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Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach (1999)

Chapter: Appendix F: Summary Budget Data

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Appendix F Summary Budget Data

Total NSF/OCE Funding from 1970 to 1997 (during and post-IDOE) in Current Dollars (millions)

Fiscal Year

OCE (without IDOE)

IDOE

1970

23.06*

0

1971

25.68*

15

1972

36.33*

19.67

1973

33.26*

16.93

1974

42.65*

13.79

1975

46.42*

14.78

1976

43.49*

15.42

1977

48.89*

17.14

1978

53.21*

18.37

1979

54.56*

19.46

1980

85.78*

0

1981

96.87*

0

1982

95.03*

0

1983

102.53*

0

1984

114.28

0

1985

121.28

0

1986

119.42

0

1987

133.74

0

1988

134.95

0

1989

145.88

0

1990

147.35

0

1991

164.63

0

1992

177.5

0

1993

179.4

0

1994

188.9

0

1995

192.8

0

1996

193.6

0

1997

201.8

0

SOURCE:  Information provided by the Ocean Sciences (OCE) division of the National Science Foundation (NSF)

* Prior to 1983, funds for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) were separate from OCE. However, in order to make it comparable to the data for 1984-1997, the budget data for OCE from 1970-1983 shown here, includes ODP funding.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Total Federal Conduct of Research and Development in Current Dollars (billions)

Fiscal Year

Total Federal Research and Development (in billions)

1982

34.66

1983

35.9

1984

40.986

1985

47.216

1986

52.141

1987

53.256

1988

56.1

1989

60.76

1990

63.81

1991

62.183

1992

64.728

1993

68.378

1994

66.453

1995

68.432

1996

68.439

1997

71.073

 

SOURCE:  FY 1999 Budget of the U.S. Government, Historical Tables.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Total Ocean Science Funding by U.S. Federal Agencies from 1982 to 1997 (in millions of dollars)

Agency

FY

1982

FY

1983

FY

1984

FY

1985

FY

1986

FY

1987

FY

1988

FY

1989

FY

1990

FY

1991

FY

1992

FY

1993

FY

1994

FY

1995a

FY

1995b

FY

1996

FY

1997

ONR

63.0

65.3

67.1

65.5

70.9

80.1

88.8

88.4

88.1

96.9

108.1

111.1

105.1

102.3

105.3

103.2

101.9

NSF

95.0

102.5

114.3

121.2

119.4

133.7

135.0

145.9

147.4

164.7

177.5

179.4

188.9

193.4

192.8

193.6

201.8

NOAA

117.9

133.7

91.5

83.7

86.5

75.5

73.3

80.8

81.7

84.5

95.6

93.1

84.7

 

335.9

339.5

394.3

DOE

14.6

7.1

9.3

9.4

7.7

7.3

6.8

8.9

10.1

10.3

12.2

12.1

11.9

11.3

11.2

8.2

7.1

USGS

21.9

13.0

18.6

21.5

25.3

26.0

28.5

29.5

32.4

37.7

36.7

36.9

35.6

36.0

36.4

37.1

37.1

MMS

27.1

30.2

25.3

23.8

19.7

18.7

19.1

17.0

17.1

25.1

15.0

19.0

10.0

12.8

12.0

12.9

12.4

EPA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16.2

21.1

35.5

49.2

41.7

40.8

12.6

23.7

22.1

20.8

NASA

16.2

17.0

18.2

19.7

21.1

22.6

23.0

24.5

25.4

29.4

33.9

35.8

42.8

 

42.5

34.0

52.8

Total

355.7

368.8

344.3

344.8

350.6

363.9

374.5

411.2

423.3

484.1

528.2

529.1

519.8

368.4

759.8

750.6

828.2

Note 1: The two sets of numbers given in 1995 (a and b) are due to the difference in the 1995 numbers as reported in 1995 and in 1997.

Note 2:1982-1988 EPA numbers not available.

Note 3: NOAA numbers reported in 1995-97 include areas of fisheries science that were not previously included in 1982-94 totals.

SOURCE: Federal agency data is provided annually to the Ocean Studies Board by the federal agencies.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

The National Science Foundation's Ocean Sciences Division (OCE) Budget Since 1982 (in millions of dollars)

 

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Disciplinary Programs

Biological Oceanography

13.8

14.0

14.6

14.2

14.6

14.5

12.6

13.6

13.5

13.7

13.1

Chemical Oceanography

13.0

13.0

12.7

12.4

12.6

12.5

11.7

12.0

12.0

12.4

12.2

Marine Geol/Geophys

15.6

15.6

15.1

14.9

15.2

15.2

13.8

14.5

14.7

14.9

14.5

Physical Oceanography

17.7

17.7

17.2

17.0

17.4

17.3

15.2

14.7

14.2

14.6

14.3

Ocean Technology

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.0

4.4

4.4

4.5

4.8

Educ. & Human Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

 

