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« Previous: Appendix J: Selected Responses to World Wide Web and Scientific Steering Committee Questionnaires
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Index

A

Accelerated Research Initiatives (ARIs), 25

Acceleration Mass Spectrometer (AMS) facility, 55

Acoustic Dopper Current Profilers (ADCPs), 55

Advance and Primary Opportunities in Physical Oceanography Studies (APROPOS), 80

Advisory Committee for the Ocean Science Program, 86

Agencies. See Federal agencies; individual agencies

AGOR-23 class vessels, 76

Allocation decisions, 67

American Geophysical Union (AGU), 14, 86

American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), 14

Announcements of Opportunity (AOs), 44, 65-66

Anthropogenic influence, growing awareness of, 21, 86

Arabian Sea process study, 94

Atlantic Climate Change Program, 94

Atmospheric Sciences Division (ATM). See National Science Foundation

Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE), 55

Autonomous vehicles (AUVs), 58

B

Background Questionnaire, 116-119

Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 36

Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS), 51, 57

Biological Oceanography, discipline of, 28

Biotechnical Investigations--Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP), 28

Briscoe, Melbourne, 24-25

Broido, Michelle S., 27-28

Budgetary information, 10-11

Summary Budget Data, 128-136

C

Cable systems, 58

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), 44, 139

Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

Challenger expedition, 17

Chapman Conferences, 81, 87

Chemical Oceanography, discipline of, 22

Classroom programs, 60-61

Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) , 19

Climate Diagnostics and Experimental Prediction Centers, 77

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Climate forecasting, 5, 26, 49

Climate Research Committee (CRC), 84-85

Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR), 12-13, 14, 38

origin and evolution of, 86

CLIVAR--A Study of Climate Variability and Predictability, 86

CLIVAR--Decadal to Centennial (CLIVAR-DecCen), 86

CLIVAR on Anthropogenic Climate Change (CLIVAR-ACC), 86

CLIVAR on Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (CLIVAR-GOALS), 86

Coastal Ocean Processes (CoOP) program, 11-12, 14, 21, 41, 42-45, 54, 86

origin and evolution of, 86

and technology, 55-56

Coastal Ocean Program (COP). See National Ocean Service

Coastal Physical Oceanography (CoPO), 86

Coastal pollution, 7

Coastal programs, increase in, 77

Coastal Upwelling and Ecosystem Analysis (CUEA), 19, 21

Cold War, 18

Collateral performance support, 24

Collegiality. See Oceanographic research community

Committee on Climate Changes and the Ocean (CCCO), 85

Committee on Major U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs, 1, 8

approach of, 10-16

formation of, 36

task statement, 9

Committees of Visitors, 10, 15, 30, 63, 67

Communication, enhancing, 5

Conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) groups, 56

Congress, 22

Consensus building, 6

Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education (CORE), 15, 61

Contingencies, developing mechanisms to deal with, 3, 71-74

Continuing Quest: Large-scale Ocean Science for the Future, The, 35, 90

Coordination

enhancing, 5

increasing need for, 6

CO2 Survey, 28

Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), 23, 49, 73-74

data-submission policies for, 142

Creativity, 8

D

Dahlem Conferences, 81

Data assimilation and synthesis, need to enhance, 4

Data information units (DIUs), 49

Data management, 78-79

Data sets, 44

collecting, 11, 14-15, 75-76

identifying, 10-11

as legacy, 49-52

policy for, 137-143

preserving access to, 2

value of, 2

Data synthesis capabilities, need to enhance, 4

Deep-Sea Drilling Program (DSDP), 18, 60, 85

Deep-Sea Research, 53, 60

Direct performance support, 24

Dissolved oxygen sensor technology, 50

Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE). See National Science Foundation/Ocean Sciences Division

E

Earth Science Division (EAR). See National Science Foundation

Education

advances in, 2

facilities for, 59

El NiÒo, 2, 13, 23, 60, 74

El Niño and the Southern Oscillation--A Scientific Plan, 84-85

El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 54-55, 81, 93, 149

Emergence of a United Ocean Sciences, 85-86

Environmental Geochemistry and Biogeochemistry (EGB) program, 29

Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL). See Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research

