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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
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Index

A

Ability to pay principle, 10, 17, 27, 86-89

Academic performance.

See also Outcomes, educational;

Performance standards

assessment of, 59, 61, 62, 253, 264-265

class size and, 234

environmental factors, 266-269, 271-273

foundation program formulas and, 261

gaps, 289

issues, 2, 65

resource allocation and, 7, 9, 14-15, 25, 152, 234, 266

school, 221

school district, 221, 266-269, 274

Accountability systems, 59, 159, 192, 200

Adequacy, educational

assigning costs to, 238, 242-246

compliance with, 58-59, 202

concept, 2, 12, 21-24, 58, 179-180, 188-189, 209, 211, 214

costs of, 23

court definitions of, 58, 59, 68, 193-199, 215-216, 217

definitional challenges, 214-232

early legal thinking, 179-182

emergence of movement, 2, 3, 175-176, 188-189

empirical models of, 192, 206, 216, 218, 223, 224-228, 254-255

equal opportunity and, 14, 16

equity and, 22-24, 27, 63-64, 204, 209

formulas for distributing funds, 211

future of, 205-207

historical context, 211

individual district circumstances and, 246-251

learning objectives, 215-232

legal standard, 2, 23, 24, 25, 189-193

legislation, 24, 198, 199-205

litigation, 22, 47, 51-52, 55-56, 58, 59-60, 63, 65, 175, 188-199, 211, 212-213

and local control issue, 198-199

and outcomes, 58, 200-201, 251-254

professional judgment model, 191-192, 201, 206, 218, 222, 223, 225 , 232-241

quantification, 22, 25, 188-189

see also Performance standards

race-based litigation and, 176-179

research, 23

and spending, 211, 212-213

statistical models of, 192-193, 206, 216, 219-224, 229-230, 231, 232, 254

vertical equity as, 23

voter preference-tax price methodology, 222, 231, 254

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Alabama

adequacy standard, 22, 23, 149, 175, 200

constitution, 169

context for reform, 157-158

legislative response, 200-201, 204

litigation, 22, 42, 149, 159, 167, 170, 175

politics of school finance reform, 157-160, 166, 167

property taxes, 159-160, 166

reforms, 73, 159-160, 200-201

spending, 163, 171

Alaska

cost of education, 229, 231, 245

litigation, 44, 212

reforms, 84

spending on education, 212

Analysis of school finance equity

alternative groups of special interest, 12

child perspectives, 10-11, 24

conceptual distinctions, 9-13

ex ante and ex post concepts, 12-13

inputs, 11-12, 24

methodology, 103-104

outcomes, 11-12

outputs, 11-12, 24

processes, 11-12

taxpayer perspectives, 10-11, 24

units of analysis, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24

Arizona

legislative response, 204

litigation, 42, 175, 197

reforms, 73, 204

Arkansas

litigation, 42, 56, 69

reforms, 73

Assessment. See Student outcome assessments

Atlas Communities, 230

Audrey Cohen College System, 230

B

Barro index, 84-85

Benefit principle, 10

Block grants, 61-62, 237, 238, 246

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 250

C

California

definition of equality, 75, 144

impact of reforms, 49-50, 63, 74-75, 90-92, 93, 101, 186

litigation, 3, 8, 39, 42, 47, 48-50, 56, 69, 72, 74, 75, 81, 82, 91, 92, 93, 95, 143, 145, 169, 170, 183, 185, 212

private school enrollments, 92-93

Proposition13, 3, 49, 74, 75, 81, 94, 169, 170, 185-186

reforms, 49, 73, 146, 169

spending on education, 74-75, 81, 82, 93, 95, 101, 169, 170, 211, 212

student performance, 90-91

teacher salaries, 102

voluntary donations to local schools, 91-92

Cases. See Court cases

Categorical grants, 101, 104, 130, 234, 235, 236, 239-241

Center for Education Policy Analysis--New Jersey, 103

Chambers' Teachers' Cost Index, 84-85

Charter schools, 27, 153, 164

Child/student equity, 10, 11, 28

Christian Coalition, 158, 159

Civil Rights Act of 1964, 14, 177-178

Class size, 234, 238-241.

