National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance

Issues and Perspectives

Helen F. Ladd, Rosemary Chalk, and Janet S. Hansen, Editors

Committee on Education Finance

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1999

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this volume was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the volume were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This volume was supported by Contract No. RF95194001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Equity and adequacy issues in education finance : issues and perspectives / Helen F. Ladd, Rosemary Chalk, and Janet S. Hansen, editors ; Committee on Education Finance, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-06563-1 (cloth)

1. Education—United States—Finance. 2. Educational equalization—United States. I. Ladd, Helen F. II. Chalk, Rosemary A. III. Hansen, Janet S. IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Education Finance.

LB2825 .E68 1999

379.1′1′0973—dc21

98-51230

Additional copies of this volume are available from:
National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This volume is also available on line at http://www.nap.edu

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION FINANCE

HELEN F. LADD (Cochair),

Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University

THOMAS SOBOL (Cochair),

Teachers College, Columbia University

ROBERT BERNE, Vice President for Academic Development,

New York University

DENNIS N. EPPLE,

Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon University

SUSAN H. FUHRMAN,

Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania

EDMUND W. GORDON,

Yale University (emeritus)

JAMES W. GUTHRIE,

Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

STEPHEN P. KLEIN,

RAND, Santa Monica, California

DIANA LAM, Superintendent,

San Antonio Independent School Districts

LAURENCE E. LYNN, JR.,

School of Social Service Administration, Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago

GARY NATRIELLO,

Teachers College, Columbia University

ALLAN ODDEN,

School of Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison

JOHN THEODORE SANDERS, President,

Southern Illinois University

ROBERT M. SCHWAB,

Department of Economics, University of Maryland

KENNETH A. STRIKE,

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University

STEPHEN D. SUGARMAN,

School of Law, University of California, Berkeley

JOAN TALBERT,

School of Education, Stanford University

AMY STUART WELLS,

Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles

JANET S. HANSEN, Study Director

ROSEMARY CHALK, Senior Program Officer

NEAL FINKELSTEIN, Senior Program Officer

ANNE MARIE FINN, Research Associate

THOMAS HUSTED, Senior Consultant

PAUL MINORINI, Senior Consultant

SHARON VANDIVERE, Senior Project Assistant

NATHANIEL TIPTON, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Contents

 

 

Preface

 

ix

 

 

Introduction

 

1

1

 

Concepts of School Finance Equity: 1970 to the Present
Robert Berne and Leanna Stiefel

 

7

2

 

School Finance Litigation in the Name of Educational Equity: Its Evolution, Impact, and Future
Paul A. Minorini and Stephen D. Sugarman

 

34

3

 

The Impact of Court-Mandated School Finance Reform
William N. Evans, Sheila E. Murray, and Robert M. Schwab

 

72

4

 

Court-Mandated School Finance Reform: What Do the New Dollors Buy?
Margaret E. Goertz and Gary Natriello

 

99

5

 

The Politics of School Finance in the 1990s
Melissa C. Carr and Susan H. Fuhrman

 

136

6

 

Educational Adequacy and the Courts: The Promise and Problems of Moving to a New Paradigm
Paul A. Minorini and Stephen D. Sugarman

 

175

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Tables

2-1

 

Overview of Litigation Involving State Education Finance Systems

 

41

2-2

 

Plaintiffs Won at State Supreme Court Level

 

42

2-3

 

Plaintiffs Lost at Supreme Court Level; No Further Complaints Filed or Further Complaints Also Lost

 

44

2-4

 

Plaintiffs Lost in Prior Action; Further Complaints Have Been Filed

 

45

2-5

 

Litigation Is Present; No Supreme Court Decision Has Been Rendered

 

46

2-6

 

No Litigation Is Present or Case Is Dormant

 

46

3-1

 

Summary of States with Court-Ordered Reforms, 1971-97

 

73

3-2

 

Summary of Current Education Expenditures, 1972-92

 

76

3-3

 

Impact of Court-Mandated Finance Reform on the Distribution of Education Resources, 1972-92

 

79

3-4

 

Summary of Resources Adjusted for Cost of Living Differences, 1992

 

85

3-5

 

Impact of Court-Mandated Finance Reform on Per-Pupil Revenue by Source of Revenue and Distribution of Household Income of Districts

 

88

3-6

 

Impact of Court-Mandated Finance Reform on Per-Pupil Revenue by Source and Race

 

89

4-1

 

Basic Education Funding Formulas in Effect, 1992-93: Kentucky, New Jersey, and Texas

 

106

4-2

 

Changes in State Aid per Pupil, Local Revenues per Pupil, Tax Rates (in mills), and Total Revenues per Pupil, 1989-90 to 1992-93: Kentucky, New Jersey, and Texas

 

108

4-3

 

Distribution of Education Revenues per Pupil and Tax Rates (in mills), 1989-90 and 1992-93: Kentucky, New Jersey, and Texas

 

112

4-4

 

Selected Equity Statistics, Current Revenues per Pupil, 1989-90 and 1992-93: Kentucky, New Jersey, and Texas

 

114

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

4-5

 

Changes in Kentucky School District Per-Pupil Expenditure Patterns by Function, 1990 and 1993

