National Academies Press: OpenBook

Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption (1998)

Chapter: Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System

« Previous: References
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

Appendixes

A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

A.1 Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations


AMS —Agricultural Marketing Service

APHIS —Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

ARS —Agricultural Research Service


BATF —Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms


CDC —Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CFSAN —Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

CSREES —Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service

CUSTOMS —US Customs Service

CVM —Center for Veterinary Medicine


DHHS —US Department of Health and Human Services

DOC —US Department of Commerce

DOD —US Department of Defence


EPA —US Environmental Protection Agency

ERS —Economic Research Service


FDA —Food and Drug Administration

FS —Under Secretary for Food Safety

FSIS —Food Safety and Inspection Service

FTC —Federal Trade Commission


GIPSA —Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration


MRP —Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs


NASS —National Agricultural Statistics Service

NCTR —National Center for Toxicological Research

NIH —National Institutes of Health

NMFS —National Marine Fisheries Service

NOAA —National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


OECA —Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance

OPP —Office of Pesticide Programs

OPPTS —Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances

ORA —Office of Regulatory Affairs

ORACBA —Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis

ORD —Office of Research and Development


REE —Under Secretary for Research, Education and Economics


TREASURY —US Department of Treasury


USDA —US Department of Agriculture

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

A.2 Major Components of the Current Food Safety System

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

A.3 Federal Food Safety Responsibilities for Selected Food Products and Food Contaminants

Food Safety Activities

Selected Food Products

 

 

 

 

 

Food Contaminants

 

 

Fruits & Vegetables

Dairy Products

Eggs & Egg Products

Meat & Poultry

Seafood

Grain, Rice, & Related Commodities

Imported Foods

Animal Drugs & Feeds

Pesticide Residues

Monitoring/Surveillance

CDCa; CFSAN & FDA

CDCa; CFSAN/CVM/FDA

CDCa; CFSAN/FDA; AMSb/USDA

CDCa; CFSAN/FDA;USDA: FSIS, ERSC

CDCa; CFSAN/FDA;NMFS/ NOAAd

CDCa; CFSAN & FDA

CDCa; CFSAN & ORA/FDAe; FSIS/USDAf

CDCa; CVM/FDA; FSIS/USDA; APHIS

CDCa; FSIS/USDA; CFSAN/FDA

Risk Assessmentg

CFSAN/FDA; ARSh/USDA

CFSAN; CVM/FDA ARSh/USDA

ARSh, FSIS/USDA; ORACBA; CFSAN/FDA

USDA: ARSh; CSREES, FSIS, ERS, ORACBA; CFSAN/FDA

CFSAN/FDAi, NMFS NOAA; ARSh/USDA

ARSh/USDA; CFSAN FDA

Same as domestic food products.

CVM/FDA; ARSh/USDA; APHIS/

OPPT/EPAj; USDAk; AMS, ARSh, ERS, NASS

Researchl

CFSAN; NCTR/FDA, USDA: ARS, CSREESm

CFSAN; CVM/FDA, CSREESm & ARS/USDA

CFSAN/FDA, ARS/USDA CSREESm

USDA: CFSAN/CSREESm

CVM & CFSAN/FDA;NMFS/NOAA; CSREESm & ARS/USDA

ARS, CSREESm/USDA; CFSAN/FDA

Same as domestic food productsn

CFSAN & CVM/FDA; & ARS & CSREESm/USDA

ORD/EPAj; CSREESm & ARS/USDA; CFSAN/FDA

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

Inspections/Enforcement

CFSAN & ORA/FDA

CFSAN, ORA, & CVM/FDA

FSISo/USDA; FDA: CVM, CFSAN, & ORA

FSIS/USDA; CFSANp & CVM/FDA

ORA & CFSAN/FDA; NMFS/NOAAq

GIPSAr/USDA; ORA & CFSAN/FDA

FSISs/USDA; CFSAN & ORA/FDAs;