See also Teacher/pupil ratios

Coefficient of variation, 19, 76, 85, 110-111, 114

Colorado

cost of education, 212, 249

litigation, 45, 212

Concepts. See Equity concepts

Co-NECT, 230

Connecticut

litigation, 42, 67, 69, 212

reforms, 73, 80-81

spending on education, 80-81, 212

Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (CMCD), 230

Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 103

Consumer Price Survey, 247

Contracting for services, 153

Core Knowledge Curriculum, 230

Cost functions, 21, 29

Cost indexes, education, 221

adjusted input prices, 270-271

Barro index, 84-85

calculation, 269-282

Chambers' Teachers' Cost Index, 29, 84-85

comparison of, 277-282

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

 

conceptual foundation of, 261-269

cost functions converted to, 21, 29

cost-of-living, 84-85, 95, 226, 247-249

cross-sectional, 94, 95, 247, 282

defined, 261, 263, 273-274

direct controls for performance, 273-277, 281, 283, 287

efficiency controls, 29, 263, 274-277, 278-281, 282, 283, 285-286, 287, 288, 289-291, 293, 294

environmental factors, 266-269, 270, 271, 277-278, 280-281, 282, 289, 292-293

in foundation formulas, 282-291

geographic, 220, 246-249, 255

indirect controls for performance, 271-273, 277, 281, 283

inflation adjustments, 249-251

input prices, 266, 269-271, 277, 279-280, 283, 289

McMahon and Chang's Cost of Living Index, 21, 84-85

performance standards and, 262-264

proxy for at-risk children, 222, 227-228

purpose of, 265-266

weighted students, 21, 29, 57, 104, 148, 168-169, 184, 261, 271, 281, 283

Cost of education.

See also Formulas for distributing funds;

Spending on education

economic definition, 21

empirical models, 192, 206, 216, 218, 223, 224-228, 254-255

professional judgment model, 191-192, 201, 206, 218, 222, 223, 225 , 232-241

public perceptions of, 152

statistical models, 192-193, 206, 216, 219-224, 229-230, 231, 232, 254

student characteristics and, 226-227

teacher salaries, 222, 238, 239-241, 242-245, 246-247, 269-270, 279 , 281, 282

in urban districts, 148, 184

voter preference-tax price methodology, 222, 231, 254

Court cases

Abbott v. Burke, 17, 22, 42, 104, 115, 151, 163, 164, 165, 201, 203 , 254

Alabama Coalition for Equity v. Hunt, 59, 196

Board of Education of Oklahoma City v. Dowell, 187

Brigham v. Vermont, 42, 61

Brown v. Board of Education, 14, 26, 40-41, 176, 177-178, 179, 181 , 187, 205

Burrus v. Wilkerson, 37

Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New York, 45, 68, 197

Campbell County v. Wyoming, 198, 215, 218, 231

City of Pawtucket v. Sandlun, 44, 68, 199

Claremont School District v. Gregg, 42, 68, 196

Claremont v. Governor of New Hampshire, 193

Coalition for Adequacy v. Chiles, 44, 68, 199

Committee for Educational Equality v. Missouri, 42, 170

Committee for Educational Rights v. Edgar, 45, 60, 199

Cummings v. Board of Education, 176

Danson v. Casey, 45, 54

DeRolph v. Ohio, 42, 62, 197

Dupree v. Alma School District No. 30, 42, 67

Edgewood v. Kirby, 42, 56, 67, 104, 160, 161, 170

Freeman v. Pitts, 187

Green v. County School Board, 178

Griffin v. Illinois, 182

Harper v. Hunt, 22, 42, 159, 160, 170

Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, 182

Hornbeck v. Somerset County Board of Education, 45, 67

Horton v. Meskill, 42, 67

Kadrmas v. Dickinson Public Schools, 182

Keyes v. School District No.1, 178

Kukor v. Grover, 45, 68

Leandro v. North Carolina, 42, 68, 193

Levittown, 17

McDuffy v. Secretary of Education, 42, 59, 196

McInnis v. Shapiro, 37

McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 177

Milliken v. Bradley, 178, 187

Minneapolis NAACP v. Minnesota, 199

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 176-177

Missouri v. Jenkins, 66, 187

Olsen v. Oregon, 45, 54

Pauley v. Kelly, 43, 52, 194, 215, 220

Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 238

Plessy v. Ferguson, 176

Plyler v. Doe, 40, 182

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

 

Robinson v. Cahill, 22, 42, 50, 72, 145, 163, 193

Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent School District, 39-40, 41, 43, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 66, 72, 146, 170, 182, 183

Roosevelt Elementary School District v. Bishop, 42, 68, 197

Rose v. Council for Better Education, 29, 42, 58, 90, 104, 149, 155 , 157, 193, 195, 215

