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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6313.
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Index A Activity-based costing, 168- 169 Antitrust law, 29-30 early computer industry, 230-231 semiconductor industry, 278-279 Apparel industry current performance, 330 economies of scale/scope, 329 fashion trend effects, 341, 343, 354-355 firm size related to economic performance, 348-349, 350-352, 353 firm size trends, 332, 342-343, 353-356, 359-360 flexible production methods, 342-344, 353 future prospects, 330, 336, 352-356, 359 360 globalization effects, 335-336, 358-359 historical economic performance, 329-336 import products, 335, 342, 346, 349 information management/technology, 335, 343, 344, 352-353 interfirm relations, 353 international specialization, 354 jobbers, 333-334, 356-357 labor unions, 358 lean retailing, 343, 344, 348-350, 352, 355, 359-360 market share distribution, 330, 332, 335, 342 399 need for intermediation, 357-358, 360 obstacles to restructuring, 356-357 product line productivity, 345, 349-350, 351 -352 productivity factors, 345, 346-349 productivity growth, 329, 345-346, 349-350 products, 330 progressive bundle system production, 337- 342 rapid replenishment, 343-345, 352-353, 354-356 retail sales, 341-343, 344-345, 354-355 short-cycle products, 343 structure, 3, 332-334, 350-351 technological innovation, 334-335 trade policy, 335-336, 349, 359 workforce characteristics, 330-332, 334, 336, 354 ATM machines, 188- 190 Automotive industry, 94 powder metallurgy, 105, 106, 107, 110 steel purchases, 82-83 B Banks/banking. See Financial services; Retail banking Bar coding, 142 electronic scanning, 159

400 Basic research biotechnology, 380, 395 chemicals industry, 69-72 hard disk drive industry, 314-317 pharmaceutical industry, 369-371 powder metallurgy industry, 118-119 semiconductor industry, 273-275 steel industry, 89-90, 92 Bayh-Dole Patent and Trademark Amendments Act of 1980, 8, 389, 391 Biotechnology basic research, 380, 395 capital supply in development of, 389-390 31 intellectual property protection, 390-391 knowledge base for development of, 388 389, 395 national systems of innovation in, 378-379, 387, 388-396 origins and development, 384-387, 388 pharmaceutical industry implementation, 382-386, 392-393 pharmaceutical industry performance and, 365 policy environment, 364 as process technology, 379-381 R&D spending, 67 regulatory environment in development of, 392 research collaborations, 384, 387 research implementation, 392-395 research strategies in drug R&D, 377-378, 379-380 unique features of research environment, 380-382 Brazil, 78 C Capital supply determinants of, 20 in development ofbiotechnology, 389-390 in development of chemicals industry, 30- 31,61 industry comparisons, 40-43 semiconductor industry investment, 265- 266, 275-277 steel industry investment, 81, 86-87 Center for Magnetic Recording Research, 316 Chemicals industry, 2 basic research, 69-72 chemical engineering activities, 54-55 INDEX computer applications, 58-59, 69 development of comparative advantage, 24- 26 development spending, 66 economies of scale/scope, 52, 53 educational system in development of, 33- 35, 55 environmental regulation, 31-32 future prospects, 58-59, 70-71 globalization, 60 industry structure, 35-39, 46-51, 55-58 institutional factors in development of, 30 international distribution of market, 47-49, 51,65 labor factors in historical development of, 32-33 legal system in historical development of, 29-30 macroeconomic factors in development of, 27-29 market functioning, 36-39, 40-41 metallocene catalyst research, 66-67 patent and licensing activities, 29-30, 49, 66-67 R&D spending, 20 R&D trends, 51, 61-69 recent restructuring, 59-61 research benefits to other industries, 22 scope of activities/products, 22-23, 46, 49, 65-66 significance of, for competitiveness studies, 20-23 sociopolitical factors in development of, 26 27 sources of competitive advantage, 17, 39 40,71 specialized engineering firms, 45-46, 55-59, 71 technology transfer, 45, 51, 55-56 unit production costs, 69-70 U.S. successes, 22 See also Petrochemical industry; Polymer science Co-invention, 4, 9 applications software, 221 computing industry trends, 226 definition, 219 as source of computer innovation, 222, 223- 224 systemic coordination for, 219

