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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Dietary Reference Intakes

Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds

A Report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and Its Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds

Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1998

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constiution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under both the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282-96-0033; U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command; Health Canada; the Institute of Medicine; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors’ Fund. Contributors to the Fund include Roche Vitamins, Inc.; Mead Johnson Nutrition Group; Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc.; Kemin Foods, Inc.; M&M Mars; Weider Nutrition Group; and the Natural Source Vitamin E Association. The opinions or conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the funders.

International Standard Book No. 0-309-06187-3

The final version of Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds will be available for sale from the
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For more information about the Institute of Medicine or the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM home page at www2.nas.edu/iom.

Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×

PANEL ON DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

NORMAN I. KRINSKY (Chair),

Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University

GARY R. BEECHER,

U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland

RAYMOND F. BURK,

Nutrition Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

ALVIN C. CHAN,

Department of Biochemistry, University of Ottawa, Canada

JOHN W. ERDMAN, Jr.,

Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ROBERT A. JACOB,

U.S. Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Presidio of San Francisco

ISHWARLAL JIALAL,

Department of Pathology and Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

JAMES R. MARSHALL,

Cancer Prevention and Control, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona

SUSAN TAYLOR MAYNE,

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine

ROSS L. PRENTICE,*

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle

DANIEL STEINBERG,* -

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California at San Diego

MARET G. TRABER,

Department of Nutrition and Food Management, and the Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University

Food and Nutrition Board Liaison

CHARLES H. HENNEKENS,

Department of Medicine, Ambulatory Care, and Prevention, and Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School

U.S. Government Liaison

LTC KARL FRIEDL,

U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, Maryland

Staff

SANDRA A. SCHLICKER, Study Director

MARY I. POOS, Senior Staff Officer

ELISABETH A. REESE, Research Associate

ALICE L. KULIK, Research Associate

MICHELE R. RAMSEY, Project Assistant

*  

Member, Institute of Medicine.

-  

Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×

STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

VERNON R. YOUNG (Chair),*,-

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (Vice-Chair),

Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JANET C. KING (Vice-Chair),*

University of California at Berkeley and U.S. Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Presidio of San Francisco

LINDSAY H. ALLEN,

Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis

STEPHANIE A. ATKINSON,

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Canada

JOHANNA T. DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center, Boston, and Tufts University

JOHN D. FERNSTROM,

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

SCOTT M. GRUNDY,*

Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

CHARLES H. HENNEKENS,

Department of Medicine, Ambulatory Care, and Prevention and Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School

SANFORD A. MILLER,

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

U.S. Government Liaison

LINDA MEYERS,

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

Canadian Government Liaison

PETER W.F. FISCHER,

Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa

Staff

ALLISON A. YATES, Study Director

SANDRA SCHLICKER, Senior Program Officer

MARY POOS, Senior Program Officer

*  

Member, Institute of Medicine.

-  

Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×

ELISABETH A. REESE, Research Associate

ALICE L. KULIK, Research Associate

MICHELE RAMSEY, Project Assistant

GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD

CUTBERTO GARZA (Chair),

Division of Nutrition, Cornell University

JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (Vice-Chair),

Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

LINDSAY H. ALLEN,

Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis

BENJAMIN CABALLERO,

Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health

ROBERT J. COUSINS,

Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida

FERGUS M. CLYDESDALE,

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts at Amherst

JOHANNA T. DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center, Boston, and Tufts University

SCOTT M. GRUNDY,*

Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

CHARLES H. HENNEKENS,

Department of Medicine, Ambulatory Care, and Prevention, and Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School

SANFORD A. MILLER,

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

ROSS L. PRENTICE,*

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle

A. CATHARINE ROSS,

Department of Nutrition, Pennsylvania State University

ROBERT E. SMITH,

R.E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont

VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS,

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

VERNON R. YOUNG,*,-

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ex-Officio Member

STEVE L. TAYLOR,

Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska at Lincoln

*  

Member, Institute of Medicine.

-  

Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×

Staff

ALLISON A. YATES, Director

GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

CARLOS GABRIEL, Financial Associate

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×

REVIEWERS

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the Institute of Medicine in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the final report is the responsibility of the Institute of Medicine and the study committee and not the responsibility of the reviewers. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee wishes to thank the following individuals, who are neither officials nor employees of the Institute of Medicine, for their participation in the review of this report:

BALZ FREI, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University;

LESTER PACKER, University of California at Berkeley;

WILLIAM A. PRYOR, Biodynamics Institute, Louisiana State University;

CATHERINE RICE-EVANS, King's College, UMDS Guy's Hospital, London, England;

HELMUT SIES, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf, Germany;

JUDITH STERN, * University of California at Davis; and

ROGER A. SUNDE, University of Missouri-Columbia.

While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the Institute of Medicine.

*  

Member, Institute of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6252.
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There has been intense interest recently among the public and the media in the possibility that increased intakes of ''dietary antioxidants'' may protect against chronic disease. Many research programs are underway in this area. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of both cancer and cardiovascular disease, and it has been hypothesized that this is due in part to the presence of antioxidant compounds in fruits and vegetables. As a result, these compounds have been considered together by many people and loosely termed dietary antioxidants.

Closer examination, however, reveals that compounds typically grouped together as dietary antioxidants can differ quite considerably from one another, both in terms of their chemical behavior and in terms of their biological properties. This report from the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board provides a proposed definition of dietary antioxidants so as to characterize the biological properties of these compounds.

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