Research Section

60.1

60.2

59.6

58.4

59.7

59.5

57.3

59.2

58.8

60.1

61.0

Facilities Section

33.4

33.0

37.2

34.8

34.3

35.1

34.1

29.6

28.5

26.4

31.9

Total Disciplinary

93.5

93.2

96.8

93.2

94.0

94.6

91.4

88.8

87.3

86.5

92.9

Ocean Drilling

Science Support(JOI)

3.3

3.7

4.3

4.1

4.3

4.7

4.5

4.9

5.2

5.4

5.7

Grants

6.0

5.7

5.8

6.3

6.1

7.8

6.0

5.4

7.0

6.5

7.5

NSF Operations

20.7

21.2

21.3

21.6

24.6

23.8

25.4

28.4

27.6

27.7

27.1

NSF Total to ODP

30.0

30.6

31.4

32.0

35.0

36.3

35.9

38.7

39.8

39.6

40.3

International

15.0

15.0

15.0

16.6

16.5

16.6

17.8

15.8

16.7

16.7

17.3

ODP Total

45.0

45.6

46.4

48.6

51.5

52.9

53.7

54.5

56.5

56.3

57.6

Focus Programs

WOCE*

4.1

4.4

5.9

8.1

12.3

14.7

15.7

17.1

17.9

17.7

16.6

TOGA/CLIVAR*

3.5

3.5

3.8

3.8

5.2

6.1

6.4

6.4

5.0

4.5

4.0

JGOFS*

1.4

2.1

5.9

7.2

10.7

12.8

13.8

15.3

16.4

16.3

16.0

RIDGE*

1.2

1.2

1.7

1.7

3.9

3.9

4.1

4.1

4.0

3.7

3.3

GLOBEC*

0.4

0.4

1.4

2.7

3.8

5.2

6.7

7.4

8.8

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

 

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

ARCSS*

1.0

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

LMER/LTER*

0.9

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.4

CoOP

1.3

1.3

2.9

2.9

3.9

3.9

RIDGE (Core)

2.4

2.9

5.1

5.1

5.4

5.8

MESH*

0.3

1.1

2.3

2.7

3.5

IAI*

1.0

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.6

MMIA*

1.0

1.0

1.0

EGB

0.5

0.5

0.5

LExEn

0.7

 

Research Section

6.4

7.0

11.3

14.5

22.3

30.5

34.5

40.8

43.8

46.4

48.3

Facilities Section

3.8

4.2

6.4

7.7

13.4

16.1

17.6

20.6

21.9

21.1

20.3

  Total Focus Programs

10.2

11.2

17.7

22.2

35.7

46.6

52.1

61.4

65.7

67.5

68.6

Summary

Disciplinary Research

60.1

60.2

59.6

58.4

59.7

59.5

57.3

59.2

58.8

60.1

61.0

Focus Research

6.4

7.0

11.3

14.5

22.3

30.5

34.5

40.8

43.8

46.4

48.3

Total Research

66.5

67.2

70.9

72.9

82.0

90.0

91.8

100.0

102.6

106.5

109.3

Disciplinary Facilities

33.4

33.0

37.2

34.8

34.3

35.1

34.1

29.6

28.5

26.4

31.9

Focus Facilities

3.8

4.2

6.4

7.7

13.4

16.1

17.6

20.6

21.9

21.1

20.3

Total Facilities

37.2

37.2

43.6

42.5

47.7

51.2

51.7

50.2

50.4

47.5

52.2

Ocean Drilling

30.0

30.6

31.4

32.0

35.0

36.3

35.9

38.7

39.8

39.6

40.3

Total Division Budget

133.7

135.0

145.9

147.4

164.7

177.5

179.4

188.9

192.8

193.6

201.8

* Global Change Program

SOURCE:  Information provided by the Ocean Sciences (OCE) division of the National Science Foundation (NSF).

NOTE:  Dollars are in millions; data includes both research and facilities funding.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded in Oceanography (Year-by-Year and Cumulative)

Year

Ph.D.s in Oceanography (Year-by-Year)

Ph.D.s in Oceanography (Cumulative)

1982

133

133

1983

109

242

1984

99

341

1985

92

433

1986

100

533

1987

111

644

1988

109

753

1989

113

866

1990

128

994

1991

112

1106

1992

114

1220

1993

125

1345

1994

125

1470

1995

114

1584

 

SOURCE:  Data from NSF, 1997.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

U.S. WOCE Research Budget 1987-1996 (in thousands of dollars)

Program component

Agency

FY87

FY88

FY89

FY90

FY91

FY92

FY93

FY94

FY95

FY96

FY97

Total

Field program

Hydrography—one-time

NSF

116

564

1034

1918

2591

4990

6522

7047

8826

5790

4172

43570

 

NOAA

 

 

 

350

1142

1073

1286

1775

2049

1838

 

9513

Hydrography—repeat

NSF

 

 

 

196

218

237

556

397

426

384

347

2761

 

NOAA

 

 

 

50

225

160

240

189

766

432

 

2062

Moorings

NSF

126

100

207

2162

2425

2599

2299

3209

3382

1854

1410

19773

 

NOAA

 

 

 