School Administration District #1 v. Commissioner of Education, State of Maine, 68

Scott v. Virginia, 44, 68

Seattle v. State of Washington, 43, 52, 193-194

Serrano v. Priest, 3, 8, 39, 42, 47-50, 54, 72, 74, 75, 77, 81, 82 , 84, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 143, 145, 169, 170, 183

Shapiro v. Thompson, 182

Skeen v. Minnesota, 45, 68

St. Paul School District v. Minnesota, 199

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 178

Sweatt v. Painter, 177

Tennessee Small School Systems v. McWherter, 42, 67, 68, 197

Thompson v. Engelking, 44, 53

Van Dusartz v. Hatfield, 66

Washakie v. Herschler, 43, 60, 198

D

Data availability issue, 11, 24-25

Data Envelopment Analysis, 29, 275, 293

Demographics of school finance

impacts of reforms, 87-88

politics and, 139, 153-154

Desegregation, school, 36, 66, 143, 177-179, 187-188, 205

District power equalization, 17, 38, 46, 49, 50, 57, 81, 83, 94, 184-185

see also Guaranteed tax base

District response to reforms.

See also Local school districts;

Resource allocation, reform-related

decision-making models, 100, 102-103, 113

expenditure models, 100, 101-102, 128

incentives for spending, 111

institutional theory, 128

intergovernmental grant theory, 103

methodology for assessing, 103-104

models of, 100-103

perceptions of funding stability and, 128-129

required local effort, 105-106

E

Eagle Forum, 158

Econometric studies, 75-82, 86-87, 152, 223

Edison Project, 207, 230

Education Commission of the States, 144, 169

Education Finance and Management program, 144

Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 26

Education production, 11-12

functions, 15-16, 25, 83

Education reform, 129-130, 146-147

Education standards, 59, 64, 186-187, 206. See Performance standards

Efficiency

controls, 29, 263, 274-277, 278-281, 282, 283, 285-286, 287, 288, 289-291, 293, 294

definition of, 228

Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 26

Environmental factors.

See also Special-needs students;

Urban school districts;

Weights/weighting standards

and academic performance, 15, 28, 226-227, 266-269, 271-273

cost adjustments, 266-269, 270, 271

Equal opportunity, 22, 64, 166

concepts of equity, 8, 13-16, 24, 50

ex ante and ex post definitions, 13-14

income disparity and, 15

individual characteristics and, 15

issues, 2

legal concepts, 14

measures of, 111

minimum-attainment definition, 16

movement, 143-144

per-pupil expenditures and, 16, 35-36, 149

political issues, 151, 163

resource/achievement controversy, 14-15

Equal protection

concept, 14

litigation based on, 35-36, 43, 48, 54, 55, 56, 61, 66-67

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Equality of Educational Opportunity (Coleman Report), 14-15, 27, 35, 267

Equity concepts

adequacy distinguished from, 12, 22-24, 179-180

analyzing, see Analysis of school finance equity

child/student perspective, 10, 11, 21, 24

equal opportunity, 8, 13-16

future trends, 24-26, 214

horizontal equity, 18-20

taxpayer perspective, 10-11

value decisions, 26, 222

vertical equity, 20-21

wealth neutrality, 14, 16-18

Ex ante concepts, 12, 13, 17

Ex post

concepts, 12-14, 22

horizontal equity, 18-19

wealth neutrality, 17-18, 28

Expeditionary Learning program, 230

Extended school services, 104, 119, 124-126

F

Facilities, school, 124-125, 126

Federal government

litigation, see Court cases;

U.S. Constitution

share of funding, 8, 9, 76, 146-147, 236-237

student-level surveys, 25

use of aid from, 9

Federal range ratio, 19, 110, 114

Finance distribution arrangements. See Formulas for distributing funds

Fiscal neutrality. See Wealth neutrality

Florida

impact of reforms, 82

litigation, 44, 60, 175, 199

politics, 142-143

Formulas for distributing funds

centralized, 82-83, 84

cost indexes in, 282-291

design considerations, 9, 146, 216, 218-232

district power equalizing (DPE), 17-18, 28, 38, 46-47, 49, 50-51, 81, 83, 94, 184-184

district response to, 9-10, 104

ex ante concepts, 12, 13, 17

ex post concepts, 12-13

expenditure-based, 287, 288-289

foundation, 104, 105-106, 107, 112, 132, 168, 190-191, 200, 211, 214, 225-226, 282-291