EOS (scholarly journal), 14

Ewing, Maurice, 88

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

F

Facilities, 56-57

new and improved, 2-3

sharing, 6

Federal agencies, recommendations to, 4-5, 15

Federal funding for ocean science, 129-130

trends in, 31-32

Field programs, coordinating, 40-43

Fisheries, decline in, 2

Fleet Improvement Plan (FIP), 58

Flexibility, importance of maintaining, 4

Forums. See Town meetings

French-American Undersea Study (FAMOUS), 21

Future of Marine Geology and Geophysics (FUMAGES), 80

Future of Ocean Chemistry in the United States (FOCUS), 80

G

Geochemical Ocean Sections (GEOSECS), 19, 21, 87-88

Geosciences Directorate. See National Science Foundation

Global Change Research Program, 14

Global environmental issues, emphasis placed on, 5

Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS), 86

Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) program, 11-12, 14, 33-34, 39-44, 45, 54, 60, 156

data-submission policies for, 141

origin and evolution of, 86

publications from, 146

Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS), 85

Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), 75

Gordon Conferences, 81

Graduate education, 61-62

Gray, Judith, 25-27

Greenhouse gases, 29

concentration changes buffered in ocean, 2

H

Hawaii Ocean Time-Series (HOTS), 49, 52, 57, 157

Hydrowire, 14

I

Impacts, 49-71

Improved Meteorological Package (IMET), 55

Individual creativity, 8

Information

collecting, 11, 14-15

identifying, 11

sharing, 9, 37-47

Infrastructure, gaps in, 76-79

Interdisciplinary research activities, 4-6, 46, 68, 100-102

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), 70

International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 70

International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE), 18-21, 35-36, 60 , 75

programs involving, 87-89

International Geophysical Year (IGY), 18

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 14, 70, 85

International Research Institute (IRI), 77

International Southern Ocean Studies (ISOS), 21

Inter-program planning. See Strategic planning

J

Jennings, Feenan, 18

Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) program, 11-12, 14, 21, 23, 29, 37, 39-42, 44, 51-54, 60, 153-158

data-submission policies for, 141-142

origin and evolution of, 85, 94-95

publications from, 145

and technology, 56

and unexpected events, 73

Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), 61, 85, 87

Joint Scientific Committee (JSC), 85

Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR), 148

L

Lagrangian drifters and floats, 55

Land Margin Ecosystem Research (LMER), 29

Large oceanographic research programs, 1-3, 7-8, 10

Large-scale phenomena, 1, 8

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Leadership, greater involvement of, 46

Legacies, 48-70

Lessons from existing programs, 44-47, 97-100

Life in Extreme Environments (LEXEN), 29

Lindstrom, Eric, 23

Long-range science plans, 3

Long-Range Science Plans (LRPs), 45

Long-time series observations, 8, 74-75

operationalizing, 3-4

M

Major oceanographic programs (MOPs). See Oceanographic research

Management styles, 46

Manganese Nodule Project (MANOP), 19, 88

MARGINS program, 102

Marine food webs, 48

Marine Geology and Geophysics (MG&G), disciplines of, 22

Merz, Alfred, 17

Meteor expedition, 17, 31

Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (MODE), 21

eddies division (POLYMODE), 21

Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR), 73

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). See National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Modeling

coordinating with observation, 4, 93-95

need to enhance, 4

"Mountains to Monsoons" (CD-ROM), 60

Multi-channel seismic (MCS) systems, 55, 154

Multi-investigator projects, 5, 77

Multivariate time series, 74

N

National Academy of Engineering (NAE), 18, 35

National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Committee on Oceanography (NASCO) , 18, 31, 34-36

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 14, 23, 27, 154

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), 23

Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, 23

National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 149

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), 44, 139

National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) , 25-26, 138

National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), 45, 139

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 25, 156

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 14, 25-27, 40, 57, 75, 77, 94, 138, 156

National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), 4, 26, 44, 78-79, 138