OR CVM/FDA; FSISt/USDA APHISu

USDAv: FSIS, AMS;FDAv: CFSAN, CVM, & ORA; OECA/EPA

Education

CFSAN/FDA; CSREESm, ARSw/USDA

CFSAN/FDA; CSREESm ARSw/USDA

CFSAN FDA; FSIS & CSREESm, ARSw/USDA

USDA: FSIS, CSREESm, ARSw/ERSx, ORACBAx; CFSAN/FDA

CFSAN/FDA; CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; NMFS/NOAAy

CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; CFSAN/FDA

CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; CFSAN/FDA

CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; CVM/FDA

CFSAN/FDA; FSIS & CSREESm; ARSw/USDA

SOURCES: Appendix C; Emilie Cole, NMFS, personal communication, July 1993; EPA, personal communication to committee, May 1998; FDA, personal communication to committee, May 1998; Francer et al., 1998; GAO, 1998; Karen Hulabek, FDA, personal communication, July 1998; Edward Knipling, USDA, personal communication, July 1998; July Nelson, EPA, personal communication, July 1998; Morris Potter, CDC, personal communication, July 1998; USDA, personal communication to committee, May 1998

a CDC assists state and Federal agencies in investigating outbreaks of foodborne illness, monitors information on foodborne illness, and conducts research and education related to these illnesses.

b AMS operates the shell egg surveillance program to visually detect physical damage or conditions which, in turn, might subject eggs to hazardous organisms.

c ERS utilizes data collected by FoodNet to analyze the costs associated with foodborne illness and the benefits of improving food safety.

d Most product monitoring is not to determine individual lot compliance, but rather to provide scientific oversight and system surveillance of the DOC inspection program.

e FDA uses several sources of information to monitor imported food shipments: FDA 's Import Alert Retrieval System database contains a list of products that FDA automatically detains because the exporter or the specific food products have shown a history of violations in previous shipments. FDA 's Low-Acid Canned Food database contains information on foreign processors of low-acid and acidified canned foods registered with FDA. FDA 's Operational and Administrative System for Import Support (OASIS) contains information on products that are not automatically released into domestic commerce.

f FSIS maintains a centralized computer system, Automated Import Information System (AIIS), which contains information on the exporting country, plant, and eligibility of product.

g Risk assessment responsibilities include implementation of science-based tools for minimizing the occurrence of foodborne hazards such as setting standards for pesticide residues. In FY 1997, FDA, USDA, and EPA established an interagency risk assessment consortium at the Joint Institute of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the University of Maryland.

h ARS provides data for all food product and contaminant areas to support risk assessment by FSIS, ERS, ORACBA, FDA, and EPA.

I  FDA has the authority to set tolerances in seafood and all other foods except meat and poultry for natural and synthetic contaminants, except for pesticides, which are set by EPA.

j The public responsibilities of EPA's pesticide program include other activities unrelated to food safety such as: protection of workers, communities from pesticide drift, families from residues from house and garden applications and children from unintentional ingestion of pesticides

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

k AMS, ARS, ERS, and NASS are involved in data collection to support the pesticide risk assessment process. AMS manages the Pesticide Data Program (data collection) to support the pesticide risk assessment activity by other agencies.

l NIH also does research on food safety problems, however, it is not listed as food safety research. NIH research is targeted as human health issues regardless of the mechanism.

m USDA formula funds provided by CSREES to the Land Grant Universities broadly support research and education activities across all food product areas.

n For imported foods, ARS develops methodology to detect contaminants and residues as necessary in support of agencies with surveillance and inspection responsibilities.

o FSIS is responsible for inspecting all egg products used by manufacturers, food service, and retail markets. FDA is responsible for inspecting shell eggs, egg substitutes, imitation eggs, and similar products).

p CFSAN has responsibility for inspection/enforcement of game meats.

q NMFS runs a voluntary inspection service.

r GIPSA has responsibility for monitoring the accuracy of aflatoxin testing services.

