 243

oil-eating, 544-545

marine, 92

photosynthesis, 121, 124

soil, 228, 232

species defined, 31

Baker, A. S., 192-203

Baldwin, J. G., 176-191

Bamboo, 164, 171, 428

Bangladesh, 382, 384

Bean, Michael, 493-499

Belize, 565

Bemis, Ronald, 596-603

Benthos, 87-88, 89, 93-94, 95, 98, 139

corals, 88-89, 99, 304, 414

nematodes, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184

Berry, Thomas, 12

Bicosoecae, 140, 145

Biodiversity Project, 461

Biogeography, see Geographic factors

Biological control and remediation, 75, 242-249

exotic species, 330-331

fungi, 156

nematodes, 244-245

protists, 132

tropical invertebrates, 205, 207

Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments, 54

Biological Survey for the Nation, A, 292

BioNET-INTERNATIONAL, 353, 354, 355

Biosphere 2 Research Center, 464

Biopolymers, 546, 547

Bioremediation, see Biological control and remediation

Biotechnology, 65, 242, 376

biopolymers, 546, 547

environmental services via, 76, 107-108

fungi, 156-157

oil-eating bacteria, 544-545

soils, 242-249

see also Biological control and remediation;

Medical applications

Birds

classification, 32

countryside biogeography, 111

exotic species, hybridization, 328

extinction, 47, 48-49, 50-51, 57, 58, 435

municipal parks, 588

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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number of species, 77, 590-591

speciation, 48

Bolivia, 565

Botanical Gardens Conservation International, 359

Bowker, Geoffrey, 291-300

Brazil, see Amazon Basin

Brooks, Thomas, 46-62

Brown, Lester, 337

Brunei, fungal diversity, 159

Butman, Cheryl Ann, 84-103

C

CAB INTERNATIONAL, 353

Canada, 16-17, 74, 402

mites, 197-198

NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593

Carbon and carbon cycling, 4, 66, 67, 74, 75-76, 91, 107, 108, 122, 124, 132, 235, 398, 414, 525, 527, 533-534, 540, 541

Costa Rican policy, 503-505

knowledge-based economies, 400, 408

see also Climate change

Carson, Rachel, 14

Castro, René, 500-505

Cattle, see Ranching

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470

Center for Plant Conservation, 367

Central America, see Latin America; specific countries

Charophyta, 145

Chemical prospecting, 543-550

see also Medical applications

Chichilnisky, Graciela, 398-410

Chile, 535-542

China

fungi, 163

human population growth, 310, 321

Chlorophyta, 144-145

Choanozoa, 141-142, 148

Chromista, 134-135, 140, 141, 143, 145-146, 149, 150

Chrysophyta, 143, 144, 145, 146

Chytridiomycota, 147, 148

Ciliophora, 142-143, 148

Cincotta, Richard, 303-314

Cities, see Urbanization

Classification, 413-414

algae, 143-144, 147-148

bacteria, 31, 413

conservation biology, 24

conservation genetics, 265, 266-267

Costa Rican rain forests, 528, 577-578, 580-581

databases, 32, 380-384, 589-592

ecosystems, 23, 288

environmental services, 107

ethnobotany, 438-441

extinction of species and, 51

eukaryotes, 30-45, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136

sequencing, 118, 120, 121, 124

fungi, 32, 140, 146, 160, 166-167, 169

genetic sequencing, 24, 85, 118-126, 183

Hawaii Biological Survey, 282, 285, 286, 288

historical perspectives, 31-32, 130

insects, 32, 33, 213, 215-217

mites, 192-196, 198-199

international programs, 351-353

marine species, 84-86, 415

microorganisms, 31, 117-118, 130, 413

nematodes, 32, 176-177, 179-183, 186-188

population diversity, 77

public policy, 417

protists, 130, 131-135, 139, 140-151

seed banks, 370

soil, 228, 232, 235

synonyms, 32-34, 37, 136, 180, 214

systematics science, 376-377, 380-384

taxonomists, number of, 32

tropical invertebrates, Africa, 206-208

see also Inventories, species; Morphology; Systematics science

Climate change, 73, 74, 96, 99, 106, 303, 304, 235, 339-340, 343, 474, 491, 533-534, 570

Convention on Climate Change, 399-400, 491, 503-504, 505, 511, 567

Costa Rican policy, 503-505, 524, 525, 527

national security policy, 508

see also Carbon and carbon cycling

Coastal areas, 92, 95, 98-100, 101

bioremediation, 246

coral reefs, 88-89, 99, 304, 414

global warming, 343

mites, 195, 196

Cohen, J., 316

Colombia, 58, 311, 424, 483-492, 565

Columbia Earth Institute, 464-465

Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, 382, 383, 384, 579, 586

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Commercial applications

Africa, tropical insects, 210-211

bioremediation, 248

see also Biotechnology; Medical applications

The Coming Plagues, 552-553

Communications Consortium Media Center, 456, 457

Computer technology, 14-15

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206

Colombia, 491

education, 583

extinction models, 54

fungal diversity, imaging, 161

Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290

knowledge vs information technology, 401

intellectual property issues, 409-410

Mexico, 586-595

National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300

SPECIES 2000, 351-353

systematics science, 380-381

see also Databases; Internet

Conference on Nature and Human Society, 516

Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), 211, 288, 382, 383, 384, 586, 587, 588, 592-594

Conservation biology, 24, 35-36, 255-263, 521-542

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 466, 467-468

Chile, 536-542

Colombia, 486, 488-489

conservation medicine, 551-556

Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585

defined, 22, 255-257, 258, 266

ethnobotany, 439-441

evolution and, 256, 258, 266

genetics, 264-275, 489, 588

population diversity, 73, 80-81, 258, 279

U.S. efforts, 388, 389, 395-396, 557

utilitarian benefits of, 65-69, 73, 256, 264, 265, 524-526

see also Sustainable development

Conservation medicine, see Medical applications

Conservation strategies, other

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 205-211

conservation biology and, 258-259, 260

Endangered Species Act, 81, 493-499, 602-603

incentives, 414, 416-417, 502

indigenous peoples, 431-432

land preservation, 17

national parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603

marine species, 100-102

public support for, 31

see also International agreements; Policy

Conservation value, 65-69, 73, 256, 264, 265, 524-526

see also Ecosystem services

Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, 359, 389, 508

Convention on Biological Diversity, 329, 331, 348-349, 359-360, 387-397, 418, 439-440, 457, 566-571

Colombia, 485, 486, 490, 491-492

Costa Rica, 528, 573, 583

DIVERSITAS, 347, 349, 349-356, 379, 380, 384, 394

funding, 392, 561, 564-571

genetics, 561

Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558

Internet access, 387

Kew Seed Banks, 359, 365

property rights, 406-407

standards, 393-394

structure, 391-395, 560-561

systematics science, 374, 382

U.S. involvement, 388, 389, 395-396, 557

Convention on Climate Change, 399-400, 491, 503-504, 505, 511, 567

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 268, 436, 588, 593

Cost and cost-benefit factors

Africa, training, 209

agricultural crop diversity decline, 414

Climate Change Convention, 504

developing countries, export dumping, 399

environmental services, 67

exotic species control, 328-329

fungal diversity assessment, 163

insect diversity assessment, 216-217

knowledge market, 404-405

nematode diversity assessment, 183, 187

seed banks, 358, 359

soil diversity assessment, 233

see also Funding

Costa Rica, 381-382, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206, 207