National Ocean Service (NOS), 25

Coastal Ocean Program (COP), 26

National Research Council (NRC), 1, 8, 36, 62, 81, 84, 87

National Science Board, 20

National Science Foundation (NSF), 9, 19-22, 27, 73

Advisory Committee on Geosciences, 10

Atmospheric Sciences Division (ATM), 102

creating new interdisciplinary unit within, 5-6, 100-102

creation of, 18

Division of National and International Programs, 18

Earth Science Division (EAR), 102

future of ocean science funding at, 15, 63-68, 96-102

Geosciences Directorate, 29, 102

programs involving, 84-87

recommendations to, 62

National Science Foundation/Ocean Sciences Division (NSF/OCE), 1, 3-6, 22-31, 33, 41, 42, 51, 80.

See also Committees of Visitors;

Oceanographic Centers and Facilities Section;

Oceanographic Sciences Research Section

focus initiatives of, 28-29

formation of, 18

and funding, 63-68, 128, 131-132

policy statement for, 137-143

recommendations to, 8-10, 14-16, 82

role of, 96-97

National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), 45, 139

National Weather Service (NWS), 25

Newsletters, 14

expanding use of, 3, 47, 82

North Atlantic Oscillation, 81

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Institutes, 81

North Pacific Experiment (NORPAX), 19, 21

North Pacific subtropical gyre, 49

NSF/OCE. See National Science Foundation

O

OAR. See Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 10-11, 13, 18, 22, 28, 39, 44, 54, 55, 59-60, 154

data-submission policies for, 142-143

origin and evolution of, 85

publications from, 146-148

Ocean Ecology: Understanding and Vision for Research (OEUVRE), 80

Ocean Margins Program (OMP), 94

Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). See Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research

Oceanographic Centers and Facilities Section (OCFS), 22

Oceanographic research

accomplishments of, 48-70

challenges facing, 1

computers needed for, 4, 78

coordinating, 5, 37-47

developing goals for, 37-40

disciplines within, 11, 22, 28, 35, 100

evaluating, 9, 52-55, 80

future of, 4-5, 8, 90-102

gaps in, 3-4, 9, 71-82, 157-158

graduate degrees in, 133

growth in, 21-22

history of, 17-21

impact on education, 59-62

innovations in, 1

major programs in, 1-3, 7-8, 10, 17-36, 83-95, 155

publications of, 144-149

textbook references to, 150-151

Oceanographic research community, 8

collegiality within, 3, 30, 62-70

high standard of scientific achievement within, 15

perception of accomplishments, 53, 59, 152-158

Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships,36, 70

Oceanography 1960 to 1970,31

Oceans, 80-81

commercial importance, 7

environmental importance, 7

role in climate, 2

Ocean Sciences Division. See National Science Foundation

Ocean Sciences Research Section (OSRS), 22

Ocean Studies Board (OSB), 1, 35, 80, 85

Ocean Surface Topography Experiment (TOPEX), 60

Ocean Technology and Interdisciplinary Coordination, discipline of , 28

Ocean Technology and Interdisciplinary Program, 102

Office of Global Programs (OGP), 25-26

Office of Naval Research (ONR), 9, 14, 24-25, 27

programs involving, 89-90

Office of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), 25

Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL), 26

Opportunities in Ocean Sciences: Challenges on the Horizon,80

P

Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 81

Passive tracer technology, 55

Peer-review system, 5, 88

Penrose Conferences, 87

Physical Oceanography, discipline of, 28

Plenary sessions at meetings, 3

Policymakers, value of oceanographic research for, 21-22

POLYMODE, 21

Poseidon satellite radar altimetry mission, 23

Post-program support, 24

Precursor program support, 24

Process studies, combining, 74

Programs.

See also Oceanographic research

concluding, 99-100

implementing, 99

initiating, 98

length of, 92-93

managing, 100-102

size of, 92

structure and organization of, 91-95, 127

Public forums. See Town meetings

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

Q

Questionnaires, 11

Background, 116-119

Scientific Steering Committee Perspectives, 44-46, 120-125

selected responses to, 152-158

on World Wide Web, 11, 14-15, 126-127

R

Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), 58

Report of Observations and Samples Collected on Oceanographic Programs (ROSCOP), 138

Research. See Oceanographic research

Research fleet, 2, 57-59.