s The FSIS in USDA is responsible for imported meat, poultry, and some egg products. The FDA is responsible for all other imported foods.

t FSIS is responsible for the inspection of meat and poultry products in Federally-inspected establishments and reports violative residues of drugs in meat and poultry to FDA for regulatory follow-up. FSIS has authority to condemn carcasses having violative drug residues. FDA conducts follow-up inspections of producers or others involved in the production or marketing of food animals or poultry which have tissue residue violations. The goal of CVM's Tissue Residue Program is to eliminate violative drug residues in edible tissue of food animals. Because of resource constraints, FDA cannot investigate all of the initial tissue residue violations reported by FSIS.

u APHIS carries out U.S. border quarantine activities to detect and eliminate animal health problems and exotic organisms that might harm U.S. agriculture, many of which also pose potential food safety threats.

v USDA's FSIS is responsible for monitoring pesticide residues in meat, poultry, and certain egg products. USDA's AMS, through contracts, has carried out a residue testing program directed primarily at raw agricultural products. AMS also manages the Pesticide Recordkeeping Program (data collection) for Federally restricted-use pesticides. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently. FDA's CFSAN is responsible for enforcing pesticide tolerances in all imported foods and domestically produced foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA's CVM directs the portion of the Agency's pesticide monitoring program concerned with domestic and imported animal feeds for pesticide residues. This is via CVM's Feed Contaminants Compliance Program.

w ARS provides information resources via the National Agricultural Library to the public, industry, universities, and other government agencies. ARS technical employees participate in educational and technology transfer workshops attended by other scientists from industry, university, and government.

x ERS and the ORACBA provide technical assistance to identify education needs and to analyze the effectiveness of food safety education programs.

y Seafood HACCP training

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

A.4 Federal Food Safety Responsibilities by Agency 

Food Safety/Activities

MRP/USDA

REE/USDA

ORACBA/USDA

FSIS/USDA

FDA/HHS

CDC/HHS

NIH/HHS

EPA

NMFS/NOAA/DOC

Monitoring/Surveillance

APHIS AMS: egg and egg products

 

 

FoodNet systema Conducts pesticide residue, pathogen, & BSE monitoring meat & poultry; eggs & egg products

CFSAN: FoodNet systema; PulseNet CVM: NASMPb

Lab surveillance; passive surveillance of outbreaksc; FoodNet system a

 

 

Seafoodd

Risk Assessment

APHIS AMS: pesticidesd

ARSe CSREES: meat & poultry ERS: meat, poultry, pesticidesd NASS: pesticidesd

Eggs, meat, & poultry

 

CFSAN; CVM: dairy products; animal drugs & feeds

 

 

OPPTS: pesticide residues in food; pesticide registration

Seafoodf

a FoodNet-Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, jointly developed by FSIS, CDC, & FDA to collect more precise information on the incidence of foodborne disease.

b NASMP-National Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring Program, a collaborative effort among FDA, CDC, & USDA.

c CDC assists state & Federal agencies in investigating outbreaks of foodborne illness, monitors information on foodborne illness, & conducts research & education related to these illnesses.

d AMS, ERS and NASS are involved in data collection to support the pesticide risk assessment process.

e ARS provides data for all food product areas to support risk assessment by FSIS, ERS, ORACBA, FDA, & EPA

f Most product monitoring is not to determine individual lot compliance, but rather to provide scientific oversight & system surveillance of the DOC inspection program.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

Research

 

ARS; CSREESg

 

CFSAN: all food products & contaminants except meat & poultry 

CVM: animal drugs & feeds, dairy products, seafood 

NCTR: fruits & vegetables

epidemiology studies: case-control

conducts research on foodborne disease processes and intervention strategiesh

ORD: provide science support for pesticide public health issues

seafood

Inspections/ Enforcement

GIPSA: grain, rice, & related commoditiesi APHISj AMS: Pesticide Recordkeeping Programk

 

Inspection of meat, poultry, & egg productsl for sale or distribution in interstate commerce; reviews foreign plants exporting these products

ORA/CFSAN:. In-plant imported foods (except meat, & poultry products) m, for sale or distribution in interstate commerce; pesticide residues in/on food

CVM: dairy products; egg & egg products; meat & poultry; animal drugs & feeds; pesticide residues

 

 

OECA: enforcement of: pesticide regulations including misuse of pesticides.