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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climate change policy, 503-505, 524, 525, 527

countryside biogeography, 111

databases, 591

fungal diversity, 159

government policy, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585

inventories, 525, 577-578, 580-581

pharmaceuticals, INBio-Merck contract, 503, 527-528, 581-582

pollutants, 472

prescribed burning, 601

systematics science, 381-382

tropical forests, Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585, 601

tropical invertebrates, 206

Coral reefs, 88-89, 99, 304, 414

Corliss, John, 130-155

Cox, Paul, 435-442

Cracraft, Joel, 374-386

Cryptomonada, 140, 145

Cultural factors, human societies, 11-12, 18, 455-462

aesthetics, 72, 105, 112

Colombia, 490

conservation biology, 260-261

countryside biogeography, 112

ecopsychology, 20

ethical issues, 46, 72, 104, 105, 256, 258, 259,262,265, 312,406,415,461, 467-468, 557, 573, 583, 597

ethnobotany, 435-442

human population growth, 318-319

indigenous peoples, 420-434, 562, 563

Colombia, 490

ethnobotany, 422-434, 436-441, 465

language extinction, 437-438, 515

media, 13, 14-15

religion, 20, 112, 429, 443-454, 458, 461

tropical rain forests, indigenous peoples, 420-434

D

Daily, Gretchen, 71-83, 104-113

Daly, H. E., 478-479

Databases

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206, 208

CONABIO, 211, 288, 382, 383, 384, 586, 587, 588, 592-594

Convention on Biological Diversity, 392

exotic species, 331-332

geographic information systems (GISs), 282, 283,292,581, 587,592, 593, 594

geospatial information, 277

Global Resource Information Database, 277

Hawaii Biological Survey, 282-283

inventories, 588-594

Mexico, 587-594

National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300

priority areas, geospatial information systems, 276-280

seed banks, 370

systematics science, 380-384

taxonomic, 32, 380-384, 589-592

see also Internet

De Leij, Frans, 242-251

Defense, see National security

Demographic factors, see Population factors, human; Rural areas;

Urbanization

Deserts and desertification, 234, 235, 337

Kew Seed Bank, 351-367

Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603

nematodes, 184

Developing countries, general, 5-6, 51, 557-572

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 204-212

coastal areas, mega-cities, 99-100

developed countries, relations with, 398-399, 409, 483-492, 500-505

human population growth, 304, 306, 322

Kew Seed Bank, 362

patent licensing to low-income groups, 404, 405

population factors, human, general, 304, 306,322

sustainable development, 322, 534-535, 557-572

systematics science, 378-379

technological development, 315-316;

see also Technology transfer

see also Africa;

Nongovernmental organizations;

Latin America;

World Bank;

specific countries

Diatomae, 146, 150

Dictyochae, 140, 145

Dinozoa, 141, 145, 148

Diversa Corporation, 527

DIVERSITAS, 347, 349, 349-356, 394

systematics science, 353, 379, 380, 384

DNA, 6, 23

conservation genetics, 268-269

insects, 215

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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microorganisms, 118

bacteria, 31, 118

mutation, 25

nematodes, 179, 182-183, 188

number of species, estimation, 31, 43

sequencing, 24, 85, 182-183, 215, 243

Drugs, see Medical applications

E

Earth Summit, 6, 347, 348, 484

see also Convention on Biological Diversity

Economic factors, 5-6, 7, 8, 63, 74-75, 337-338, 514-518

Africa, 408

trade relations, 398-399

tropical invertebrates, 204-205, 206, 209-211

benefits of biodiversity, 65-66, 67-68, 74, 81, 105, 106, 107-108, 112, 401, 414-415, 489-490, 564

classification, 23, 288

Colombia, 489-490

Costa Rica, 500, 501

conservation biology, 65-69, 73, 256, 264, 265, 524-526

employment, 20, 337, 402, 458, 566

exotic species control, 328-329, 330

fisheries, 74, 471-472

fungi, 157

globalization, 12, 16, 17-19, 63, 398-400, 514-516

Gross Domestic Product, 18

Gross National Product, 490, 575

human population growth, 318-319

incentives, 414, 416-417, 502

indigenous peoples, 420-434

intellectual property rights, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415

knowledge markets, 400-410, 476

marine ecosystems, 89

mites, 195, 198, 199

national security policy, 509-510

natural capital, 471-480

nematodes, 179-180, 182

property rights, 399, 400, 401-402, 403, 404-408, 415, 430, 570

service economies, 402-403, 475-476

taxation, 414, 502, 504, 570, 571

tourism and recreation, 68, 102, 530, 535, 539, 564, 582, 589

see also Agriculture;

Commercial applications;

Cost and cost-benefit factors;

Biotechnology;

Developing countries;

Funding;

Globalization;

Medical applications;

Poverty;

Sustainable development

Ecosystems, 18, 22-23, 337

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206

conservation biology and, 257, 258, 262, 264

conservation medicine, 551-556

Convention on Biological Diversity, 390-391

defined, 22, 31

biotechnology, 242

exotic species, impact on, 326-327, 330

international programs, 351

knowledge markets, 400

marine, 89-91

National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300

soil biodiversity and, 225-230, 233-241

threatened, 80

see also Deserts and desertification;

Forests and forestry;

Freshwater species;

Geographic factors;

Habitats;

Marine species

Ecosystem services, see Environmental services

Ecuador, 565

Education and training

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 207-209

Colombia, 491

Costa Rica, 524-525, 580-581

conservation biology, 260, 261, 262

conservation genetics, 273

conservation medicine, 552

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470

Convention on Biological Diversity, 560-561

ethnobotany, 440-441

fungal diversity assessment, 160, 166-167, 169

Hawaii Biological Survey, 284-285, 286

intellectual property rights, 405

nematode diversity assessment, 186-187

seed banks, 367, 370-371

soil habitats, 235

wildland habitats, 524-525

see also Information dissemination;

Public education;

Technology transfer

Ehrlich, Paul, 71-83

Eisner, Thomas, 543-550

Elder, jane, 455-461

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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El Niño, 343, 514

Employment, 20, 337, 458, 566

knowledge sector, 402

Endangered Biodiversity Act (proposed), 81

Endangered species, see Threatened and endangered species

Endangered Species Act, 81, 493-499, 600, 602-603

Endemism, 23, 28, 51-52, 87, 281, 587

Colombia, 488

exotic species, impact on, 327

geospatial information systems, 279

nematodes, 182, 185

soil, 233

Endophytes, 162-163, 170

Energy resources, 2, 3-4, 20, 27, 60, 304, 322, 323, 523, 567, 575, 576

bioenergy, 65, 66

efficiency, 416, 421, 472-478 (passim), 504

forests, 343

fossil fuels, 398, 478;

see also Climate change

hydroelectric power, 503

marine environment, 87, 91, 92

metabolic processes, 2, 20, 120, 121-126, 127

soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247

photosynthesis, 4-5, 91, 92, 125-126, 141

savannah, 342

urban areas, 13

Engelman, Robert, 303-314

Environmental Defense Fund, 497

Environmental services, 64, 65, 66-68, 74-76, 80-81, 105-107, 303

chemical prospecting, 543-549

conservation biology, 260, 265, 526, 528

countryside biogeography, 109-113

forests, 74, 75-76, 502, 509-510, 517, 526, 528, 530

fungi, 156, 157

insects, 67-68, 75, 208

marine ecosystems, 89, 91-92

mites, 193

national security policy, 509-510

pollution control, 132, 156, 157, 544-545

soil, 225, 226-227, 230, 235

see also Carbon and carbon cycling;