See also individual research vessels (R/Vs)

gaps in, 76-77

Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers,62

Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE), 11, 13-14, 21 , 39-41, 44, 54, 60, 154

origin and evolution of, 85-86

publications from, 145-146

success of, 64-66

and technology, 55-56

and unexpected events, 73

R/V Alvin,57

R/V Atlantis II, 76

R/V Ewing,154

R/V JOIDES Resolution,22, 57

R/V Revelle,76

R/V Ron Brown,40, 76

R/V Thompson,76

R/V Washington,76

S

Sampling techniques, standardizing, 56

Satellites, 58

Science and technology (S&T), 24-25, 127

Science journal, 53

Sciencenet, 14

Scientific Steering Committee Perspectives Questionnaire, 120-125

selected responses to, 152-158

Scientific Steering Committees (SSCs), 4-5, 37, 45, 57-58, 74, 87

annual meetings of chairs of, 5, 46

joint appointments to, 5

role of, 91-92

sharing among, 46-47

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), 23

Smithsonian Institution, 59

Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS), 73

Special Focus Programs, 25

Stommel, Henry, 87

Strategic planning, 59

coordinating across agencies, 3

Study approaches, 38, 49-50, 72, 84

Summary Budget Data, 128-137

Synoptic ocean observations, 21

Synthesis activities, coordinating, 43-44

T

Task groups, study approaches for, 38, 50-51, 72, 84

Technology, developments in, 2, 56-57

Telephonic Device for the Deaf (TDD) capabilities, 143

Time series. See Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study; Hawaii Ocean Time-Series; Long-time series observations

TOGA Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TOGA TAO) array, 54, 73, 75

TOPEX project, 61, 153

Poseidon satellite radar altimetry mission, 23

Town meetings, 47, 87

Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, 11-13, 21, 23, 39 -41, 49-55

Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), 23, 49, 73-74

origin and evolution of, 84-85

Program on Prediction (T-POP), 73

publications from, 148-149

and technology, 55-56

and unexpected events, 73

Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration

U

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 70

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
×

U.S. Department of Commerce, 7

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 14, 27-28

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 23, 29-30, 36, 41

U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC), 28, 60, 85

U.S. Science Support Program (USSSP), 28, 59

publications from, 146-148

University-National Oceanographic Laboratory Systems (UNOLS), 40, 43, 50, 57-58, 76, 95, 136, 157

Unknowns, investigating, 72

W

Weather forecasting, 26

Website questionnaire, 11, 126-127

selected responses to, 152-158

Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 18, 85

World Climate Research Program (WCRP), 13-14, 70, 85

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 70

World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) program, 10-14, 21, 23, 27-29, 37, 39-42, 44, 49-53, 55-56, 59-60, 158

data-submission policies for, 140-141

milestones in, 69

origin and evolution of, 85

publications from, 144-145

success of, 64-69

trends in funding, 14, 33-34, 134-135

and unexpected events, 73

World War II, 17

World Wide Web

data available on, 26, 49, 59-60

expanding use of, 3, 79, 82

questionnaire on, 11, 126-127, 152-158

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6167.
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During recent years, large-scale investigations into global climate change and other highly visible issues have taken the lion's share of declining research funds. At the same time, funding for basic research in such core disciplines as physical oceanography, biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, and marine geology has dwindled.

Global Ocean Science examines how the largest U.S. ocean research programs, such as the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), have significantly contributed to our understanding of the oceans. The book examines the impact of these programs on research, education, and collegiality within this diverse scientific community and offers recommendations to help ensure a vital future for ocean science, including:

Specific results of the programs such as data collected, conceptual breakthroughs, information published, demonstrable use of program products, incorporation of new knowledge into education, and contribution to policymaking and decisionmaking by federal agencies.

Mechanisms for efficiently identifying knowledge gaps and research questions, strategic planning of research programs, managing competitive proposals, securing needed resources, and more.

This practical book will be welcomed by ocean investigators, users of oceanographic research findings, policymakers, administrators, educators, and students.

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