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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Global Ocean Science

Toward an Integrated Approach

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council


NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1999

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×


NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This material is based upon work supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCE-9634773. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

Libarary of Congress Cataloging-in Publication Data

Global ocean science : toward an integrated approach / Ocean Studies Board, commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-06564-X (casebound)

1. Oceanography—Research—International cooperation. 2. Oceanography—Research—Government policy—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Ocean Studies Board.

GC57 .G55 1999

551.46′0072—dc21 98-58045

Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach is available from the
National Academy Press,
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; 1-800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu

Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Committee On Major U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs

RANA FINE, Chair,

University of Miami, Florida

CHARLES COX,

University of California, San Diego

WILLIAM CURRY,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Masssachusetts

ELLEN DRUFFEL,

University of California, Irvine

JEFFREY FOX,

Texas A&M University, College Station

ROGER LUKAS,

University of Hawaii, Manoa

JAMES MURRAY,

University of Washington, Seattle

NEIL OPDYKE,

University of Florida, Gainesville

THOMAS POWELL,

University of California, Berkeley

MICHAEL ROMAN,

University of Maryland

THOMAS ROYER,

Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia

LYNDA SHAPIRO,

University of Oregon, Charleston

ANNE THOMPSON,

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

ANDREW WEAVER,

University of Victoria, British Columbia

Staff

DAN WALKER, Study Director

SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant

LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Ocean Studies Board

KENNETH BRINK, Chair,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

ALICE ALLDREDGE,

University of California, Santa Barbara

DAVID BRADLEY,

Pennsylvania State University, State College

DAN BROMLEY,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

OTIS BROWN,

University of Miami, Florida

WILLIAM CURRY,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

RANA FINE,

University of Miami, Florida

CARL FRIEHE,

University of California, Irvine

ROBERT GAGOSIAN,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

JOHN HOBBIE,

Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

EILEEN HOFMANN,

Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia

EDWARD HOUDE,

University of Maryland, Solomons

JOHN KNAUSS,

University of Rhode Island, Narragansett

ROBERT KNOX,

University of California, San Diego

RAY KRONE,

University of California, Davis

LOUIS LANZEROTTI,

Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey

NANCY MARCUS,

Florida State University, Tallahassee

B. GREGORY MITCHELL,

University of California, San Diego

NEIL OPDYKE,

University of Florida, Gainesville

MICHAEL ORBACH,

Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina

TERRANCE QUINN,

University of Alaska, Juneau

JAMES RAY,

Equilon Enterprises LLC, Houston, Texas

GEORGE SOMERO,

Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California

PAUL STOFFA,

University of Texas, Austin

KARL TUREKIAN,

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Staff

MORGAN GOPNIK, Director

EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer

DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer

SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer

ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate

GLENN MERRILL, Research Associate

SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant

LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant

JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant

ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Commission On Geosciences, Environment, And Resources

GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville

PATRICK R. ATKINS,

Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

JERRY F. FRANKLIN,

University of Washington, Seattle

B. JOHN GARRICK,

PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, California

THOMAS E. GRAEDEL,

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

DEBRA KNOPMAN,

Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C.

KAI N. LEE,

Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts

JUDITH E. MCDOWELL,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

RICHARD A. MESERVE,

Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C.

HUGH C. MORRIS,

Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia

RAYMOND A. PRICE,

Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario

H. RONALD PULLIAM,

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia

THOMAS C. SCHELLING,

University of Maryland, College Park

VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL,

Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida

E-AN ZEN,

University of Maryland, College Park

MARY LOU ZOBACK,

United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California

Staff

ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director

GREGORY H. SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director

JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative & Financial Officer

SANDI FITZPA TRICK, Administrative Associate

MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility of advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Preface

Since its formation in 1985, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) has played a leading role in promoting the vitality of ocean-related research. The OSB continues to work with federal agencies to identify new research opportunities, establish research priorities, and improve the overall quality of ocean research. OSB activities in the past have ranged from reviews of specific ocean science programs to comprehensive examinations of the field of oceanography. The 1992 report Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships not only provided a retrospective analysis of the field, but also outlined goals for the near future. If the United States is to maintain its leadership role in the ocean sciences, the human and physical resources available to the nation in this area must be maintained and improved.