Climate change;

Nitrogen and nitrogen cycling

Epstein, Paul, 551-556

Ethical issues, 46, 72, 104, 105, 256, 258, 259, 262, 265, 312, 344-345, 406, 415, 461, 467-468, 557, 573, 583, 597

Ethnobotany, 465

endangered species, 436-441

indigenous peoples, 422-434

Euglenozoa, 141, 143, 145, 148

Eukaryotic species, 30-45, 122, 123

classification, 30-45, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136

genetic sequencing, 118, 120, 121, 124

pathogens, 122, 132

protists vs, 130, 131

see also specific species

Europe

Africa, technology transfer, 208-209

countryside biogeography, 110

human population growth, 305, 307

systematics science, 378

see also United Kingdom

European Union, 566-567

Evolution, 22-29

allopatric speciation, 48

birds, 48

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 466-467

conservation biology defined, 256, 258, 266

evolutionary distance, 120-121

extinction and, 47-48

host races, 27

marine species, 95-96

nematodes, 180

polypoidy, 26-27

protists, 131-132

speciation, 3, 24, 25-27, 47-48, 64

sympathetic speciation, 27, 28, 47-48

systematics science, 376-377

vertical, 24-25

see also Endemism;

Mutation

Exotic species, 75, 325-334, 436-437, 526, 535, 554

conservation biology, 258

countryside biogeography, 109

fish and fisheries, 327, 328, 329, 331, 414-415

insects, 330-331

Malpai Borderlands Group, 599-600

marine, 96, 99

nematodes, 179, 181, 233-234

plants, 75, 326-327, 330, 436-438

public education, 328-329

soil, 233-234

tourists transporting, 325, 328

Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification, 589

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Extinction, 3, 4, 5, 63-64, 71, 78-80, 276, 304, 414, 435, 554

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 205

birds, 47, 48-49, 50-51, 57, 58, 435

countryside biogeography, 110

deforestation and, 19, 50-51, 54, 78, 436

ecosystem services, 64

ethnobotany, 435-442

fisheries, 414, 471-472

fossil record, 42, 47, 49

protists, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim)

Hawaii, 281, 326, 327, 436

historical perspectives, 40-43, 48, 50-51, 58, 59

islands, oceanic, 48, 49, 50, 52, 436-437

language extinction, 437-438, 515

models, 52-54, 55-56

next major event, 46-62, 303, 414, 455, 456

North America, 50-51, 54

plants, 64, 358, 435-442

protists, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim)

species alive today, total number of, 41-43

statistical methodology, 157-158, 166-167

U.S., 325-329, 331

see also Threatened and endangered species

F

FAO, see UN Food and Agricultural Organization

Federal government

Canada, 16-17

Chile, 535-542

Colombia, 483-492

Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585

geographic information systems, 292

Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-597

Mexico, 586-594

National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300

national security, 506-513

seed banks, 366-367

sustainability, general, 514-518

see also United States;

terms beginning “U.S.”

Fire, 259, 326, 343, 431, 436, 471, 495, 497, 512, 514, 522, 525, 527, 528

lichen, 162

Malpai Borderlands Group, 597, 601, 602

slash-and-burn agriculture, 426-427, 522-523

Fish and fisheries, 90-91, 93, 94, 96, 97-98, 304, 337, 414

economic value, 74, 471-472

exotic species, 327, 328, 329, 331, 414-415

freshwater, 328, 329, 414-415, 509

global warming, 339

international policy, 510

political factors, 17

Food and nutrition, 20, 108, 338, 389, 415

Africa, tropical insects, 204-205, 210

benefits of biodiversity, 65, 67-68

exotic species, impact on, 327, 328-329

fungal damage, 157

global warming, 340

indigenous hunter-gatherers, 304, 305, 401, 422-432

marine species, 87-88, 92

microorganisms, general, 118

protists, 132

sympathetic speciation, 27

see also Agriculture

Food chain

human population growth, 319

marine, 89-90, 93-94, 98

Foraminifera, 139

Foreign trade, see International trade

Forests and forestry, 22-23, 414, 515, 537, 570

bird speciation, 48

bird extinction, 50-51, 57

deforestation, 19, 50-51, 54, 55-57, 58, 78, 111, 235, 339-340, 341-343, 414, 436, 521-522, 589

Costa Rica, 502-503, 504

extinction and, 19, 50-51, 54, 78, 436

indigenous peoples, 424, 426, 430-431

endangered species, 498

environmental services, 74, 75-76, 502, 509-510, 517, 526, 528, 530

exotic species, 326-327

ionizing radiation, 341

mites, 193, 196, 197-198

nematodes, 184, 326-327

park preserves, 59, 521-529, 537-541, 570

sustainability, 483-492, 500-505, 521-542, 573-585

see also Tropical forests

Framework Convention on Climate Change, see Convention on Climate Change

Freshwater species, 515

exotic, 328, 329, 414-415

fish, 328, 329, 414-415, 509

fungi, 164-165, 171

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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human impacts on, 304, 414-415, 509

nematodes, 179, 181

mites, 194, 196

soil diversity and, 230

Fossil record, 42, 47, 49

protists, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim)

Funding, 564-569

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 469

conservation genetics, 273

Convention on Biological Diversity, 392, 561, 564-571

Costa Rica, forest preservation, 504, 521, 524-535, 527-528

endangered species, land acquisition, 495

Global Environment Facility, 557-558

insect inventories, 213

international programs, 353

Kew Seed Bank, 359, 371

national parks and preserves, 521, 566-567

NGOs, 564-567, 569, 571

protists research, 151

systematics science, 375, 376, 382, 383-384

World Bank, 416

Fungi, 134, 135, 146-147, 156-175, 531, 548-549

classification, 32, 140, 146, 160, 166-167, 169

education for diversity assessment, 160, 166-167, 169

environmental services, 156, 157

exotic species, 326

freshwater, 164-165, 171

habitat, general, 157, 158, 163-164, 170, 171

microhabitat predictors, 160

insect hosts, 159, 160

medical applications, 156-157

mites, feeding on, 193

number of species, 35, 37, 38, 39-40, 146-148, 149, 232, 531

tropical, 40, 157-175

palms, 157, 158, 163-164, 170

pathogens, 157, 163, 164, 165

soil, 229-230, 232, 234, 244

see also specific types of fungi

The Future Population of the World: What Can We Assume Today?, 316

G

Gámez, Rodrigo, 573-585

Gardens, 23, 378, 381, 462, 489, 591

ethnobotany, 440-441

Kew Seed Bank, 358-373

wildlands as, 521-529, 576, 579

GATT, see General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Gemmill, Barbara, 204-212

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

exotic species control, 328

WTO, 491

Genetics, 24, 264-275

conservation genetics, 264-275, 489, 588

Convention on Biological Diversity, 561

crop diversity loss, 64, 65, 414, 415-416

global climate change, 73

diversity, general, 17-18, 23-25, 73, 414

exotic species, hybridization, 328

genomes, 6, 25, 120, 124, 292, 380, 508, 528

historical perspectives, 13-14

marine biodiversity, 96

plant variability, 73, 75

population differentiation, 72-73, 77

RNA sequencing, 118-126

seed banks, 358-373

sequencing, 24, 85, 118-126, 182-183, 215, 243

soil bioremediation, 247

uniformity, dangers of, 64

value of population diversity, 72-73

see also Biotechnology;

DNA;

Evolution;

