National Academies Press: OpenBook

Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists (1998)

Chapter: Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2

« Previous: Appendix D Doctoral Fields Included for Data Analysis
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Appendix E
Data Tables for Chapter 2

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.1 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs, 1963–1996

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total PhDs

2095

2356

2681

2887

3151

3695

4083

4503

4980

4855

4912

4734

4847

4800

4692

4809

4948

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Men

Total

1887

2113

2401

2542

2729

3184

3517

3913

4265

4117

4046

3867

3888

3835

3769

3754

3810

%

90.1

89.7

89.6

88.0

86.6

86.2

86.1

86.9

85.6

84.8

82.4

81.7

80.2

79.9

80.3

78.1

77.0

US citizen/perm. residents

1582

1706

1888

2024

2240

2607

2946

3337

3656

3511

3457

3100

3235

3220

3151

3163

3207

%

75.5

72.4

70.4

70.1

71.1

70.6

72.2

74.1

73.4

72.3

70.4

65.5

66.7

67.1

67.2

65.8

64.8

Women

Total

208

243

280

345

422

511

566

590

715

738

866

867

959

965

923

1055

1138

%

9.9

10.3

10.4

12.0

13.4

13.8

13.9

13.1

14.4

15.2

17.6

18.3

19.8

20.1

19.7

21.9

23.0

US citizen/perm. residents

172

199

245

291

349

460

498

525

637

670

783

752

886

855

804

919

1014

%

8.2

8.4

9.1

10.1

11.1

12.4

12.2

11.7

12.8

13.8

15.9

15.9

18.3

17.8

17.1

19.1

20.5

Whites (all PhDs)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3104

3521

3838

3790

3718

3661

3798

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63.2

74.4

79.2

79.0

79.2

76.1

76.8

Whites (US and perms)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2910

3284

3628

3591

3495

3473

3639

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59.2

69.4

74.9

74.8

74.5

72.2

73.5

Minorities (US & perms)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

96

96

104

105

109

134

110

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.8

2.2

Total US & perms

1754

1905

2133

2315

2589

3067

3444

3862

4293

4181

4240

3852

4121

4075

3955

4082

4221

%

83.7

80.9

79.6

80.2

82.2

83.0

84.3

85.8

86.2

86.1

86.3

81.4

85.0

84.9

84.3

84.9

85.3

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Temp visas staying in US

103

104

125

157

174

186

191

178

147

128

137

169

175

160

166

156

147

%

4.9

4.4

4.7

5.4

5.5

5.0

4.7

4.0

3.0

2.6

2.8

3.6

3.6

3.3

3.5

3.2

3.0

Temp visas leaving US

168

229

280

262

260

301

284

324

336

345

342

367

334

318

327

325

335

%

8.0

9.7

10.4

9.1

8.3

8.1

7.0

7.2

6.7

7.1

7.0

7.8

6.9

6.6

7.0

6.8

6.8

Total temporary residents

325

415

518

525

517

586

589

606

589

574

584

663

628

603

623

602

606

%

15.5

17.6

19.3

18.2

16.4

15.9

14.4

13.5

11.8

11.8

11.9

14.0

13.0

12.6

13.3

12.5

12.2

Postdoctoral appointments

485

567

709

764

873

1095

1305

1607

1729

1720

1797

1655

1970

2046

2026

2161

2274

%

23.2

24.1

26.4

26.5

27.7

29.6

32.0

35.7

34.7

35.4

36.6

35.0

40.6

42.6

43.2

44.9

46.0

Elapsed time to degree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.0

6.0

6.2

6.3

6.3

6.2

6.4

6.5

6.5

6.6

Median age at time of degree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29.3

29.4

29.8

30.1

30.1

29.8

29.8

29.9

30.0

29.9

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total

Total PhDs

5180

5288

5362

5263

5414

5428

5360

5399

5807

5908

6211

6508

6682

6924

7182

7312

7696

171952

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Men

Total

3909

3936

3923

3737

3855

3806

3688

3649

3844

3842

4058

4183

4231

4247

4377

4425

4552

125899

%

75.5

74.4

73.2

71.0

71.2

70.1

68.8

67.6

66.2

65.0

65.3

64.3

63.3

61.3

60.9

60.5

59.1

73.2

US citizen/perm. residents

3294

3287

3243

3040

3118

2993

2841

2752

2814

2785

2866

2924

2813

2852

3142

3241

3139

99174

%

63.6

62.2

60.5

57.8

57.6

55.1

53.0

51.0

48.5

47.1

46.1

44.9

42.1

41.2

43.7

44.3

40.8

57.7

Women

Total

1271

1352

1439

1526

1559

1622

1672

1750

1963

2066

2153

2301

2420

2632

2777

2848

3113

45855

%

24.5

25.6

26.8

29.0

28.8

29.9

31.2

32.4

33.8

35.0

34.7

35.4

36.2

38.0

38.7

38.9

40.4

26.7

US citizen/perm. Residents

1137

1200

1289

1363

1374

1380

1428

1447

1603

1674

1701

1790

1872

2001

2236

2319

2440

38313

%

21.9

22.7

24.0

25.9

25.4

25.4

26.6

26.8

27.6

28.3

27.4

27.5

28.0

28.9

31.1

31.7

31.7

22.3

Whites (All PhDs)

4031

4118

4259

4155

4211

4126

3995

3897

4155

4177

4331

4391

4348

4436

4476

4410

4518

97464

%

77.8

77.9

79.4

78.9

77.8

76.0

74.5

72.2

71.6

70.7

69.7

67.5

65.1

64.1

62.3

60.3

58.7

56.7

Whites (US & perms)