Voluntary seafood inspection

g USDA formula funds provided by CSREES to the L & Grant Universities broadly support research & education activities across all food product areas.

h NIH does research on food safety problems; however, it is not listed as food safety research. NIH research is targeted at human health issues regardless of the mechanism.

i GIPSA has responsibility for monitoring the accuracy of aflatoxin testing services.

j APHIS carries out U.S. border quarantine activities to detect & eliminate animal health problems & exotic organisms that might harm U.S. agriculture, many of which also pose potential food safety threats.

k AMS manages the Pesticide Recordkeeping Program for Federally restricted-use pesticides.

l FSIS is responsible for inspecting all egg products used by manufacturers, food service, & retail markets. FDA is responsible for inspecting shell eggs substitutes, imitation eggs, & similar products.

m CFSAN has responsibility for inspection/enforcement of game meats.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×

Education

ARSn 

CSREESo, p

ERSq

Provides technical assistance to education programsq

Collaborative education activitiesp other services: Meat & Poultry Hotline; electronic communicationso

CFSAN: 

collaborative education activitiesp food labeling, training and technical assistance documents; all food products and contaminants excepts animal drugs & feeds

CVM:

animal and drug feeds

 

 

Seafood HACCP training, scientific training/laboratory training

 

 

n ARS provides information resources via the National Agricultural Library to the public, industry, universities, & other government agencies. ARS technical employees participate in educational & technology transfer workshops attended by other scientists from industry, university, & government.

o FSIS & ARS food safety education activities are conducted by USDA employees, while CSREES supports food safety education activities undertaken by eligible institutions in the land-grant system.

p Collaborative educational activities include: Food Safety Education Partnership (which launched ''Fight Bac" campaign), a joint effort among USDA, HHS, EPA, the Dept of Education & the private sector; (2) The Food Safety Training & Education Alliance, recently established by FDA, USDA, private sector stakeholders, & consumer advocacy groups.

q ERS & the ORACBA provide technical assistance to identify education needs & to analyze the effectiveness of food safety education programs.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 105
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 106
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 108
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 110
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 113
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System." Institute of Medicine and . 1998. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6163.
×
Page 114
Next: Appendix B CRS Report for Congress, Food Safety: Recommendations for Changes in the Organization of Federal Food Safety Responsibilities, 1949-1997 »
Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $48.00 Buy Ebook | $38.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

How safe is our food supply? Each year the media report what appears to be growing concern related to illness caused by the food consumed by Americans. These food borne illnesses are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, pesticide residues, and food additives. Recent actions taken at the federal, state, and local levels in response to the increase in reported incidences of food borne illnesses point to the need to evaluate the food safety system in the United States. This book assesses the effectiveness of the current food safety system and provides recommendations on changes needed to ensure an effective science-based food safety system. Ensuring Safe Food discusses such important issues as:

What are the primary hazards associated with the food supply? What gaps exist in the current system for ensuring a safe food supply? What effects do trends in food consumption have on food safety? What is the impact of food preparation and handling practices in the home, in food services, or in production operations on the risk of food borne illnesses? What organizational changes in responsibility or oversight could be made to increase the effectiveness of the food safety system in the United States?

Current concerns associated with microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards in the food supply are discussed. The book also considers how changes in technology and food processing might introduce new risks. Recommendations are made on steps for developing a coordinated, unified system for food safety. The book also highlights areas that need additional study. Ensuring Safe Food will be important for policymakers, food trade professionals, food producers, food processors, food researchers, public health professionals, and consumers.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!