Mutation

Genomes, 6, 25, 120, 124, 292, 380, 508, 528

Genuine Progress Indicator, 18

Geographic factors

conservation genetics, 265-272

country-side biogeography, 109-113

extinction, 49-54

fungi, 157-158

geographical information systems (GISs), 279, 282, 283, 292, 581, 587, 592, 593, 594

Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290

insects, number of, 38-39

isolated populations, 24

marine species, 91, 96

nematodes, 180-184, 187

plankton, 91

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population diversity, 77-78

priority areas, geospatial information systems, 276-280

soil biodiversity, 227-228, 232

speciation, 25-28;

see also Endemism

threatened and endangered species, 52

see also Ecosystems;

Islands and archipelagos;

Regional issues;

specific countries and regions

Glaucophyta, 144

Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 464

Global Biodiversity Assessment (UNEP), 276, 277, 349, 355, 356, 378, 394

Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems, 349-350

Global climate change, see Climate change

Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558

Globalization, 12, 16, 17-19, 63, 398-400, 514-516

Global 2000 Report to the President of the United States, 389

Global Resource Information Database, 277

Gorbachev, Mikhail, 447-449 (passim)

Government role, 338, 417

conservation biology, 258-259

see also Federal government;

Legislation;

Political factors;

Policy

Great Britain, see United Kingdom

Greenhouse effect, see Global climate change

Gross Domestic Product, 18

Gross National Product, 490, 575

Guatemala, 565

H

Habitats, 31, 104

Colombia, 487

Costa Rica, 503

countryside biogeography, 109, 110

destruction/fragmentation, 54-58, 414

global warming, 339

fungi, 157, 158, 163-164, 170, 171

microhabitat predictors, 160

human population threats to, 303-304, 323

nematodes, 180-186

see also Agriculture;

Deserts and

desertification;

Forests and forestry;

Freshwater species;

Geographic factors;

Marine species;

Soil and sediment;

Threatened and

endangered species

Halliday, R. B., 192-203

Hammond, P. M., 33-38 (passim), 40

Haptomonada, 140, 145

Hawaii, 28

bird extinctions, 38, 51, 436

exotic species, 281, 326, 327, 436

Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290

Hawken, Paul, 471-480

Hawksworth, D. L., 156-175, 347-357

Hay, David, 242-251

Heliozoa, 140

Henne, Gudrun, 387-397

Herren, Hans, 204-212

High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, 292

Historical perspectives, 4-5, 347

agricultural biodiversity, 13, 64, 65, 73, 407, 415-416, 424-430

biodiversity, concept of, 22-29

classification of species, 31-32, 130

Costa Rica, 575-576

deforestation, 50-51, 58, 502

indigenous peoples, 424, 426, 430-431

economic benefits of biodiversity, 66-67

economic development, 338, 398

Endangered Species Act, 493-494

exotic species, 327

extinction, 40-43, 48, 50-51, 58, 59

globalization, 18, 398

Hawaii Biological Survey, 286

human population growth, 305-306, 308, 309, 310, 315, 318, 319-320

knowledge revolution, 398

Malpai Borderlands Group, 599

microorganisms, 117-118

mite species recorded, 199

national security policy, 506-507, 509, 510-511

natural capital destruction, 471

religion and sustainability, 446-454

scientific method, 11-14

species alive presently, number of, 40-43

urbanization, 13

Ho, W. H., 156-175

Honeycut, Rodney, 264-275

Hong Kong, fungal diversity, 157, 158, 166-167, 514

How Many People Can the Earth Support?, 316

How to Grow a National Park, 521

Hughes, Jennifer, 71-83

Human Genome Project, 292, 508

Human rights, 344-345

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Hunting, 522

indigenous hunter-gatherers, 304, 305, 401, 422-423

whales, 85, 98

Hyde, K. D., 156-175

I

Imaging techniques, 587, 589

fungi, 161

INBio (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad), 211, 288, 525, 527-528, 576, 577-579, 580-583

INBio-Merck, 503, 527-528, 581-582

India, 73, 321, 323

Indigenous peoples, 420-434, 562, 563

Colombia, 490

ethnobotany, 436-441

Indonesia, 382, 563, 566-567

Information dissemination, 14-15, 291-300

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 206, 207, 208

Colombia, 487

Convention on Biological Diversity, 392, 561

ethnobotany, 440-441

exotic species, 328-329, 331-332

Hawaii Biological Survey, 284-288

knowledge markets, 400-410

Mexico, 586-595

National Biological Information Infrastructure, 291-300

see also Computer technology;

Databases;

Education and training;

Gardens;

Internet;

Media;

Museums;

Public education;

Technology transfer

Information science, see Computer technology

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, 381-382

InterAmerican Biodiversity Information Network, 491

Interfaith Center, 453-454

Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of Resources of the Biosphere, 388

International agreements, 387-396, 418

Amazon Basin, 509-510

Convention on Climate Change, 399-400, 491, 503-504, 505, 511, 567

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 268, 436, 588, 593

Colombian biodiversity, 485, 487, 490-491

Costa Rican biodiversity, 528

exotic species control, 328-329, 331

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/WTO, 328, 491

investment, 19, 570, 571

NAFTA, 3660367, 328, 593

see also Convention on Biological Diversity

International Biodiversity Group, 526

International Botanical Congress, 506

International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, 207-208, 209, 210

International Conference on Population and Development, 516

International Cooperative Biodiversity Group, 528

International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 347, 349, 355-356

International Geosphere Biosphere Programme, 349

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 316

International organizations and programs, 288-289, 347-357, 387-396

Africa, technology transfer, 209

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470

classification, 351-353

Colombia, 491

Kew Seed Banks (UK), 358-373

national security policy, 511

systematics science, 377-385

trade relations, 398-399

see also Nongovernmental organizations;

specific organizations and programs

International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, 359

International Rice Research Institute, 73

International trade, 18, 268, 570

Africa, 398-399

carbon dioxide, trade offsets, 504, 505

developing/developed countries, 398-399, 409, 483-492, 500-505

endangered species (CITES), 268, 436, 588, 593

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/WTO, 328, 491

globalization, 12, 16, 17-19, 63, 398-400, 514-516

NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (World Conservation Union), 268, 271, 347, 350, 359, 388, 389, 390, 400, 436

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International Union of Biological Sciences, 347