3829

3929

4043

3931

3995

3888

3778

3667

3889

3911

3994

4043

4004

4070

4099

4048

4078

91216

%

73.9

74.3

75.4

74.7

73.8

71.6

70.5

67.9

67.0

66.2

64.3

62.1

59.9

58.8

57.1

55.4

53.0

53.0

Minorities (US & perms)

115

143

142

130

158

178

186

192

210

206

221

250

242

274

319

340

341

4401

%

2.2

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.9

3.3

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.8

3.6

4.0

4.4

4.6

4.4

2.6

Total US & Perms

4431

4487

4532

4403

4492

4373

4269

4199

4417

4459

4567

4714

4685

4853

5378

5561

5579

137488

%

85.5

84.9

84.5

83.7

83.0

80.6

79.6

77.8

76.1

75.5

73.5

72.4

70.1

70.1

74.9

76.1

72.5

80.0

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total

Temp visas staying in US

167

156

176

191

223

263

264

333

413

476

606

928

1132

1165

960

910

1196

12162

%

3.2

3.0

3.3

3.6

4.1

4.8

4.9

6.2

7.1

8.1

9.8

14.3

16.9

16.8

13.4

12.4

15.5

7.1

Temp visas leaving US

345

358

353

356

344

408

353

352

376

372

571

597

633

658

658

624

650

13145

%

6.7

6.8

6.6

6.8

6.4

7.5

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.3

9.2

9.2

9.5

9.5

9.2

8.5

8.4

7.6

Total temporary residents

650

663

674

719

749

865

806

887

1032

1102

1472

1683

1886

1927

1726

1633

1939

29966

%

12.5

12.5

12.6

13.7

13.8

15.9

15.0

16.4

17.8

18.7

23.7

25.9

28.2

27.8

24.0

22.3

25.5

17.4

Postdoctoral appointments

2425

2395

2474

2400

2491

2486

2588

2647

2946

2949

3162

3371

3497

3656

3731

3768

3940

75709

%

46.8

45.3

46.1

45.6

46.0

45.8

48.3

49.0

50.7

49.9

50.9

51.8

52.3

52.8

51.9

51.5

51.2

44.0

Elapsed time to degree

6.6

6.7

6.9

7.0

7.3

7.3

7.5

7.6

7.7

7.7

7.9

7.9

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

 

Median age at time of degree

29.9

29.8

30.2

30.4

30.8

31.1

31.3

31.4

31.7

31.8

32.0

32.1

32.2

32.0

32.0

32.0

32.0

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.2 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs in the Biomedical Sciences, 1963–1996

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total PhDs

1319

1510

1717

1916

2141

2501

2817

3136

3449

3402

3437

3336

3408

3483

3393

3449

3560

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Men

Total

1136

1311

1472

1614

1778

2045

2325

2622

2828

2753

2704

2578

2563

2648

2606

2542

2589

%

86.1

86.8

85.7

84.2

83.0

81.8

82.5

83.6

82.0

80.9

78.7

77.3

75.2

76.0

76.8

73.7

72.7

US citizen/perm. residents

975

1098

1206

1342

1525

1753

2027

2308

2505

2444

2415

2180

2250

2324

2298

2253

2308

%

73.9

72.7

70.2

70.0

71.2

70.1

72.0

73.6

72.6

71.8

70.3

65.3

66.0

66.7

67.7

65.3

64.8

Women

Total

183

199

245

302

363

456

492

514

621

649

733

758

845

835

787

907

971

%

13.9

13.2

14.3

15.8

17.0

18.2

17.5

16.4

18.0

19.1

21.3

22.7

24.8

24.0

23.2

26.3

27.3

US citizen/perm. residents

154

170

221

261

312

413

441

463

566

599

672

676

782

747

697

810

880

%

11.7

11.3

12.9

13.6

14.6

16.5

15.7

14.8

16.4

17.6

19.6

20.3

22.9

21.4

20.5

23.5

24.7

Whites (all PhDs)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2189

2513

2744

2786

2752

2668

2801

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63.7

75.3

80.5

80.0

81.1

77.4

78.7

Whites (US & perms)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2088

2404

2641

2677

2629

2579

2727

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60.8

72.1

77.5

76.9

77.5

74.8

76.6

Minorities (US & perms)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78

81

83

81

76

101

84

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3

2.4

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.9

2.4

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total US & perms

1129

1268

1427

1603

1837

2166

2468

2771

3071

3043

3087

2856

3032

3071

2995

3063

3188

%

85.6

84.0

83.1

83.7

85.8

86.6

87.6

88.4

89.0

89.4

89.8

85.6

89.0

88.2

88.3

88.8

89.6

Temp visas staying in US

77

80

91

119

125

131

129

128

101

94

94

121

120

130

114

121

115

%

5.8

5.3

5.3

6.2

5.8

5.2

4.6

4.1

2.9

2.8

2.7

3.6

3.5

3.7

3.4

3.5

3.2

Temp visas leaving US

76

97

123

103

95

110

129

146

123

128

124

123

114

113

121

108

110

%

5.8

6.4

7.2

5.4

4.4

4.4

4.6

4.7

3.6

3.8

3.6

3.7

3.3

3.2

3.6

3.1

3.1

Total temporary residents

181

214

273

279

269

304

309

333

284

269

269

307

285

301

297

284

272

%

13.7

14.2

15.9

14.6

12.6

12.2

11.0

10.6

8.2

7.9

7.8

9.2

8.4

8.6

8.8

8.2

7.6

Postdoctoral appointments

404

483

589

668

759

949

1121

1406

1495

1516

1552

1459

1756

1833

1826

1938

2030

%

30.6

32.0

34.3

34.9

35.5

37.9

39.8

44.8

43.3

44.6

45.2

43.7

51.5

52.6

53.8

56.2

57.0

Time to degree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.2

6.3

6.1

6.3

6.3

6.4

6.5

Median age at time of degree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29.1