110

110

654

238

145

754

308

75

2394

 

ONR

 

 

 

 

 

350

78

465

253

148

 

1294

Surface drifters

NSF

 

 

 

364

773

835

356

492

533

671

340

4364

 

NOAA

 

 

 

 

225

450

1240

2119

208

300

780

5322

 

ONR

 

 

 

 

75

167

460

668

 

 

 

1370

Subsurface floats

NSF

446

85

387

146

1091

1005

615

1575

1720

2322

2874

12266

 

NOAA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

95

 

100

190

385

 

ONR

 

 

 

 

364

105

73

 

 

 

 

542

VOS program

NSF

207

240

239

 

300

450

600

600

600

 

 

3236

 

NOAA

 

 

 

719

787

787

787

516

703

698

1095

6092

Satellites

NASA

 

 

 

1120

1492

1827

2335

2724

2370

2460

2400

16728

 

NOAA

 

 

 

 

600

700

700

325

350

400

400

3475

Sea level

NOAA

 

 

 

570

1000

1200

1000

517

510

510

510

5817

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

U.S. WOCE Research Budget 1987-1996 (in thousands of dollars)

Program component

Agency

FY87

FY88

FY89

FY90

FY91

FY92

FY93

FY94

FY95

FY96

FY97

Total

Process studies

NSF

 

 

 

348

2127

1613

2313

1039

939

796

646

9821

 

ONR

 

 

 

2248

3924

3949

2808

1716

 

 

 

14645

Air-sea flux

NSF

 

837

820

838

 

105

 

300

300

 

175

3375

 

NOAA

 

 

 

50

50

50

80

 

 

 

 

230

 

NASA

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

30

Program and data management

NSF

611

894

165

1246

1214

1618

1474

1490

1275

1379

1154

12520

 

NOAA

 

 

 

 

183

190

345

262

410

220

740

2350

 

NASA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

75

75

225

 

ONR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

20

20

20

80

Subtotal

 

1506

2720

2852

12435

20916

25144

26405

27685

26469

20705

17403

184240

Modeling and data analysis

NSF

 

472

1082

718

736

469

607

1221

897

740

1729

8671

 

NOAA

 

 

 

 

170

194

270

177

615

772

150

2348

 

NASA

 

 

 

 

 

169

200

200

250

250

250

1319

 

DOE

 

 

 

284

493

1072

1177

1654

1200

1200

1200

8280

Subtotal

 

0

472

1082

1002

1399

1904

2254

3252

2962

2962

3329

20618

Total

 

1506

3192

3934

13437

22315

27048

28659

30937

29431

23667

20732

204858

Subtotal by Agency

NSF

1506

3192

3934

7936

11475

13921

15342

17370

18898

13936

12847

120357

 

NOAA

0

0

0

1849

4492

5458

6186

6120

6365

5578

3940

39988

 

NASA

0

0

0

1120

1492

2026

2535

2924

2695

2785

2725

18302

 

DOE

0

0

0

284

493

1072

1177

1654

1200

1200

1200

8280

 

ONR

0

0

0

2248

4363

4571

3419

2869

273

168

20

17931

SOURCE:  Information provided by the U.S. WOCE office to the committee.

NOTE:  Data reflect research money and are not inclusive of facilities funding.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Major Oceanographic Research Program Ship Days on UNOLS vessels

 

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

WOCE

94

192

401

277

249

470

129

316

93

25

 

JGOFS

0

12

183

279

230

457

168

180

356

140

230

214

135

135

RIDGE

0

60

158.5

285

402

175

100

 

 

GLOBEC

0

38

7

37

238

90

231

120

330

275

TOGA

 

 

 

 

0

200

174

24

0

0

0

0

 

 

ODP

 

 

 

 

 

118

131

115

101

75

95

39

 

 

CoOP

0

0

5

95

0

0

21

128.5

 

 

TOTAL

0

12

183

373

412

1214

822

858.5

1450

836

1068

694.5

490

410

 

SOURCE:  Information provided by major oceanographic research program offices (1987–1990; 1999–2000) and UNOLS (1991–1998).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
Page 134
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
Page 135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Summary Budget Data." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×
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During recent years, large-scale investigations into global climate change and other highly visible issues have taken the lion's share of declining research funds. At the same time, funding for basic research in such core disciplines as physical oceanography, biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, and marine geology has dwindled.

Global Ocean Science examines how the largest U.S. ocean research programs, such as the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), have significantly contributed to our understanding of the oceans. The book examines the impact of these programs on research, education, and collegiality within this diverse scientific community and offers recommendations to help ensure a vital future for ocean science, including:

Specific results of the programs such as data collected, conceptual breakthroughs, information published, demonstrable use of program products, incorporation of new knowledge into education, and contribution to policymaking and decisionmaking by federal agencies.

Mechanisms for efficiently identifying knowledge gaps and research questions, strategic planning of research programs, managing competitive proposals, securing needed resources, and more.

This practical book will be welcomed by ocean investigators, users of oceanographic research findings, policymakers, administrators, educators, and students.

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