Colombia, 488

DIVERSITAS, 347, 349, 349-356

International Union of Microbiological Societies, 349

Internet, 14

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 208

Area de Conservation Guanacaste, 521, 524, 525

CONABIO, 586, 593

Convention on Biological Diversity, 387

Costa Rica, forest conservation, 527-528, 587

Gap Analysis Program, 589

Hawaii Biological Survey, 285

High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, 292

Mexico, conservation ministry, 586, 587, 589

National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 292, 299

Nature Conservancy, 589

nematodes, 188

soil, 236-237

SPECIES 2000, 352

various, 589

World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 587

Ireland, mites, 195-196

Insecticides, see Pesticides

Insects

Africa, tropics, 204-212

agriculture, environmental services, 67-68, 75, 436

biological control, 243, 330-331

classification, 32, 33, 213, 215-217

mites, 192-196, 198-199

endemism, 28

environmental services, 67-68, 75, 208

exotic species, 330-331

fungal hosts, 159, 160

insecticides, 14, 207, 330, 472, 475, 546, 548

inventories, 35, 36, 38-39, 42, 213-222, 232, 531

mites, 192-203

nematode hosts, 179, 243-244

nocturnality, 111

oil-eating bacteria and, 544-545

soil, 232-233, 235

mites, 193, 199

sympathetic speciation, 27, 28

Islands and archipelagos

endemism, 23, 28

extinction of species, 48, 49, 50, 52, 436-437

geographic speciation, 25, 27

see also specific islands

Intellectual property, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415

Inventories, species, 14, 415, 422

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 205-206

algae, 35, 37, 38, 143-146, 232

arthropods, 35, 38, 77, 232-233

birds, 77, 590-591

Colombia, 486, 487-488

Costa Rica, 525, 577-578, 580-581

databases, 588-594

endangered species, 52

eukaryotes, 30-45

fungi, 35, 37, 38, 39-40, 146-148, 149, 232, 531

tropical, 40, 157-175

Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290

insects, 35, 36, 38-39, 42, 213-222, 232, 531

Mexico, 588-594

microorganisms, general, 117

mites, 194-200

nematodes, 35, 36-37, 38, 176-191, 232

plankton, 93, 141-142, 144

plantae, 35, 38, 39, 143, 144-145, 147-148, 149

protists, 35, 37, 38, 131, 138-143, 148, 149, 150, 232

soil, 227-233

see also Classification;

Systematics science

IUBS-SCOPE-UNESCO Programme on Biodiversity, see DIVERSITAS

J.

Jacob, Francois, 11

Janzen, Daniel, 521-529

Japan, 436, 511

human population growth, 311

nematodes, 179, 326-327

Juma, Calestous, 387-397

K

Kapitza, Sergey, 315-324

Kenya, 55

Kew Foundation, 358-373

Keynes, John Maynard, 18, 19

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Koleff, Patricia, 586-595

Kyoto Protocol, see Convention on Climate Change

L

Labyrinthomorpha, 140, 147

Lamont Doherty Earty Observatory, 464

Land and Water Conservation Fund, 495

Land management, 17, 375, 414, 521-542

conservation biology and, 258-259, 260

Costa Rica, 501-502

endangered species, 495, 497-498

human rights and, 344-345

Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603

national parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603

see also Sustainable development

Lane, Meredith, 291-300

Language extinction, 437-438, 515

Latin America

Amazon Basin, 28, 343, 421, 427, 471, 509-510, 512

economic organization, 408

endemism, 52

exotic species, 326, 327

fungi, 40

global warming, 343

human population growth, 305, 308

indigenous peoples, 421, 424, 425

insects, 207

nematodes, 182

systematics science, 378

trade relations, 398-399

see also specific countries

Legislation, 5, 460

Colombia, 486, 490=491

Costa Rica, 577

Endangered Biodiversity Act (proposed), 81

Endangered Species Act, 27, 493-499, 602-603

exotic species control, 328-329

Indonesia Conservation Act, 566

Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 11

Library of Congress, 1

Lichen-forming fungi, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168-169, 341

Linares, Olga, 420-434

Linnaeus, Carl, 438-439

Lovejoy, Thomas, 401, 506-513

Lynch, James, 242-251

M

MacArthur Foundation, 273

Macromycetes, 161, 168

Maize, 65, 209-210

Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603

Malthus, Thomas, 318

Mammals

extinction rates, 59

marine, 86-87, 90, 93, 94-95, 98

Marine species, 84-103, 126, 144, 415, 515

benthos, 87-88, 89, 93-94, 95, 98, 139

nematodes, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184

classification, 84-86, 415

conservation strategies, 100-102

corals, 88-89, 99, 304, 414

deep-sea, 85-86

Endangered Species Act, 494

energy needs, 87, 91, 92

environmental services, 89, 91-92

exotic, 326, 328, 329

food chain, 89-90, 93-94, 98

foraminifera, 139

geographical factors, 91, 96;

see also Coastal areas

mammals, 86-87, 90, 93, 94-95, 98

mites, 196

number of species, general, 35, 38, 40

photosynthesis, 91, 92

plants, 88, 91-92

plankton, 88, 91-94, 99

number of, 93, 141-142, 144

pollution, 472

public education, 101, 102

turtles, 95, 98, 494

see also Fish and fisheries

Mass media, see Media

May, Robert, 30-45

McDonald, William, 596-603

McNeely, Jeffrey, 557-572

Media, 13, 14-15

Medical applications, 65, 66, 73, 106, 376, 415, 475, 507-509, 510, 527-528, 543-544, 571, 587

conservation medicine, 551-556

Costa Rica, INBio-Merck contract, 503, 527-528, 581-582

ethnobotany, 465

fungi, 156-157

genomes, 6, 25, 120, 124, 292, 380, 508, 528

human population growth, 304, 305, 311-312

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mites, 198

plant-based, 66, 415, 508, 587

soil biodiversity, 226

Mediterranean region, 34, 471

Meffe, Gary, 255-263

Melnick, Don, 264-275, 462-470

Merck, 503, 527-528, 581-582

Metabolic processes, 2, 20, 120, 121-126, 127

soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247

Metamonada, 141, 148

Methodology, see Research methodology

Mexico, 382

biological information system (CONABIO), 211, 288, 382, 383, 384, 586, 587, 588, 592-594

Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603

nematodes, 182

mites, 197

NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593

systematics science, 382, 383, 384

Microorganisms, general, 117-129

classification, 31, 117-118, 130, 413

soil, 139, 229-230, 246-248

see also Archaea;

Bacteria;

Eukaryotic species;

Fungi;

Viruses

Microspora, 142, 147, 148

Miller, Scott, 204-212, 281-290

Millennium Seed Bank, 358-373

Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia, 523, 525, 576

Ministerio de Recursos Naturales, Energía y Minas, 575-577

Mites, 192-203

coastal areas, 195, 196

economic impacts, 195, 198, 199

freshwater, 194, 196

Models and modeling

biotic impoverishment, 344-345

countryside biogeography, 110

databases, species, 592

extinction, 52-54, 55-56

forest ecosystems, 534-535

human population growth, 317-321

RNA sequencing, 118-126

service economies, 402-403, 475-476

soil, 236

speciation, 47-48

see also Statistical methodology

Molecular biology, 14

fungi, measuring presence, 156, 161

nematodes, measuring presence, 188

soil, 228, 229-230, 246-247

see also Genetics

Morales, Juan Carlos, 264-275

Morphology

conservation genetics, 267

microorganisms, 117-118

mites, 192, 193

nematodes, 178

systematics science, 376-377

Morton, James, 443-454

Moscow Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders, 448-450

Mound, Laurence, 213-222

Multilateral Agreement on Investments, 19

Municipal parks, 588

Kew Gardens, 358-373

Museums, 206, 208-209, 218, 378, 379-381, 462

American Museum of Natural History, 60, 379, 462, 463-464

Hawaii Biological Survey, 281-290

seed banks, 358-373, 509

Mutation, 24, 25

insecticide resistance, 14

Mycetozoa, 139

Mycota, see Fungi

Myxomycetes, 147

Myxozoa, 135, 142, 148

Myers, Norman, 63-70

Myxomycetes, 147

N

Nadler, S. A., 176-191

National Biological Information Infrastructure, 291-300

National Biological Survey, 284, 287

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 497

National Forum on BioDiversity, 1, 6, 22, 456

National parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603

funding, 521, 566-567

National security, 506-513

National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 292

Nature and Human Society:

The Quest for A Sustainable World, 514

The Nature Conservancy, 281, 284, 457, 521, 566, 598, 599

Nematodes

agriculture, 179, 181, 182, 184

benthic, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184

biological control, 244-245

classification, 32, 176-177, 179-183, 186-188

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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DNA, 179, 182-183, 188

education for, 186-187

desert species, 184

economic impacts, 179-180, 182

endemism, 182, 185

evolution, 180

exotic species, 179, 181, 233-234

forest species, 184, 326-327

freshwater, 179, 181

geographical factors, 180-184, 187

habitat, 180-186

insect hosts, 179, 243-244

Internet, 188

North American, 179, 180, 233

number of species, 35, 36-37, 38, 176-191, 232

parasites, 177, 179-180, 181, 182-183, 184, 185, 243-245

plant, 177, 179, 243-245, 326-327

pathogens, 177, 179-180, 181

soil and sediment, 176-185 (passim), 232, 233-235, 236, 243-245, 246

benthic, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184

Neomonada, 139, 142

Nepal, 567

New York Botanical Gardens, 285, 462, 464

New Zealand, 18, 169, 328, 329, 437, 530, 531-532, 559

NGOs, see Nongovernmental organizations

Nicaragua, 563

Nielsen, Ebbe, 213-222

Nitrogen and nitrogen cycling, 66, 107, 122, 226, 235, 245, 303, 326, 342, 344, 362, 414, 533, 540

Nixon, Richard, 5

Nocturnality, 111

Nongovernmental organizations, general, 417, 463, 466, 469, 503, 559, 563, 564, 567, 569, 571, 576, 578-579

funding, 564-567, 569, 571

see also International organizations and programs;

specific organizations

Nonindigenous species, see Exotic species

North America, 197-198

Africa, technology transfer, 208-209

bird speciation, 48

bird extinction, 50-51

exotic species, 325-329, 331

extinction, 50-51, 54

forests,

air pollutant impacts, 342-343

management, 375

fungi, 39

human population growth, 305

mites, 197-198

nematodes, 179, 180, 233

soil arthropods, 232-233

systematics science, 378

threatened ecosystems, 80

see also Canada;

Mexico;

United States

North American Biodiversity Information Network, 594

North American Free Trade Agreement, 593

exotic species control, 328

seed banks, 366-367

Norway, 413-414

O

OConnor, B. M., 192-203

Organizational factors, 417

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 463-470

Colombian biodiversity, 485-486

conservation biology, 258-261

Convention on Biological Diversity, 391-395, 560-561

countryside biogeography, 108, 112

nematode classification, 179-180

see also Government role;

Policy;

Religion

Organization for Biodiversity Information, 289

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 19

Opalinata, 140-141, 148

Our Common Future, 6, 17, 389-390

Our Stolen Future, 516

Ozone layer depletion, see Ultraviolet radiation

P

Pace, Norman, 117-129

Pacific islands

bird extinctions, 48

global warming, 343

Paleobiology, see Fossil record

Palms, fungal habitat, 157, 158, 163-164, 170

Panama, 565

Pandanus, 164, 171

Papua New Guinea, 563-564

Parabasala, 141

Parasites, 131, 132, 135, 139-143 (passim), 148, 552-553

nematodes, 177, 179-180, 181, 182-183, 184, 185, 243-245

plant, 177, 179, 243-245, 326-327

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soil, general, 227, 235

tropical invertebrates, 205

see also Mites

Parks, see Municipal parks; National parks and preserves

Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy, 384

Patents, see Intellectual property

Pathogens

eukaroytes, 122, 132

exotic species, 327

fungal, 157, 163, 164, 165

mites, 192-193

nematodes, 177, 179-180, 181

protists, 141, 148, 149

soilborne, 229-230

Pearl, Mary, 462-470, 551-556

Percolozoa, 140

Peru, 28, 76, 563

Pesticides, 14, 207, 330, 472, 475, 546, 548

Phaeophyta, 146

Pharmaceuticals, see Medical applications

Philippines, 563, 565-566

Photosynthesis, 4-5, 125-126, 141

bacterial, 121, 124

marine, 91, 92

Phytoplankton, see Plankton

Pimm, Stuart, 46-62

Plankton, 88, 91-94, 99

number of, 93, 141-142, 144

Plantae, 147-148

bamboo, 164, 171, 428

databases, 589, 591-592

environmental services, 75-76

ethnobotany,

endangered species, 438-441

indigenous peoples, 422-434

exotic species, 75, 326-327, 330, 436-438

extinction, 64, 358, 435-442

genetic variability, 73, 75

indigenous hunter-gatherers, 422-427

ionizing radiation, 341

marine, 88, 91-92

medicines, plant-based, 66, 415, 508, 587

Mexico, 589, 591-592

mite parasites, 193, 195

nematode parasites, 177, 179, 243-245, 326-327

number of species, 35, 38, 39, 143, 144-145, 147-148, 149

palms, fungal habitat, 157, 158, 163-164, 170

photosynthesis, 4-5, 91, 92, 125-126, 141

protists, 134, 135, 143, 144-145

seeds and seed banks, 358-373, 509

systematics science, 378, 382-383, 384;

see also Ethnobotany

see also Agriculture; Forests and forestry

PLANTS National Database, 589

Pokras, Mark, 551-556

Political factors, 16-17, 104-105, 337, 338, 339, 388, 460, 461, 601

land preservation, 52, 576

Policy, 481-603

classification, 417

Colombia, 483-492

conservation biology, 258-259, 262

conservation genetics, 273

conservation medicine, 554

Costa Rica, 500-505, 573-585

countryside biogeography, 112

exotic species control, 328-332

extinction, 52, 54, 59, 80-81

fisheries, 510

funding, 521, 566-567

human rights, 344-345

incentives, 414, 416-417, 502

indigenous peoples, 431-432

intellectual property rights, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415

national parks and preserves, 52, 54, 59, 276-280, 375, 396, 436, 502, 521-529, 562-566, 575-577, 596-603

natural security and, 506-513

population growth, 321-324

private vs public goods, 400, 403, 406-407

scientific and technological infrastructure, 337-410, 483-484

social infrastructure, 411-480

U.S. policy on sustainability, 514-518

see also Government role;

International agreements;

International organizations and programs;

Legislation;

Sustainable development

Pollution, 14, 516-517, 553

acid pollution, 64, 341, 474, 517

agricultural, 472, 553

Costa Rican policy, 504

environmental services, control of, 132, 156, 157, 544-545

freshwater, 304, 414-415, 509

fungi, 156

marine, 94, 96, 98, 472

oil-eating bacteria, 544-545

protists, 132

soil, 226, 246-249, 472, 553

see also Air pollution

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Polynesia, bird extinctions, 38