29.1

29.4

29.7

29.6

29.4

29.4

29.4

29.6

29.6

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total

Total PhDs

3742

3750

3866

3693

3813

3698

3789

3915

4262

4318

4501

4865

5060

5430

5523

5728

6021

123948

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Men

Total

2677

2650

2698

2433

2531

2395

2426

2467

2637

2616

2743

2925

3030

3170

3150

3245

3383

85290

%

71.5

70.7

69.8

65.9

66.4

64.8

64.0

63.0

61.9

60.6

60.9

60.1

59.9

58.4

57.0

56.7

56.2

68.8

US citizen/perm. residents

2403

2371

2336

2110

2167

1998

1978

1941

2036

2005

2043

2152

2133

2254

2403

2493

2445

70479

%

64.2

63.2

60.4

57.1

56.8

54.0

52.2

49.6

47.8

46.4

45.4

44.2

42.2

41.5

43.5

43.5

40.6

56.9

Women

Total

1065

1100

1168

1260

1282

1303

1363

1448

1625

1702

1758

1921

2008

2220

2347

2452

2609

38491

%

28.5

29.3

30.2

34.1

33.6

35.2

36.0

37.0

38.1

39.4

39.1

39.5

39.7

40.9

42.5

42.8

43.3

31.1

US citizen/perm. residents

962

1003

1058

1138

1150

1132

1185

1216

1353

1399

1416

1521

1591

1732

1936

2049

2082

32787

%

25.7

26.7

27.4

30.8

30.2

30.6

31.3

31.1

31.7

32.4

31.5

31.3

31.4

31.9

35.1

35.8

34.6

26.5

Whites (All PhDs)

2978

3025

3113

2974

3020

2872

2886

2879

3122

3116

3216

3337

3363

3525

3496

3472

3519

72366

%

79.6

80.7

80.5

80.5

79.2

77.7

76.2

73.5

73.3

72.2

71.5

68.6

66.5

64.9

63.3

60.6

58.4

58.4

Whites (US & perms)

2879

2946

2996

2872

2914

2754

2777

2736

2979

2963

3006

3113

3158

3304

3259

3229

3231

68861

%

76.9

78.6

77.5

77.8

76.4

74.5

73.3

69.9

69.9

68.6

66.8

64.0

62.4

60.8

59.0

56.4

53.7

55.6

Minorities (US & perms)

87

104

116

104

121

126

135

150

151

161

165

199

191

220

256

277

273

3420

%

2.3

2.8

3.0

2.8

3.2

3.4

3.6

3.8

3.5

3.7

3.7

4.1

3.8

4.1

4.6

4.8

4.5

 

Total US & perms

3365

3374

3394

3248

3317

3130

3163

3157

3389

3404

3459

3673

3724

3986

4339

4543

4527

103267

%

89.9

90.0

87.8

88.0

87.0

84.6

83.5

80.6

79.5

78.8

76.8

75.5

73.6

73.4

78.6

79.3

75.2

83.3

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total

Temp vasas staying in US

130

112

130

155

164

205

193

278

327

368

473

732

893

944

743

704

949

9390

%

3.5

3.0

3.4

4.2

4.3

5.5

5.1

7.1

7.7

8.5

10.5

15.0

17.6

17.4

13.5

12.3

15.8

7.6

Temp vasas leaving US

108

97

146

100

108

122

126

128

150

155

267

281

287

310

303

313

334

5278

%

2.9

2.6

3.8

2.7

2.8

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.5

3.6

5.9

5.8

5.7

5.7

5.5

5.5

5.5

4.3

Total temporary residents

299

278

341

335

355

417

417

523

596

662

922

1108

1252

1317

1118

1084

1341

17095

%

8.0

7.4

8.8

9.1

9.3

11.3

11.0

13.4

14.0

15.3

20.5

22.8

24.7

24.3

20.2

18.9

22.3

13.8

Postdoctoral appointments

2159

2118

2169

2098

2125

2095

2190

2255

2498

2502

2665

2872

3009

3204

3228

3319

3454

65744

%

57.7

56.5

56.1

56.8

55.7

56.7

57.8

57.6

58.6

57.9

59.2

59.0

59.5

59.0

58.4

57.9

57.4

53.0

Time to degree

6.5

6.6

6.9

7.0

7.3

7.3

7.3

7.5

7.6

7.5

7.7

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.9

7.9

7.8

 

Median age at time of degree

29.4

29.5

29.8

30.0

30.5

30.7

30.9

30.8

31.2

31.3

31.4

31.4

31.6

31.4

31.4

31.5

31.5

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.3 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs in Nonbiomedical Life Sciences, 1963–1996