This report, Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach, continues this tradition by drawing upon the strengths of the ocean science community to provide advice on how major oceanographic research programs should fit into the nation's overall ocean research strategy. The report examines the impact these programs have had on our understanding of the oceans and on the way basic oceanographic research is conducted. The report then provides a number of recommendations intended to help ensure that these programs yield a maximum scientific return on the nation's investment, and stimulate research in a number of important areas.

KENNETH BRINK, CHAIR

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Acknowledgments

The Committee on Major U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs is grateful to the many individuals who played a significant role in the completion of this study. The committee met six times, and extends its gratitude to the following individuals who appeared before the full committee or otherwise provided background information and discussed pertinent issues: Karl Banse, John Bash, Melbourne Briscoe, Otis Brown, Tony Busalacchi, Alan Chave, Larry Clark, Curt Collins, Robert Correll, Tim Cowles, Tudor Davies, Russ Davis, David Epp, Bob Gagosian, Eileen Hofmann, Eric Itsweire, Kenneth Johnson, Dick Lambert, Bernie Lettau, Eric Lindstrom, Bruce Malfait, Chistopher Mooers, Worth Nowlin, John Orcutt, Gustav Paffenhofer, Michael Purdy, Steve Ramberg, Michael Reeve, Don Rice, Sharon Smith, Detlef Stammer, Phil Taylor, Keith Thompson, Maurice Tivey, Ken Turgeon, Robert Wall, and S. Jeffress Williams.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: David Bradley, The Pennsylvania State University; James Coleman, Louisiana State University; Richard Goody, Harvard University; Grant Gross, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory; Robert Holman, Oregon State University; Cindy Lee, State University of New York; Pati Matrai, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Science;

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Judith McDowell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Fred Spiess, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; and Carl Wunsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The committee also extends its thanks to the following chairs, participants, and staff of the major oceanographic programs listed in this report who submitted questionnaires and provided background material and data for consideration by the committee: Worth Nowlin, Piers Chapman, Lewis Rothstein, Don Olson, Jochem Marotzke, Greg Johnson, Hugh Ducklow, Mary Zawoysky, Hugh Livingston, Karen Von Damm, Roger Larson, Michael Arthur, Ellen Kappel, and Peter Webster.

The committee is grateful for the assistance provided by the following individuals who provided additional background material and data for consideration by the committee: Jack Bash and Annette DeSilva.

For their assistance in data gathering and preparation, and other consultation, the committee extends its thanks to the following individuals: Constance Carter, Barbara A. Butler, Adrienne Davis, James Igoe, Julie Walko, Melissa Ralston, and Margaret Booth.

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During recent years, large-scale investigations into global climate change and other highly visible issues have taken the lion's share of declining research funds. At the same time, funding for basic research in such core disciplines as physical oceanography, biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, and marine geology has dwindled.

Global Ocean Science examines how the largest U.S. ocean research programs, such as the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), have significantly contributed to our understanding of the oceans. The book examines the impact of these programs on research, education, and collegiality within this diverse scientific community and offers recommendations to help ensure a vital future for ocean science, including:

Specific results of the programs such as data collected, conceptual breakthroughs, information published, demonstrable use of program products, incorporation of new knowledge into education, and contribution to policymaking and decisionmaking by federal agencies.

Mechanisms for efficiently identifying knowledge gaps and research questions, strategic planning of research programs, managing competitive proposals, securing needed resources, and more.

This practical book will be welcomed by ocean investigators, users of oceanographic research findings, policymakers, administrators, educators, and students.

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