Polypoidy, 26-27

Population factors, human, 3-4, 278

Colombia, 489-490

Costa Rica, 500, 574

developing countries, general, 304, 306, 322

global warming, 340

growth, 303-324, 413, 516

historical perspectives, 305-306, 308, 309, 310, 315, 318, 319-320

indigenous peoples, 420-434

medical interventions, 304, 305, 311-312

natural security and, 507

urbanization, 13, 99-100, 305, 322, 414

Population factors, non-human species, 47-48, 50, 63-64

conservation biology, 73, 80-81, 258, 279

conservation genetics, 270-273

definitional issues, 71-72

diversity, 71-83

marine species, 86-87

see also Extinction

Population Growth, Resource Consumption, and a Sustainable World, 315-316

Poverty, 5-6, 339

patent licensing to low-income groups, 404, 405

see also Developing countries

Prasinophyta, 143, 144

Preserves, see National parks and preserves

Property rights, 399, 570

indigenous peoples, 430

knowledge, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415

private vs public goods, 400, 403, 406-407

Protozoa, 118, 133, 134-135 138-143

biocontrol/remediation, 132

classification, 130, 131-135, 139, 140-151

eukaryotes vs, 130, 131

evolution, 131-132

extinction, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim)

fossil record, 132, 136, 137, 139, 140-150 (passim)

number of species, 35, 37, 38, 131, 138-143, 148, 149, 150, 232

pathogens, 141, 148, 149

plants and, 134, 135, 143, 144-145

pollution, 132

research funding, 151

see also specific species

Public education, 2, 31, 417, 455-461, 583

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 467-469

Colombia, 491

conservation medicine, 554

Convention on Biological Diversity, 561

exotic species control, 328-329

marine biodiversity, 101, 102

media, 13, 14-15

wildland habitats, 524-525, 583

see also Internet; Media

Prance, Ghillean, 358-373

Psuedofungi, 147, 148

R

Radiozoa, 140, 150

Rainforest Alliance, 526

Ranching, 522-523, 526-527

Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603

Raphidophyta, 146

Rapid biodiversity assessment, fungi, 158-172

Reagan, Ronald, 389

Recreation, see Tourism and recreation

Red Data Books, 42

Regional issues

conservation genetics, 269-270

geospatial information systems, 278

population diversity, 75

systematics science, 383

see also specific regions

Religion, 20, 112, 443-454, 458, 461

indigenous peoples, 429

Remote sensing, 89

satellite technology, 292, 589

Research and Development Center of Biology (Indonesia), 382

Research methodology

Colombian biodiversity, 485-492

conference at hand, 2

countryside biogeography, 111-112

fungal diversity, 157-172

geospatial information, 276-280

history of scientific method, 11-14

microbial diversity, 118-121

mite diversity, 197, 200

National Biological Information Infrastructures, 291-300

protist diversity, 132-137, 151

rapid biodiversity assessment, fungi, 158-172

seed banks, 367-370

soil, 227-230, 235-237, 242-243

see also Classification;

Sampling;

Statistical methodology

Rhizophoda, 139

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Rhodophyta, 144, 148

Río Cóndor Project, 535-542

Rio Conference, see Convention on Biological Diversity

RNA sequencing, 118-126

Rodríguez, Sandra, 573-585

Rogo, Lucie, 204-212

Rosenthal Center for Alternative/Complementary Medicine, 465

Rural areas, 13, 416, 502, 583

countryside biogeography, 109-112

indigenous peoples, 420-434

Kew Seed Bank, 362

see also Agriculture

Russonello, John, 455-461

S

Samper, Christián, 483-492

Sampling

fungi, 163-171

insects, 217

Kew Seed Bank, 358-373

marine, 86, 91

mites, 195, 196, 198

nematodes, 187-188

soil, 228, 236, 242

Santa Rosa National Park, 521-529

Satellite technology, 292, 589

Schnase, John, 291-300

Schubel, Jerry, 84-103

Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, 237, 347

SCOPE, 349

Sediment, see Soils and sediment

Seeds and seed banks, 358-373, 509

Serageldin, Ismail, 413-419

Sherman, David, 551-556

Silberschatz, Abraham, 291-300

Silent Spring, 14, 516

Simberloff, Daniel, 325-334

Singh, Ashbindu, 276-280

Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservation, 525, 576-579, 581, 582-583

Smith, Roger, 358-373

Smithsonian Institution, 1, 3, 287, 389

Soberón, Jorge, 586-595

Soil and sediment, 67

agriculture, 226, 234, 235, 236, 245, 246, 472, 553

algae, 232

bacteria, 228, 232

biodiversity, general, 225-241, 351

biological control/remediation, 242-251

biotechnology, 242-249

classification, 228, 232, 235

ecosystems and soil biodiversity, 225-230, 233-241

endemism, 233

energy, soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247

environmental services, 225, 226-227, 230, 235

exotic species, 233-234

fungi, 229-230, 232, 234, 244

geographical factors, 227-228, 232

insects, 232-233, 235

mites, 193, 199

Internet, 236-237

inventories, 227-233

metabolic processes, soil-based organisms, 227, 246-247

microorganisms, 139, 229-230, 246-248

molecular biology, 228, 229-230, 246-247

nematodes, 176-185 (passim), 232, 233-235, 236, 243-245, 246

benthic, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184

parasites, general, 227, 235

pathogens, 229-230

pollution, 226, 246-249, 472, 553

protists, 139

sampling, 228, 236, 242

slash-and-burn agriculture, 426

see also Benthos;

Deserts and desertification

South Africa, 564

South America, see Latin America;

specific countries

Southeast Asia, 514

agricultural biodiversity, 73

conservation genetics, 273

extinctions, 54

indigenous peoples, 425-426

national security policy, 510

Southern Africa Botanical Network, 382-383

Speciation, see Evolution

Species, number of, see Inventories

SPECIES 2000, 351-353

Squibb ICGB, 528

Standards

Convention on Biological Diversity, 393-394

knowledge-based economies, 409

soil sampling, 236

Star, Susan Leigh, 291-300

Statistical methodology

countryside biogeography, 110

endemism, 51, 52

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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extinction, 48, 49, 52-54, 55-56, 78-80

fungal diversity, 157-158, 166-167

human population projections, 316-322

UN, 304-305, 307-313

insect diversity, 215

mite diversity, 197

nematode diversity, 185

population diversity, general, 76-78

Subsidiary Body for Scientific, Technical, the Technological Advice, 348, 391-396 (passim), 484

Sustainable development, 2, 18, 20

Africa, tropical insects, 206, 208, 209-211

chemical prospecting, 543-549

Colombia, 483-492

Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585

developing countries, general, 322, 534-535, 557-572

ethnobotany, 436-441

human population growth, 321-324

religion and, 443-454

scientific and technological infrastructure, 337-410

social infrastructure, 411-480

threats to, 301-334, 414;

see also Exotic species

tropical rain forests, 483-492, 500-505, 521-542, 573-585

U.S., 514-518

World Bank, 416-418

Suzuki, David, 7, 11-21

Sympathetic speciation, 27, 28, 47-48

Systematics Agenda 2000 International, 379-380, 384

Systematics science, 35-36, 206, 374-386

bacteria, 413

CBD, 374, 382

computer technology, 380-381

conservation genetics, 265-267, 268

DIVERSITAS, 353, 379, 380, 384

funding, 375, 376, 382, 383-384

impoverishment, 340-341

plants, 378, 382-383, 384;

see also Ethnobotany

U.S. efforts, 375, 379, 384

see also Classification

T

Tabor, Gary, 551-556

Taiwan

fungal diversity, 159

Taxation, 414, 502, 504, 570, 571

international, 570

Taxonomy, see Classification

Taylor, J. E., 156-175

Technological factors, 12, 13-14, 85

Africa, tropical invertebrates, 208-209

Convention on Biological Diversity, 395-396, 561

developing countries, 315-316;

see also Technology transfer

dysfunctional, 337-338

human population growth, 305, 311-312, 315-316, 318-319, 338

intellectual property, 400, 401-402, 404-408, 415

knowledge-based economies, 398-410, 415

microorganisms, classification, 117-122

remote sensing, 89

satellite technology, 292, 589

seed banks, 367-371

see also Computer technology;

Education and training;

Globalization;