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total PhDs

776

846

964

971

1010

1194

1266

1367

1531

1453

1475

1398

1439

1317

1299

1360

1388

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Men

Total

751

802

929

928

951

1139

1192

1291

1437

1364

1342

1289

1325

1187

1163

1212

1221

%

96.8

94.8

96.4

95.6

94.2

95.4

94.2

94.4

93.9

93.9

91.0

92.2

92.1

90.1

89.5

89.1

88.0

US citizen/perm. residents

607

608

682

682

715

854

919

1029

1151

1067

1042

920

985

896

853

910

899

%

78.2

71.9

70.7

70.2

70.8

71.5

72.6

75.3

75.2

73.4

70.6

65.8

68.5

68.0

65.7

66.9

64.8

Women

Total

25

44

35

43

59

55

74

76

94

89

133

109

114

130

136

148

167

%

3.2

5.2

3.6

4.4

5.8

4.6

5.8

5.6

6.1

6.1

9.0

7.8

7.9

9.9

10.5

10.9

12.0

US citizen/prm. residents

18

29

24

30

37

47

57

62

71

71

111

76

104

108

107

109

134

%

2.3

3.4

2.5

3.1

3.7

3.9

4.5

4.5

4.6

4.9

7.5

5.4

7.2

8.2

8.2

8.0

9.7

Whites (all PhDs)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

915

1008

1094

1004

966

993

997

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62.0

72.1

76.0

76.2

74.4

73.0

71.8

Whites (US & perms)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

822

880

987

914

866

894

912

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

55.7

62.9

68.6

69.4

66.7

65.7

65.7

Minorities (US & perms)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

15

21

24

33

33

26

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2

1.1

1.5

1.8

2.5

2.4

1.9

Total US & perms

625

637

706

712

752

901

976

1091

1222

1138

1153

996

1089

1004

960

1019

1033

%

80.5

75.3

73.2

73.3

74.5

75.5

77.1

79.8

79.8

78.3

78.2

71.2

75.7

76.2

73.9

74.9

74.4

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Temp visas staying in US

26

24

34

38

49

55

62

50

46

34

43

48

55

30

52

35

32

%

3.4

2.8

3.5

3.9

4.9

4.6

4.9

3.7

3.0

2.3

2.9

3.4

3.8

2.3

4.0

2.6

2.3

Temp visas leaving US

92

132

157

159

165

191

155

178

213

217

218

244

220

205

206

217

225

%

11.9

15.6

16.3

16.4

16.3

16.0

12.2

13.0

13.9

14.9

14.8

17.5

15.3

15.6

15.9

16.0

16.2

Total temporary residents

144

201

245

246

248

282

280

273

305

305

315

356

343

302

326

318

334

%

18.6

23.8

25.4

25.3

24.6

23.6

22.1

20.0

19.9

21.0

21.4

25.5

23.8

22.9

25.1

23.4

24.1

Postdoctoral appointments

81

84

120

96

114

146

184

201

234

204

245

196

214

213

200

223

244

%

10.4

9.9

12.4

9.9

11.3

12.2

14.5

14.7

15.3

14.0

16.6

14.0

14.9

16.2

15.4

16.4

17.6

Time to degree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.0

6.1

6.3

6.5

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.9

6.9

6.8

Median age at time of degree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29.9

30.4

30.7

31.1

31.0

31.0

31.0

31.0

31.1

31.0

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total

Total PhDs

1438

1538

1496

1570

1601

1730

1571

1484

1545

1590

1710

1643

1622

1494

1659

1584

1675

48004

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Men

Total

1232

1286

1225

1304

1324

1411

1262

1182

1207

1226

1315

1258

1201

1077

1227

1180

1169

40609

%

85.7

83.6

81.9

83.1

82.7

81.6

80.3

79.6

78.1

77.1

76.9

76.6

74.0

72.1

74.0

74.5

69.8

84.6

US citizen/perm. residents

891

916

907

930

951

995

863

811

778

780

823

772

680

598

739

748

694

28695

%

62.0

59.6

60.6

59.2

59.4

57.5

54.9

54.6

50.4

49.1

48.1

47.0

41.9

40.0

44.5

47.2

41.4

59.8

Women

Total

206

252

271

266

277

319

309

302

338

364

395

380

412

412

430

396

504

7364

%

14.3

16.4

18.1

16.9

17.3

18.4

19.7

20.4

21.9

22.9

23.1

23.1

25.4

27.6

25.9

25.0

30.1

15.3

US citizen/perm. residents

175

197

231

225

224

248

243

231

250

275

285

269

281

269

300

270

358

5526

%

12.2

12.8

15.4

14.3

14.0

14.3

15.5

15.6

16.2

17.3

16.7

16.4

17.3

18.0

18.1

17.0

21.4

11.5

Whites (all PhDs)

1053

1093

1146

1181

1191

1254

1109

1018

1033

1061

1115

1054

985

911

980

938

999

25098

%

73.2

71.1

76.6

75.2

74.4

72.5

70.6

68.6

66.9

66.7

65.2

64.2

60.7

61.0

59.1

59.2

59.6

52.3

Whites (US & perms)

950

983

1047

1059

1081

1134

1001

931

910

948

988

930

846

766

840

819

847

22355

%

66.1

63.9

70.0

67.5

67.5

65.5

63.7

62.7

58.9

59.6

57.8

56.6

52.2

51.3

50.6

51.7

50.6

46.6

Minorities (US & perms)