guaranteed tax base (GTB), 17, 28, 104, 105, 106-107, 132

key components, 104, 106-107

percentage equalizing funding system, 28

performance-based, 286-291

two-tier systems, 57

weights/weighting students, 21, 29, 57, 104, 148, 168-169, 261, 271

Foundation aid, 83, 91-92, 185

Free rider problem, 92

Fundamental interest, education as, 36, 39, 43, 48, 55, 181

G

Georgia, litigation, 44

Gini coefficient, 19, 27, 76, 110-111, 114

Goals 2000, 159

Guaranteed tax base, 17, 81, 94, 104, 105, 133

see also District power of equalization

H

Horizontal equity

children's concept, 18-20, 29

litigation based on, 35-36

measures of, 19-20

price adjustments in, 29

research on, 19-20

I

Idaho, litigation, 44, 53

Illinois, 37

adequacy standard, 226, 228, 255

Commission on Education Funding, 225

constitution, 66

cost of education, 225-226, 229, 231, 255

Goals Assessment Program, 226

impact of reforms, 82

litigation, 45, 60, 175, 199, 212

spending for education, 212

Impacts of reforms, 8.

See also State aid changes

on black students, 89-90

California case, 49-50, 74-75

cost-of-living adjustments, 84-86

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

 

econometric studies, 75-82, 86-89, 152

educational outcomes, 65, 90-91, 93, 100

evidence of, 65, 74-84

on horizontal equity, 20

on income, 82-84

on litigation, 59

on low-house-income districts, 86-89

peer group effects, 82

price-of-education perspective, 80-82

private school enrollments, 92-93

on real resources, see Resource allocation, reform-related

research needs on, 127, 130-132

on revenues, 68, 75-76, 77, 78-82, 86-89, 104-112

simulation models, 82-84

on spending on education, 4, 49-50, 74-78, 93, 212-213

voluntary contributions, 91-92, 95

years after reform and, 87-88, 89

Income

redistribution programs, 15

spending on education and, 82-84, 86-89, 253-254, 280

Indiana, litigation, 46

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 21

Inputs into education, 11-12.

See also Spending on education

and ability to pay, 17

access to, 14

horizontal equity applied to, 18-19

and performance, 25

price indexes, 266, 269-271

race-based litigation, 177

Instruction.

See also Cost of education

decision making, 237-238

components, 224, 228-232

model program, 224

resource allocation for, 101, 115, 119, 120, 233-238, 239-240

Interest groups, 142, 143, 144-145, 153, 157, 158, 164, 165, 167

Intergovernmental grant theory, 100, 101

International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement , 251

K

Kansas

litigation, 44

reforms, 73, 94

spending on education, 213

Kentucky

adequacy standard, 22, 23, 58, 62, 64, 68, 167, 175, 195, 196, 198 , 200-201, 203, 206, 215, 216

constitution, 155

context for reforms, 156-157

district response to reforms, 103, 104, 128

education reform, 129

impacts of reforms, 90, 104-112, 156, 200-201

litigation, 42, 58-59, 69, 90, 104, 149, 155, 167, 195, 196, 198, 203, 206, 212, 215

politics of school finance reform, 155-157, 166, 167, 200

Pritchard Committee for Academic Excellence, 157, 159, 167

reforms, 59, 64, 73, 90, 104, 106-107, 112, 128, 133, 149, 156, 200

resource allocation changes, 112, 114-115, 116, 121-122, 124, 126 -127, 128, 163, 195, 230

revenue changes, 104-112, 156

spending on education, 212

L

Legislation, federal.

See also specific statutes

significant years for, 26

vertical-equity-based, 21

Legislation, state

achievement of equity through, 4

politics of, 142-143, 144, 145, 147, 156, 159

responsiveness to court-mandated reforms, 49, 50-51, 56, 63-64

Leveling-up issue, 111, 138-139, 145, 150, 161, 186

Litigation, school finance.

See also Court cases;

State court litigation;

U.S. Supreme Court litigation

character of, 34-35

future of, 63-65

geographic uniformity principle, 36, 38, 180, 185

horizontal equity principle, 35-36

importance to reform, 166-167

origins and evolution, 34-41

vertical equity (needs-based) challenge, 37, 38, 64-65

wealth-based discrimination, 37-41, 181-182

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Local control issue, 138, 151, 164, 198-199

Local school districts.