Pesticides

Technology transfer, 208-209, 348, 360, 365, 367, 370-371

Convention on Biological Diversity, 561

human population growth, 306, 319

seed banks, 370

Telecommunications, see Internet; Media

Thailand, fungi, 162, 165

Threatened and endangered species

chemical prospecting, 546-549

Colombia, 488, 489

birds, 57-58, 59, 497

conservation genetics, 266, 268

Endangered Species Act, 81, 493-499, 602-603

ecosystems, 80

ethnobotany, 435-442

hunting of, 85

language extinction compared to, 437-438

Malpai Borderlands Group, 599-603

management, 54

Mexico, 588

number of, 52

trade controls, CITES, 268, 436, 588, 593

Tourism and recreation, 68, 102, 530, 535, 539, 564, 582, 589

exotic species introduced by travelers, 325, 328

Trade, see Globalization; International trade

Training, see Education and training

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Trillium Corporation, 535

Tropical forests, 19, 23, 111, 521

Amazon Basin, 28, 343, 421, 427, 471, 509- 510, 512, 534

Chile, 535-542

Colombia, 490

Costa Rica, 500-505, 521-529, 573-585, 601

countryside biogeography, 110

economic value of biodiversity, 66, 67

environmental services, 74, 75-76, 502, 509-510, 517, 526, 528, 530

extinction/habitat fragmentation, 55-57, 59, 78-80, 414, 436

indigenous peoples, 424, 426, 430-431

fungi, 40, 156-175, 531

geospatial information, 279

insects, 38, 111, 204-212, 216-217

mites, 199

models, ecosystem, 534-535

national security policy, 509-510

slash-and-burn agriculture, 426-427, 522

soil species, 233

sustainability, 483-492, 500-505, 521-542, 573-585

sympathetic speciation, 28

Turtles, 95, 98, 494

U.

Uganda, 51-52

Ultraviolet radiation, 64, 341, 508, 5654

Ulvophyta, 144, 145

UN Climate Convention, see Convention on Climate Change

UN Commission on the Environment and Development, 17

UN Conference on Development and the Environment, 321, 390

UN Conference on Human Environment and Action Plan, 3880389

UN Development Program, 360

Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558

UN Environment Programme, 276, 277, 349, 359, 378, 400

Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558

see also Convention on Biological Diversity

UN Food and Agricultural Organization, 351, 359, 389, 491

Union for the Conservation of Nature, 268

United Kingdom

birds, endemism, 51

fungi, 39, 158, 159

Kew Seed Bank, 358-373

mites, 195-196

soil, 237

United Nations, 17, 504

Earth Summit, 6, 37, 348

human population projections, 304-305, 307-313

see also Convention on Biological Diversity;

terms beginning “UN . . . ”

United States, 514-518

agriculture, 75, 325, 329, 553

food globalization, 65-66

CBD, 388, 389, 395-396, 557

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, 462-470

climate change, 505

coastal fisheries, 344

conservation biology, 259, 260, 261, 269-270

drylands, 362, 363

education in, 207, 462-470

endangered species, 81, 493-499, 600, 602-603

exotic species, 325-329, 331

forests, 72

knowledge assets, 402, 405, 409-410

Malpai Borderlands Group, 596-603

mites, 195, 197

NAFTA, 328, 366-367, 593

National Biological Information Infrastructure, 291-300

national security, 506-513

Nature Conservancy, 281, 284, 457, 521, 566, 598, 599

plant-based medicines, 66

population vs resources, 4-5, 305

post-Cold War environment, 16

religious factors, 447-448, 450-453

salamanders, 50

seed banks, 362, 363, 366

soil biodiversity, 232, 233-234

species-rich countries, by rank and number, 558

systematics science, 375, 379, 384

taxonomic training, 207

value of environmental resources, 67-68, 72, 108

see also Hawaii; terms beginning “U.S.

UN Scientific, Educational, and Cultural Organization, 349, 388

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Page 625

UIrbanization, 13, 305, 322, 414

costal areas, 99-100

U.S. Agency for Interantional Development, 382

U.S. Department of Agricultrue

exotic species control, 329, 330

Hawaii Buiological Survey, 284, 287

Malpai Borderlands Group, 598, 599, 601

seed banks, 367

U.S. Department of Defense, 511-512

U.S. Department of State, 514-518

U.S. Department of the Interiior, 268, 277, 284, 286, 287, 495, 602

U.S. Enviornmental Protection Agency, 108

V

Valdés, Ana Elena, 573-585

Vegetation, see Agriculture;

Forests and forestry;

Plantae;

Seeds and seed banks

Veltre, Thomas, 15

Venezuela, 54

nematodes, 183

Virginia, Ross, 225-241

Viruses, 229-230

W

Wall, Diana, 176-191, 225-241

Water resources, 5, 20, 54, 67, 74-75, 106, 107, 108, 414, 489

pollution, 472

soil biodiversity, 227

see also Freshwater sepcies; marine species

Wetlands, 98, 389, 489, 540, 541

environmental services, 67, 74

Everglades, 54

Wildlife Conservation Society, 462, 464

Wildlife Preservation Trust International, 462, 464

Wirth, Timothy, 514-518

Wilson, Edward, 14, 22-29, 30, 35, 206, 401, 555

Woodwell, George, 337-346

World Bank, 360, 413, 416-419

Global Environment Facility, 348, 360, 382, 383, 557-558

World Commission on Environment and Development, 289-390

World Conservatiion Monitoring Centre, 277, 587

World Convservation Union, see International Union for the Conservation of Nature

World Resources Africa Data Sampler, 277

World Resources Institute, 347

World Trade Organizations, 491

World Wildlife Fund, 80, 400, 457, 502, 516, 566, 516, 567

World Wide Web, see Internet

X

Xylariacea, 162

Z

Zambia, 564

Zoos, 23, 378, 489

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1997. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6142.
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Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World Get This Book
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From earliest times, human beings have noticed patterns in nature: night and day, tides and lunar cycles, the changing seasons, plant succession, and animal migration. While recognizing patterns conferred great survival advantage, we are now in danger from our own success in multiplying our numbers and altering those patterns for our own purposes.

It is imperative that we engage again with the patterns of nature, but this time, with awareness of our impact as a species. How will burgeoning human populations affect the health of ecosystems? Is loss of species simply a regrettable byproduct of human expansion? Or is the planet passing into a new epoch in just a few human generations?

Nature and Human Society presents a wide-ranging exploration of these and other fundamental questions about our relationship with the environment. This book features findings, insights, and informed speculations from key figures in the field: E.O. Wilson, Thomas Lovejoy, Peter H. Raven, Gretchen Daily, David Suzuki, Norman Myers, Paul Erlich, Michael Bean, and many others.

This volume explores the accelerated extinction of species and what we stand to lose--medicines, energy sources, crop pollination and pest control, the ability of water and soil to renew itself through biological processes, aesthetic and recreational benefits--and how these losses may be felt locally and acutely.

What are the specific threats to biodiversity? The book explores human population growth, the homogenization of biota as a result in tourism and trade, and other factors, including the social influences of law, religious belief, and public education.

Do we have the tools to protect biodiversity? The book looks at molecular genetics, satellite data, tools borrowed from medicine, and other scientific techniques to firm up our grasp of important processes in biology and earth science, including the "new" science of conservation biology.

Nature and Human Society helps us renew our understanding and appreciation for natural patterns, with surprising details about microorganisms, nematodes, and other overlooked forms of life: their numbers, pervasiveness, and importance to the health of the soil, water, and air and to a host of human endeavors.

This book will be of value to anyone who believes that the world's gross natural product is as important as the world's gross national product.

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