28

39

26

26

37

52

51

42

59

45

56

51

51

54

63

63

68

981

%

1.9

2.5

1.7

1.7

2.3

3.0

3.2

2.8

3.8

2.8

3.3

3.1

3.1

3.6

3.8

4.0

4.1

2.0

Total US & perms

1066

1113

1138

1155

1175

1243

1106

1042

1028

1055

1108

1041

961

867

1039

1018

1052

34221

%

74.1

72.4

76.1

73.6

73.4

71.8

70.4

70.2

66.5

66.4

64.8

63.4

59.2

58.0

62.6

64.3

62.8

71.3

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total

Temp visas staying in US

37

44

46

36

59

58

71

55

86

108

133

196

239

221

217

206

247

2772

%

2.6

2.9

3.1

2.3

3.7

3.4

4.5

3.7

5.6

6.8

7.8

11.9

14.7

14.8

13.1

13.0

14.7

5.8

Temp visas leaving US

237

261

207

256

236

286

227

224

226

217

304

316

346

348

355

311

316

7867

%

16.5

17.0

13.8

16.3

14.7

16.5

14.4

15.1

14.6

13.6

17.8

19.2

21.3

23.3

21.4

19.6

18.9

16.4

Total temporary residents

351

385

333

384

394

448

389

364

436

440

550

575

634

610

608

549

598

12871

%

24.4

25.0

22.3

24.5

24.6

25.9

24.8

24.5

28.2

27.7

32.2

35.0

39.1

40.8

36.6

34.7

35.7

26.8

Postdoctoral appointments

266

277

305

302

366

391

398

392

447

447

497

499

488

452

503

449

486

9964

%

18.5

18.0

20.4

19.2

22.9

22.6

25.3

26.4

28.9

28.1

29.1

30.4

30.1

30.3

30.3

28.3

29.0

20.8

Time to degree

6.9

6.9

7.0

7.0

7.3

7.3

7.6

7.7

8.0

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.4

8.6

 

Median age at time of degree

31.1

31.0

31.0

31.3

31.6

31.9

32.3

32.7

32.9

33.3

33.6

33.8

34.0

34.0

34.3

34.2

34.1

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.4 Demographic and Other US Life-Science PhDs by Fine Field in 10- or 11-Year Cohorts

 

FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients

FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients

FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients

 

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs**

Nonbiomedical doctoral fields

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agronomy and crop science

1437

13

43

20

7.9

1475

7

39

12

6.6

1636

1

33

9

6.2

Animal breeding and genetics

227

15

41

24

7.1

81

21

31

14

6.5

 

 

 

 

 

Animal husbandry

 

 

 

 

 

155

5

19

16

6.3

865

1

22

12

6.0

Animal nutrition

634

19

27

22

7.0

1039

10

28

13

6.3

448

6

27

13

6.2

Animal science, other

962

22

31

31

7.2

277

13

31

21

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

Botany

1201

38

20

40

8.6

1428

27

9

28

7.2

1784

17

10

17

6.5

Conservation/renewable natural research

134

19

33

13

9.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dairy science

126

14

33

27

7.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fish and wildlife

 

 

 

 

 

452

7

10

9

7.3

437

2

7

7

6.5

Fish science and management

427

16

27

18

9.2

117

14

17

10

7.6

 

 

 

 

 

Food distribution

1

0

0

0

6.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food engineering

92

13

59

22

8.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food science

269

34

43

19

8.0

1128

25

37

12

6.9

538

13

29

14

6.6

Food science, other

1265

39

51

20

8.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forest biology

197

24

27

30

8.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forest engineering

17

6

47

12

10.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forest management

167

12

35

13

8.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forestry and related science, other

502

17

34

14

9.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forestry science

203

12

23

20

7.7

862

6

21

9

7.2

730

0

19

6

6.6

Horticulture science

778

25

38

19

8.0

704

15

31

8

6.6

665

3

32

7

6.2

Plant breeding and genetics

817

18

41

25

7.6

237

15

27

17

6.2

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients

FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients

FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients

 

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs**

Plant pathology

742

29

44

36

8.0

911

17

29

23

6.5

987

4

31

19

6.3

Plant protection and pest management

13

8

31

23

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plant science, other

252

21

39

29

8.0

57

11

28

12

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

Poultry science

133

21

39

20

7.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soil chemistry/microbiology

239

22

36

30

8.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soil science

195

9

36

24

8.0

842

7

44

15

7.2

512

2

43

16

6.7

Soil science, other

647

14

44

25

8.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wildlife

46

7

9

11

7.3

100

5

13

9

7.5

 

 

 

 

 

Wildlife/range management

480

21

20

18

9.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood sci and pulp/paper technology

166

13

55

15

8.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agricultural sciences, general

67

19

57

18

8.8

54

11

56

6

8.5

60

2

47

7

6.8

Agricultural sciences, other

268

18

40

16

8.2

754

8

33

10

7.0

852

3

29

8

6.2

Biomedical doctoral fields

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatomy

821

40

14

62

8.0

1355

31

5

62

6.8

1163

21

5

36

6.0

Bacteriology

143

40

16

62

8.0

39

31

8

67

6.8

 

 

 

 

 

Biochemistry

7856

38

22

72

7.0

6237

27

9

72

6.3

5772

20

12

62

5.8

Biomedical sciences

233

41

18

59

8.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biometrics & biostatistics

623

39

27

13

8.6

470

29

14

8

7.3

308

19

16

7

6.7

Biophysics

1193

25

26

71

7.4

1052

15

11

65

6.7

1062

10

10

56

6.0

Biotechnology research

32

28

28

28

7.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cell biology

1927

45

14

75

7.6

628

35

5

72

7.0

414

37

7

49

6.0

Developmental Biology/embryology

418

49

16

82

7.6

152

39

5

76

6.5

340

32

4

51

5.9

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients

FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients

FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients

 