 

116

4-6

 

Changes in New Jersey School District Per-Pupil Expenditures, by Category, 1990-91 to 1993-94

 

118

4-7

 

Spending Increases for Texas School Districts Between 1989-90 and 1992-93

 

120

4-8

 

Percentage Expenditure Distributions Across Major Functions for Texas School Districts, 1989-90 and 1992-93

 

120

4-9

 

Major New Expenditures in Kentucky, New Jersey, and Texas, 1989-90 to 1992-93

 

122

7-1

 

Increased State Spending on Elementary and Secondary Education

 

212

7-2

 

Wyoming Prototypical Model: Elementary School, K-5; Preliminary Costs

 

239

7-3

 

Wyoming Prototypical Model: Middle/Jr. High, Grades 6-8; Preliminary Costs

 

240

7-4

 

Wyoming Prototypical Model: High School, Grades 9-12; Preliminary Costs

 

241

8-1

 

Education Cost Models (with and without New York City and Yonkers), New York School Districts, 1991

 

276

8-2

 

Comparison of Education Cost Indices for New York State School Districts in 1991

 

280

8-3

 

Correlations Between Education Cost Indices for New York State School Districts in 1991

 

283

8-4

 

Comparison of Predicted Performance Under Different Foundation Formulas Relative to State Average Performance in 1991 for New York School Districts

 

287

Boxes

7-1

 

West Virginia Supreme Court definition of an adequate education

 

215

7-2

 

The Wyoming basket, 1990-1997

 

217

7-3

 

The Wyoming legislative enacted 1997 basket

 

218

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Preface

In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Congress requested a major study of the U.S. system of elementary and secondary education finance. In response to this request, the National Research Council (NRC) set up the Committee on Education Finance to undertake the study. The committee was established within the NRC's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

This volume of background papers was prepared in connection with one part of the committee's study. The volume includes eight papers commissioned by the committee to inform its discussions about equity and adequacy in education finance, two of the issues it was specifically charged to address.

The preparation of this volume and the conduct of the larger study are supported by funds from the U.S. Department of Education that were appropriated as part of the legislation for the Departments of Education, Labor, and Health and Human Services in 1994 (P.L. 103-333). The study is being carried out under a contract with the National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policy Making, and Management, part of the Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement. The views expressed by the authors are theirs alone and do not reflect the opinions of the Committee on Education Finance or the U.S. Department of Education.

The committee acknowledges the valuable contributions of the authors, who prepared and revised their papers within relatively short time periods, as well as the committee members and reviewers who provided thoughtful advice and criticism to the authors.

The papers in this volume have been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published volume as sound as possible and to ensure that the volume meets institutional standards for objectivity and evidence. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this volume: John Augenblick, Augenblick & Myers, Denver, Colorado; Dominic Brewer, RAND, Santa Monica, California; William Buss, College of Law, University of Iowa; David Figlio, Department of Economics, University of Oregon; Eric Hanushek, Department of Economics, University of Rochester; David Monk, Department of Education, Cornell University; Richard Murnane, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; Lawrence Picus, School of Education, University of Southern California; Andrew Reschovsky, Robert N. Lafollette Institute of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin; Julie Underwood, Department of Education, Miami University; and Arthur Wise, National Council on Accreditation of Teacher Education, Washington, D.C. Although these individuals have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this volume rests entirely with the contributing authors and the NRC.

Several staff members also made important contributions to this work: Rosemary Chalk, a coeditor, was instrumental in shepherding the papers through the production process and providing oversight and editorial guidance during the preparation of the volume, Anne Marie Finn conducted extensive reference checks for each paper, and Nat Tipton and Sharon Vandivere ably assisted the authors by producing multiple iterations of the papers with technical efficiency.

This volume of background papers does not represent the committee's findings and conclusions about the equity or adequacy of school finance in the United States. Those conclusions must await the 1999 publication of the committee's final report. In the interim, the Committee on Education Finance hopes that the insights and perspectives presented in the following papers will be useful to all who are concerned with the challenges of achieving fairness in school finance and establishing equal educational opportunity for all students.

HELEN F. LADD, COCHAIR

JANET S. HANSEN, STUDY DIRECTOR

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION FINANCE

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×
Page R12
Next: Introduction »
Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $54.00 Buy Ebook | $43.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Spending on K-12 education across the United States and across local school districts has long been characterized by great disparities--disparities that reflect differences in property wealth and tax rates. For more than a quarter-century, reformers have attempted to reduce these differences through court challenges and legislative action. As part of a broad study of education finance, the committee commissioned eight papers examining the history and consequences of school finance reform undertaken in the name of equity and adequacy. This thought-provoking, timely collection of papers explores such topics as:

  • What do the terms "equity" and "adequacy" in school finance really mean?
  • How are these terms relevant to the politics and litigation of school finance reform?
  • What is the impact of court-ordered school finance reform on spending disparities?
  • How do school districts use money from finance reform?
  • What policy options are available to states facing new challenges from court decisions mandating adequacy in school finance?
  • When measuring adequacy, how do you consider differences in student needs and regional costs?
  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!