See also District response to reforms

consolidation of, 161, 164

cost functions, 21, 239-241

enrollments, 293

horizontal equity, 19-20

impact of reforms, 78-80, 84-86

inter-district equity, 21, 180

intra-district equity, 11, 65, 180

low-household-income districts, 84, 86-89

measures of equity between, 111

revenues, 78-80, 104-112

role in finance, 1, 8

spending, 76

as unit of analysis, 11, 20, 22, 25

vertical equity, 20-21, 29, 58

Louisiana, litigation, 46, 175

M

Maine, litigation, 44, 60

Maryland, litigation, 45, 55-56, 67

Massachusetts, 28

constitution, 66

cost of education, 212, 289, 292

litigation, 42, 59, 175, 212

reforms, 73, 146, 149

McLoone index, 19, 111, 114

McMahon and Chang's Cost of Living Index, 21, 84-85

Measures of inequality

coefficient of variation, 19, 76, 85, 110-111, 114

federal range ratio, 19, 110, 114

Gini coefficient, 19, 27, 76, 110-111, 114

McLoone index, 19, 111, 114

95/5 ratio, 76, 77, 85, 110, 144, 170

restricted range, 110, 114

simple correlation, 111, 114

test scores, 83

Theil index, 19-20, 76-77, 78, 85, 86, 95

Michigan

cost of education, 212, 278

equity analyses, 19, 21

litigation, 44, 212

politics, 142-143

reforms, 74, 146

Minnesota

constitution, 66

impact of reforms, 82

litigation, 45, 50, 55-56, 60, 175, 199, 212

politics, 142-143

spending on education, 212

Mississippi

constitution, 169

cost of education, 226, 255

spending on education, 213

Missouri

litigation, 42, 170, 176-177, 213

reform, 43, 66

spending on education, 213

Modern Red Schoolhouse, 230

Montana

litigation, 42, 69, 212

reforms, 73, 145

spending on education, 212

N

A Nation at Risk, 21-22, 146, 147, 186

National Academy of Education, 253

National Alliance for Restructuring Education, 230

National Assessment Governing Board, 253

National Center for Education Statistics, 19, 86, 95, 154

Common Core of Data, 25

National Commission on Excellence in Education, 147

National Conference of State Legislators, 144

National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 91

National Governors' Association, 159

National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972, 90-91

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 84

National reform network, 144-145

Nebraska, litigation, 44

New American Schools, 230

New Hampshire

litigation, 42, 175, 196-197, 199, 212

reforms, 73, 148

spending on education, 212

New Jersey

adequacy standard, 22, 175, 193, 195, 202-204, 206, 254

constitution, 66, 73

district response to reforms, 103, 104, 129

education reform, 129

enforcement of reforms, 145, 163

Hands Across New Jersey, 164

impact of reforms, 82, 99, 104-112, 113

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

 

legislation, 164, 201-203, 204

litigation, 22, 42, 47, 50-51, 53, 57, 69, 104, 145, 151, 163, 164 , 175, 195, 206, 212, 254

politics of school finance reform, 145, 151-152, 163-165, 166

reforms, 50-51, 73, 104, 106-107, 113, 129, 164, 201, 203-204

resource allocation changes, 99, 101, 102, 115-119, 121, 123, 125, 126-127, 129, 163

revenue changes, 104-112, 113

spending levels, 64, 148, 201, 212

New Mexico, litigation, 46, 213

New York City, 20, 91, 192, 221, 223, 227, 275-282, 294

New York State

costs of education, 220, 221, 223, 255, 271, 275-282, 283, 287, 292 , 293-294

equity analyses, 19, 21, 192

Extraordinary Needs Aid program, 271

impact of reforms, 82

litigation, 45, 55-56, 175, 197, 21

Pupil Evaluation Program, 265

resource allocation changes, 101

spending on education, 212

North Carolina, litigation, 42, 55-56, 175, 197-198, 199, 212

North Dakota, litigation, 44, 212

O

Ohio

adequacy standard, 228

cost of education, 224, 225, 255

litigation, 42, 53, 62, 175, 197, 212

reforms, 29, 73, 84

spending on education, 212

Oklahoma

adequacy standard, 23

impact of reforms, 82

litigation, 44

reform, 43

Oregon, 146

litigation, 45, 53, 54

Outcomes, educational, 12-13

adequacy standard and, 58, 200, 251-253

assessment of, 131

dropout rates, 83-84, 90, 225, 264, 273

equal opportunity and, 14, 15

impacts of reforms on, 90-91, 93

income disparities and, 15

indirect controls for, 221

measures of, 83-84, 200, 220-221, 225, 226, 227-228, 232, 253, 264 , 273

monitoring, 51, 65

pupil/teacher ratios and, 233-234

resource allocation and, 25, 90-91, 131

shift in focus to, 22, 53, 176

spending and, 83-84, 90-91, 152, 283-284

student characteristics and, 15, 28, 226-227

tax prices and, 272-273, 274

test scores, 83-84, 90-91, 152, 187, 220, 222, 226-227, 264, 267, 273

Outputs of education.