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs n  

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs**

Ecology

2018

31

14

37

9.0

1771

20

6

28

7.3

1047

9

8

16

6.1

Endocrinology

248

46

23

65

8.0

75

39

11

73

7.0

 

 

 

 

 

Entomology

1483

21

25

32

8.5

1550

13

20

22

7.1

1726

6

18

16

6.3

Genetics, animal & plant

 

 

 

 

 

1041

35

12

59

6.5

1409

21

22

39

6.0

Genetics, human & animal

1678

46

16

71

7.5

282

46

6

67

7.3

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrobiology

 

 

 

 

 

40

15

0

25

7.0

161

5

4

17

6.7

Immunology

1882

45

13

74

7.5

1257

37

7

73

6.5

208

27

7

62

6.0

Microbiology

4110

39

20

67

7.7

944

37

10

64

7.0

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiology & bacteriology

 

 

 

 

 

2416

29

8

62

6.3

3695

22

9

46

6.1

Molecular biology

5247

40

20

78

7.5

1961

33

8

79

6.5

864

29

8

74

5.7

Neurosciences

2558

39

13

78

7.5

552

34

6

79

6.9

 

 

 

 

 

Nutritional sciences

1433

70

23

33

8.5

1006

61

16

30

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

Parasitology

206

36

22

50

8.4

184

16

16

39

7.5

63

19

10

37

7.1

Pathology, human & animal

1274

36

18

49

8.3

974

26

11

42

7.0

605

8

13

25

6.9

Pharmacology, human & animal

2889

39

16

71

7.0

2344

24

7

67

6.2

1537

14

9

50

6.0

Physiology, human & animal

2898

36

18

63

7.8

2939

23

7

66

6.6

3087

16

8

46

6.0

Plant genetics

324

28

31

65

7.6

70

24

24

50

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

Plant pathology

383

30

37

50

8.0

97

22

22

36

6.3

 

 

 

 

 

Plant Physiology

665

32

28

53

8.1

576

23

17

49

6.8

817

13

22

31

6.2

Toxicology

1204

36

12

45

7.9

256

25

5

48

7.2

 

 

 

 

 

Zoology

1450

30

13

40

8.7

2112

23

4

34

7.5

3008

16

5

26

6.3

Biological sciences, general

3087

39

20

50

8.0

1908

31

8

43

7.0

1183

24

8

31

6.0

Biological sciences, other

1560

37

17

49

8.3

1416

31

7

57

6.9

1405

29

11

35

6.2

Environmental health

473

37

22

20

8.9

356

24

10

19

7.6

71

17

0

13

6.5

Epidemiology

1285

59

17

20

9.3

255

59

14

15

8.3

 

 

 

 

 

Pharmacy

1417

34

39

22

7.8

762

19

19

17

7.0

559

8

18

13

6.2

Public health

1464

63

18

11

9.8

219

59

9

5

8.8

 

 

 

 

 

Public health/epidemiology

 

 

 

 

 

887

44

10

9

7.8

792

25

10

4

7.3

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients

FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients

FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients

 

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs**

Health science, general

317

43

15

30

8.1

167

30

7

44

7.0

125

18

7

31

6.0

Health sciences, other

1084

46

17

16

9.1

909

31

10

28

7.4

701

31

9

23

6.9

Bioengineering and biomedical

1549

21

27

36

7.3

700

6

13

31

7.0

439

2

8

29

6.3

Pharmaceutical chemistry

853

32

28

2

7.4

552

18

16

41

6.5

572

8

17

30

6.5

* Total for 1973–75. Data on race/ethnicity is available only for 1973 to date. Percentages calculated with base years 1973 to 1975.

** Median computed only for period 1970 to 1975

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.5 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs by Citizenship, 1963–1996

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

Total PhDs

2095

2356

2681

2887

3151

3695

4083

4503

4980

4855

4912

4734

4847

4800

4692

4809

4948

5180

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

US citizen & prm. residents

1754

1905

2133

2315

2589

3067

3444

3862

4293

4181

4240

3852

4121

4075

3955

4082

4221

4431

%

83.7

80.9

79.6

80.2

82.2

83.0

84.3

85.8

86.2

86.1

86.3

81.4

85.0

84.9

84.3

84.9

85.3

85.5

US citizens—native born

1692

1824

2039

2213

2392

2783

3152

3504

3854

3705

3746

3405

3673

3684

3593

3676

3872

4054

%

80.8

77.4

76.1

76.7

75.9

75.3

77.2

77.8

77.4

76.3

76.3

71.9

75.8

76.8

76.6

76.4

78.3

78.3

US citizen—naturalized

 

 

 

4

64

100

92

109

118

113

128

117

136

142

122

175

141

150

%

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

2.0

2.7

2.3

2.4

2.4

2.3

2.6

2.5

2.8

3.0

2.6

3.6

2.8

2.9

US citizens

1692

1824

2039

2217

2456

2883

3244

3613

3972

3818

3874

3522

3809

3826

3715

3851

4013

4204

%

80.8

77.4

76.1

76.8

77.9

78.0

79.5

80.2

79.8

78.6

78.9

74.4

78.6

79.7

79.2

80.1

81.1

81.2

Permanent residents

62

81

94

98

133

184

200

249

321

363

366

330

312

249

240

231

208

227

%

3.0

3.4

3.5

3.4

4.2

5.0

4.9

5.5

6.4

7.5

7.5

7.0

6.4

5.2

5.1

4.8

4.2

4.4

Temp visas staying in US

103

104

125

157

174

186

191

178

147

128

137

169

175

160

166

156

147

167

%

4.9

4.4

4.7

5.4

5.5

5.0

4.7

4.0

3.0

2.6

2.8

3.6

3.6

3.3

3.5

3.2

3.0

3.2

Temp visas leaving US

168

229

280

262

260

301

284

324

336

345

342

367

334

318

327

325

335

345

%

8.0

9.7

10.4

9.1

8.3

8.1

7.0

7.2

6.7

7.1

7.0

7.8

6.9

6.6

7.0

6.8

6.8

6.7

Total temporary residents

325

415

518

525

517

586

589

606

589

574

584

663

628

603

623

602

606

650

%

15.5

17.6

19.3

18.2

16.4

15.9

14.4

13.5

11.8

11.8

11.9

14.0

13.0

12.6

13.3

12.5

12.2

12.5

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

Non responses

16

36

30

47

45

42

50

35

98

100

88

219

98

122

114

125

121

99

%

0.8

1.5

1.1

1.6

1.4

1.1

1.2

0.8

2.0

2.1

1.8

4.6

2.0

2.5

2.4

2.6

2.4

1.9

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total PhDs

5288

5362

5263

5414

5428

5360

5399

5807

5908

6211

6508

6682

6924

7182

7312

7696

%

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

US citizen & perm. residents

4487

4532

4403

4492

4373

4269

4199

4417

4459

4567

4714

4685

4853

5378

5561

5579

%

84.9

84.5

83.7

83.0

80.6

79.6

77.8

76.1

75.5

73.5

72.4

70.1

70.1

74.9

76.1

72.5

US citizens—native born

4142

4188

4076

4128

4034

3894

3790

3953

4042

4087

4133

4113

4202

4247

4266

4285

%

78.3

78.1

77.4

76.2

74.3

72.6

70.2

68.1

68.4

65.8

63.5

61.6

60.7

59.1

58.3

55.7

US citizen—naturalized

140

164

143

174

150

174

169

160

162

194

250

215

236

260

240

286

%

2.6

3.1

2.7

3.2

2.8

3.2

3.1

2.8

2.7

3.1

3.8

3.2

3.4

3.6

3.3

3.7

US citizens

4282

4352

4219

4302

4184

4068

3959

4113

4204

4281

4383

4328

4438

4507

4506

4571

%

81.0

81.2

80.2

79.5

77.1

75.9

73.3

70.8

71.2

68.9

67.3

64.8

64.1

62.8

61.6

59.4

Permanent residents

205

180

184

190

189

201

240

304

255

286

331

357

415

871

1055

1008

%

3.9

3.4

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.8

4.4

5.2

4.3

4.6

5.1

5.3

6.0

12.1

14.4

13.1

Temp visas staying in US

156

176

191

223

263

264

333

413

476

606

928

1132

1165

960

910

1196

%

3.0

3.3

3.6

4.1

4.8

4.9

6.2

7.1

8.1

9.8

14.3

16.9

16.8

13.4

12.4

15.5

Temp visas leaving US

358

353

356

344

408

353

352

376

372

571

597

633

658

658

624

650

%

6.8

6.6

6.8

6.4

7.5

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.3

9.2

9.2

9.5

9.5

9.2

8.5

8.4

Total temporary residents

663

674

719

749

865

806

887

1032

1102

1472

1683

1886

1927

1726

1633

1939

%

12.5

12.6

13.7

13.8

15.9

15.0

16.4

17.8

18.7

23.7

25.9

28.2

27.8

24.0

22.3

25.2

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

 

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Non responses

138

156

141

173

190

285

313

358

347

172

111

111

144

78

118

178

%

2.6

2.9

2.7

3.2

3.5

5.3

5.8

6.2

5.9

2.8

1.7

1.7

2.1

1.1

1.6

2.3

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.7 Number of US Life-Science Postdoctoral Fellows by Field and Citizenship, 1972–19951

Year

Biological

Agricultural

Total

Citizen

Noncitizen

1972

4845

303

5148

 

 

1973

5237

242

5479

 

 

1974

5231

272

5503

 

 

1975

5785

273

6058

 

 

1976

6282

349

6631

4831

1800

1977

6588

297

6885

5104

1781

1978

6848

227

7075

5134

1941

1979

 

 

 

 

 

1980

7067

258

7325

5134

2191

1981

7668

292

7960

5477

2483

1982

7705

293

7998

5500

2498

1983

8324

308

8632

6000

2632

1984

8677

375

9052

6167

2885

1985

9112

371

9483

6167

3316

1986

9683

412

10095

6332

3763

1987

10358

442

10800

6517

4283

1988

10667

464

11131

6411

4720

1989

11425

517

11942

6648

5294

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.8 US Life-Science PhDs Who Took Postdoctoral Training Time Spent in Postdoctoral Positions, as Reported in 1995.