See also Academic performance;

Outcomes, educational

horizontal equity applied to, 18

minimum vs. relative, 24

vertical equity applied to, 20

Outward Bound, 230

P

Peer effects, 82, 83

Pennsylvania, litigation, 45, 53, 54-55, 175

Per pupil expenditures. See Spending on Education

Performance standards. See Academic performance;

Education standards;

Student outcome assessments

cost indexes and, 262-264

court ordered, 260

criterion-references, 253

cutoff points, 256

educational adequacy and, 59

external influences, 260-261, 265-266

movement, 186-187

national testing, 206

norm-referenced, 252-253

reform linked to, 1-2, 59, 260

school district, 274

and spending for education, 126

Politics of school finance, 61.

See also individual states

and analysis of school finance equity, 11

anti-government/anti-tax sentiment and, 152-153, 157, 158, 159-160, 161, 164, 165-166

demographics and, 139, 153-154, 160

education excellence and, 146-147, 157

and enforcement of reforms, 145, 163

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

 

executive branch, 141, 142-143, 144, 145, 147, 156-157, 165, 167, 200

fiscal context, 140, 145-147, 150, 158, 161, 166, 167

formulas for funding, 190-191

history, 142-154

incentives for involvement in reforms, 139-142, 143, 155, 166, 168

interest groups, 142, 143, 144-145, 153, 157, 158, 164, 165, 167

issues, 137-139, 150-163

judicial branch, 141-142, 149-150, 165, 166, 183

legislative branch, 140, 142-143, 144, 145, 147, 156, 159, 167

leveling-up issue, 111, 138-139, 145, 150, 161, 185

local control issue, 138, 151, 164

racial prejudice, 152-153, 154, 160, 162, 164-165, 166, 167

resource allocation, 152, 163

and spending, 143, 145-146, 148, 150, 152, 163

tax increases and, 138, 140, 145-146, 151-152, 156, 159

Private management of schools, 153

Private schools, 92-93, 238, 268-269

Private Wealth and Public Education, 17, 181

Production. See Education production

Property taxes, 65

bases, 80, 81, 133

benefit principle and, 10

caps, 49-50, 57, 146, 170

compensation for inequalities, 8, 145-146

education tax, 62, 110

equity issues, 1, 8, 138

political considerations, 145-146, 151-152

rates, 49-50, 94, 104, 105, 107-109, 111, 145-146

relief, 87, 99, 101, 103, 105, 145-146, 162-163, 164

Public school system, structural changes, 25

R

Race, spending on education by, 89-90

Racial discrimination, 14, 40-41, 176-179, 181, 187-188

Racial integration, 199

Racial prejudice, 152-153, 154, 160, 165, 166, 167

Rational basis test, 55, 67

Reapportionment cases, 36

Research

on educational adequacy, 23

on horizontal equity, 19-20

on resource allocation, 130-132

wealth neutrality concept used in, 18

Resource allocation, reform-related.

See also Spending on education

and academic performance, 7, 9, 14-15, 25, 152

for administration, 101, 115, 120, 121, 239-241, 245

for capital outlay, 115-119, 121

categorical grants, 101, 104, 130, 234, 235, 236, 239-241

decision-making models, 102-103, 113, 127, 128, 129-130, 131

design considerations, 216, 221

direct educational expense, 115-119

and educational outcomes, 25, 90-91

for extended school services, 104, 119, 124-126, 126, 130

for facilities, 124-125, 126, 127, 129

for fixed costs, 115, 121

for instruction, 101, 115, 119, 120, 233-238, 239-240

models, 100-103

operations and maintenance, 115-119, 120

public trust issue, 152

research needs on, 130-132

for special needs students, 104, 110, 119, 120, 124-125, 126, 148, 235-237, 246

for staff development, 121, 122-123, 126, 235, 239-241

standards-driven, 129-130

for supplies and equipment, 101, 124-125, 126, 128, 245

for tax relief, 87, 99, 101, 103, 105, 106, 145-146

for teacher/staff salaries, 52, 85, 99, 101, 102, 103, 121, 122-123, 126, 130, 238, 239-241, 242-245, 246

transportation, 115-119

trends, 84-86, 93, 127-129

tuition for out-of-district placements, 115-119

unrestricted general aid, 101

urban districts, 99, 119

vertical equity, 20

Restricted range statistic, 110, 114

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Revenue for school finance.