Year of PhD >>

1991–92

1989–90

1987–88

1985–86

1983–84

1981–82

1979–80

1977–78

1975–76

1973–74

1971–72

1969–70

Total PhDs who took postdoctoral

training

4632

4502

4553

4410

4015

4024

4056

3552

3165

2670

2596

2158

less than 2 years

1332

1096

1291

1252

1010

1057

1132

1275

1235

1022

1059

1076

% less than 2 years

29

24

28

28

25

26

28

36

39

38

41

50

2–4 years

3300

2022

1609

1698

1560

1666

1687

1479

1320

1144

1035

671

% 2–4 years

71

45

35

39

39

41

42

42

42

43

40

31

greater than 4 years

NA

1384

1653

1460

1445

1301

1237

798

610

504

502

411

% greater than 4 years

NA

31

36

33

36

32

30

22

19

19

19

19

Table E.9 Demographic and Other Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs, by 10-Year Cohort

 

FY 86-96 Doctorate Recipients

FY 76-85 Doctorate Recipients

FY 66-75 Doctorate Recipients

 

Total PhDs n

Women %

Temp Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs n

Women %

Temp Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total PhDs n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median time to Degree yrs**

All doctorates

70989

36

23

51

7.9

51184

25

13

45

6.8

42647

15

14

34

6.2

Women

25695

100

18

53

7.9

12850

100

9

51

7.0

6579

100

9

41

6.2

Men

45096

0

25

50

7.8

38334

0

15

43

6.8

36068

0

15

33

6.1

Minorities (US cit or perm.)

2781

40

0

47

8.0

1324

35

0

33

7.2

296*

23

0

28

7.2

Whites (US cit or perm.)

43581

39

0

55

7.7

37813

26

0

50

6.6

9818*

20

0

40

6.1

US citizens & perm research

52681

39

0

55

7.8

43051

26

0

49

6.8

35964

16

0

36

6.0

Temporary research

16093

28

0

46

8.0

6754

17

100

28

7.3

5861

10

100

28

6.7

Top 26 institutions

19436

40

16

59

7.7

14187

30

10

54

6.7

11603

20

14

43

6.0

Other institutions

51553

35

25

48

7.9

36997

23

15

42

6.9

31044

14

14

31

6.2

* Total for 1973-1975. Data on race/ethnicity is available only for 1973 to date. Percentage calculated with base years 1973 to 1975.

** Median computed only for period 1970 to 1975.

Source: Survey of Earned Doctorates 1920-1996.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Table E.10 Demographic and Other Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs, by 10-Year Cohort.

 

FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients

FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients

FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients

 

Total Ph.D.s

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total Ph.D.s

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs

Total Ph.D.s

n

Women %

Temp. Res. %

Planning Postdoc %

Median Time to Degree yrs**

All doctorates

70989

36

23

51

7.9

51184

25

13

45

6.8

42647

15

14

34

6.2

Women

25695

100

18

53

7.9

12850

100

9

51

7.0

6579

100

9

41

6.2

Men

45096

0

25

50

7.8

38334

0

15

43

6.8

36068

0

15

33

6.1

Minorities (US cit or perm.)

2781

40

0

47

8.0

1324

35

0

33

7.2

296*

23

0

28

7.2

Whites (US cit or perm.)

43581

39

0

55

7.7

37813

26

0

50

6.6

9818*

20

0

40

6.1

US citizens & perm research

52681

39

0

55

7.8

43051

26

0

49

6.8

35964

16

0

36

6.0

Temporary research

16093

28

0

46

8.0

6754

17

100

28

7.3

5861

10

100

28

6.7

Top 26 institutions

19436

40

16

59

7.7

14187

30

10

54

6.7

11603

20

14

43

6.0

Other institutions

51553

35

25

48

7.9

36997

23

15

42

6.9

31044

14

14

31

6.2

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Appendix F
Data Tables for Chapter 3

Tables 1-7 in this appendix show the fraction (labeled with an ''F") and number (labeled with an "N") of graduates in a particular cohort (for example, 1–2 years after receipt of the PhD) who hold various types of positions. The matrix example on the following page illustrates how these career-progress matrices are to be read. Note that tables include only persons who at the time of doctorate were US citizens or permanent residents.

Table F.8 shows number of life-science

PhDs by sector.

Table F.1 Career Progression of Life-Science

PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents.

Table F.2 Career Progression of Life-Science

PhDs—Female US Citizens and Permanent Residents.

Table F.3 Career Progression of Life-Science

PhDs—Male US Citizens and Permanent Residents.

Table F.4 Career Progression of Life-Science

PhDs from 26 High-Quality Institutions—US Citizens and Permanent Residents.

Table F.5 Career Progression of Life-Science

PhDs from Other Institutions—US Citizens and Permanent Residents.

Table F.6 Career Progression of Nonbiomedical Life-Science

PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents.

Table F.7 Career Progression of Biomedical Life-Science

PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents

Table F.8 Number of Citizen and Permanent Resident Life-Science

PhDs by Sector, 1973–1995

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×

Format for Tables F.1F.7

Career Progression Matrix for Life-Science PhDs

(US Citizens and Permanent Residents with PhDs from US Universities)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 105
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 106
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 108
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 110
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 113
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 114
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 115
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 116
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 117
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 118
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 125
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 126
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6244.
×
Page 130
Next: Appendix F Data Tables for Chapter 3 »
Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $57.00 Buy Ebook | $45.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

In each year between 1994 and 1996, more than 7,000 individuals received a Ph.D. in life-science, and the number of graduates is rising sharply. If present trends continue, about half of those graduates will have found permanent positions as independent researchers within ten years after graduation. These statistics--and the labor market situation they reflect--can be viewed either positively or negatively depending on whether one is a young scientist seeking a career or an established investigator whose productivity depends on the labor provided by an abundant number of graduate students.

This book examines the data concerning the production of doctorates in life-science and the changes in the kinds of positions graduates have obtained. It discusses the impact of those changes and suggests ways to deal with the challenges of supply versus demand for life-science Ph.D. graduates. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists will serve as an information resource for young scientists deciding on career paths and as a basis for discussion by educators and policymakers as they examine the current system of education linked to research and decide if changes in that system are needed.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!