See also Property taxes

impacts of reforms on, 75-76, 77, 78-80, 85-86, 87, 89-90, 104-112

per-pupil, 4, 78-80, 86, 89-90, 108-109

recapture, 57, 94, 104, 161-162

required local effort, 105-106

sources, 9, 72, 77, 87, 108-109, 148, 150, 166

Rhode Island, litigation, 44, 60, 175, 199, 231

Roots and Wings, 230

S

SAT scores, 90, 91, 152, 222

School-based decision making, 11, 27, 207

School choice, 64, 94, 153, 164, 207, 222

School Development Program, 230

School finance equity. See Equity concepts

School-level analysis, 18-19, 24, 292

School size considerations, 234-235

Separation-of-powers concerns, 53, 201

South Carolina, litigation, 45, 175

South Dakota, litigation, 46

Special-needs students, 66, 104, 110, 119, 120, 124-125, 126, 148, 153, 168-169, 201, 205, 235-237, 246, 271, 293

Spending on education.

See also Resource allocation, reform-related

ability to pay and, 86-89

between-state, 4, 75, 76, 77, 85

caps on, 146, 150

cost-of-living adjustments, 84-86

decision making, 8-9

determinants of, 74

efficiency of, 131-132

and equal opportunity, 16, 35-36, 150

impact of reforms, 4, 49-50, 74-78, 84-93, 110, 211

incentives for, 107, 111

measures of inequality, 76-77, 83, 110-111

models, 101-102

and outcomes of education, 83-84, 90-91, 152, 283-284

patterns, 127, 143, 163-164, 211, 212-213

per pupil, 8-9, 16, 35-36, 49-50, 61, 75, 76, 78-80, 88, 89, 118, 146, 148, 150, 152, 163, 180

and quality of education, 152

by race, 89-90

substitution effects, 80

within-state, 4, 75, 76, 77-78, 85

Staff development, 121, 122-123, 235, 239-241

State aid changes.

See also Formulas for distributing funds

district response to, 100-103, 105-109

see also Resource allocation, reform-related

intergovernmental grant theory, 101

per-pupil aid, 78-80, 88, 105

policy implications, 127-130

and price of education, 80-82

research implications, 130-132

and school district revenues, 109-112

trends, 105

State court litigation.

See also Court cases;

Impacts of reforms;

individual states

education clauses, 35, 43, 44, 46, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 66, 67, 73, 149, 189-190

educational adequacy claim, 22, 47, 51-52, 55-56, 59-60, 62, 63-64, 65, 68, 175, 183, 188-193

equal protection challenges, 35-36, 43, 48, 50, 54, 55, 56, 61, 66 -67, 72-73, 143-144, 149, 183, 199

equity cases, 65, 68, 179-180, 182-183, 190

fiscal neutrality standard (Coons Proposition I), 46, 47, 48, 50-51, 54, 55, 56-57, 61, 62, 63-65, 66, 67, 144, 146, 149, 175, 181-182, 184-185, 205

history, 8, 47-62, 149-150

legislative responses to, 56-57, 60-61, 62, 63-64, 144, 198, 199-205

overview, 41-47, 59-60

results, 35, 41-46, 47-48, 53-55, 56, 59-60, 68, 69, 72, 144, 146, 149, 175

separation-of-powers concerns, 53, 201

status of, 72, 73

vertical equity cases, 54-55, 63, 64-65

wealth discrimination, 38-41, 183-188, 190

States.

See also individual states

constitutional requirements for free public schools, 169

with court-ordered reforms, 73

role in financing, 1, 8, 9

spending on education, 212-213

as unit of analysis, 11, 20

Strict scrutiny test, 40

Student outcome assessments, 51, 59, 61, 62, 190, 218, 239-241

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Success for All, 23, 230

Supplies and equipment, 101, 124-125, 126, 239-241, 245

Suspect classification, wealth as, 39, 43

T

Tax burdens, 10, 27, 285

Tax prices, 82, 272-273, 274

Tax relief, 87, 99, 101, 103, 105, 145-146, 151, 162-163, 164

Taxpayer equity, 10-11, 27, 28, 29

Taxpayer support for reforms, 129, 138-139

Teacher/staff

costs, 221, 222

quality of, 243-244, 246, 292

salaries, 52, 85, 99, 101, 102, 103, 121, 122-123, 219, 222, 238, 239-241, 242-245, 246-247, 269-270, 273, 279, 281, 282, 283, 292

Teacher/pupil ratios, 84, 102, 233-234, 246

Teachers unions, 142, 143, 242

Tennessee

litigation, 42, 67, 175, 197, 212

reforms, 73

spending on education, 212

Test scores, 83-84, 90-91, 152, 187, 220, 222, 226-227, 264, 267

Texas

Assessment of Academic Skills, 227, 228

district response to reforms, 103, 104, 129

education reform, 129

impact of reforms, 82, 104-112, 113

litigation, 39-40, 42, 50, 56-57, 69, 104, 146, 160, 161, 177, 183 , 205, 212

politics of school finance, 160-163, 166

racial discrimination, 177, 205

reforms, 57, 73, 104, 106-107, 113, 129, 160-161, 162

resource allocation changes, 84, 112-113, 119, 120, 121, 123, 125, 126-127, 129

revenue changes, 104-112, 113

spending on education, 212

Theil index, 19-20, 76-77, 78, 85, 86

Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 251, 252

Title I funding, 21, 236-237

U

Urban school districts, 54, 99, 119, 140, 147-148, 153-154, 163-164, 183-184, 187-188, 190, 192, 201, 202, 207, 219

U.S. Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment, 17, 35, 48, 176, 178, 183, 214.

See also Equal protection

U.S. Supreme Court litigation, 12, 35-41

geographic uniformity principle, 36, 180-181

horizontal equity challenges, 35-36

racial discrimination, 14, 26, 40-46, 176, 181

results, 34, 72

vertical equity (needs-based) claims, 36-37

Utah, reforms, 74, 82, 145

V

Variance decomposition, 76

Vermont

litigation, 42, 61, 65, 183

reforms, 61-62, 73

Vertical equity, 20-21, 23, 24, 29

litigation based on, 36-37, 54-55

Virginia, litigation, 37, 44, 60

Voucher programs, 153, 164

W

Washington

constitution, 194

impacts of reforms, 148

litigation, 43, 47, 52, 53, 69, 193-194

reforms, 73

Wealth as a suspect classification, 39, 43

Wealth neutrality, 27, 63

concept in school finance equity, 16-18, 24, 28

equal opportunity and, 14

federal litigation, 37-39, 66

measures of, 17-18, 28, 111-112

research, 18

shift away from, 183-188

state litigation based on, 46, 47, 48, 50-51, 54, 55, 56-57, 61,63, 67, 144, 146, 149, 175, 181-182, 183, 205

unit of analysis, 17

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
×

Weights/weighting students, 21, 29, 57, 104, 148, 168-169, 184, 261 , 271, 283

West Virginia

adequacy standard, 194, 215, 216, 220

litigation, 43, 47, 52-53, 57, 69, 194, 195, 215

reforms, 52-53, 73

spending on education, 212

Whole School Design, 230

Wisconsin

cost of education, 220, 221, 255, 278

litigation, 45, 55-56, 68, 212

reforms, 73, 94

spending on education, 212

Wyoming

adequacy standard, 198, 215, 217-218, 220, 230-251

cost indexes, 247-250, 271

legislation, 200, 204

litigation, 43, 56, 60-61, 69, 175, 198, 212, 215, 218

reforms, 61, 62, 64, 73, 145, 192, 200

spending on education, 81, 212, 255

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6166.
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Spending on K-12 education across the United States and across local school districts has long been characterized by great disparities--disparities that reflect differences in property wealth and tax rates. For more than a quarter-century, reformers have attempted to reduce these differences through court challenges and legislative action. As part of a broad study of education finance, the committee commissioned eight papers examining the history and consequences of school finance reform undertaken in the name of equity and adequacy. This thought-provoking, timely collection of papers explores such topics as:

  • What do the terms "equity" and "adequacy" in school finance really mean?
  • How are these terms relevant to the politics and litigation of school finance reform?
  • What is the impact of court-ordered school finance reform on spending disparities?
  • How do school districts use money from finance reform?
  • What policy options are available to states facing new challenges from court decisions mandating adequacy in school finance?
  • When measuring adequacy, how do you consider differences in student needs and regional costs?
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