INDEX Collaborations biotechnology research, 384, 389-390 chemicals industry, 70 grocery retailing innovation, 160 hard disk drive industry, 299, 314 international manufacturing, 299 international R&D, 7, 9, 68, 93-94, 99, 270- 271 intranational R&D, 7, 70, 270-273 patenting and licensing issues, 11-12 powder metallurgy industry, 107 semiconductor industry, 247-248, 267-273, 282 steel industry, 93-94, 99 university-industry, 7, 8, 70 Communist movement, 32 Competition, historical developments apparel industry, 329-330 biotechnology research, 393-394 hard disk drive industry, 288-292 personal computer market, 290 pharmaceutical industry, 363, 365-372 Competitive performance apparel industry prospects, 354 banking industry consolidation, 184 biotechnology research/implementation, 395-396 challenges in retail banking, 180- 181 chemicals industry, 39-40, 45-46, 59-60, 71 in computer industry, 217, 235-236 computer industry prospects, 239-242 computer industry trends, 236 data for analysis of, 13- 14 development of chemicals industry, 53 future prospects, 14 in global economy, 14, 111- 112, 131 globalization of manufacturing, 301, 307- 309 grocery retailing, 156, 157- 159 hard disk drive industry, 287-288, 293, 297, 299-301, 307-309, 325-326 innovation and, 14, 39-30 national embeddedness, 288 networked computing, 237-238 organizational computing, 227-231 personal computing, 233-235 pharmaceutical industry, 363, 364, 365 policy factors, 5-6, 12, 15 powder metallurgy industry, 106 1980s to present, 1, 3-7, 13, 59-60, 245-248, 282 401 semiconductor industry, historical development, 245-248 semiconductor industry, Japanese, 250-253 semiconductor industry, manufacturing process-related, 256-263 semiconductor industry, sources of advantage, 247-248, 266-267, 275-281, 282, 283-284 steel industry, 96-97 steel industry advantages, 96-97 steel industry innovation and, 99- 101 steel industry prior to restructuring, 76 steel industry R&D allocations and, 75 steel industry trends, 78 strategic restructuring as source of, 6-7 theoretical models of economic performance, 19-20 trucking industry, 135- 136 U.S. advantages, 14-15, 241-242 Computer industry applications software market, 221, 224-225, 240 areas of technical progress, 224-225, 240 241 benefits of restructuring, 6 captive disk drive manufacturers, 299-301 co-invention, 4, 9, 219, 221-222, 223-224, 226 commercialization activities, 217, 218, 221 223, 239-240, 241 competitive environment, 217-218, 233-234 computer services market, 221-222 current restructuring, 215 determinants of competitive performance, 217 economies of scale, 234 future prospects, 216-217, 218, 237-242 general purpose technologies, 224 government R&D, 230 historical/technical development, 215, 218 221, 227, 228-231 IBM history, 227-231, 242, 288-289, 293, 294, 295-296 innovation processes in, 4, 219, 222, 235 international competition, 231, 236 interorganizational, 237 intersectoral relationships, 4-5 invention of new applications, 222, 224 market structure, 216-217, 221-222 networking technology, 218, 226-227, 236 239

402 on-line banking programs, 191-194 organizational data processing, 226, 227 231, 236-237 peripherals, 220-221, 290-291. See also Hard disk drive industry personal computing, 226, 232-235, 290-292 platform compatibility, 227-228, 241 rate of technical progress, 224 sources of competitive advantage, 235-236, 241-242 sources of innovation, 9, 222-224, 226 structure of industry, 3, 221-222, 225-226, 228-229, 236, 241 technical computing, 226, 232 trucking industry innovation, 140-141, 143 types of market demand, 226-227, 231-232 university R&D, 229-230 vertical integration/disintegration, 225, 226, 234, 235, 238, 241 See also Hard disk drive industry; Semiconductor industry Consultants, grocery retailing, 160- 161 Consumer behavior grocery retailing, 156, 160, 161, 165, 169, 170-172, 175, 176 retail banking, 187- 190 store loyalty, 169 Customer-prompted innovation co-invention in computer industry, 219 efficient customer response system, 156 157, 165-169 grocery retailing, 156, 160 steel industry, 97 trucking industry, 125-126 Customer relations powder metallurgy industry, 106-107 retail banking, 197, 198, 201-202 trucking industry, 125-126 D Data collection and management on innovation, 4, 10 for policy-making, 10- 11, 13- 14 Demand conditions, 111-112, 160 apparel industry, 343 computing industry, 226-227 pharmaceuticals industry, 364 Desktop computing, 4-5 Diamond of national advantage, 111-112 Disintermediation, 134 INDEX EEconomic performance apparel industry, 329-330, 348-349, 350- 352 determinants of, 18, 19-20, 329 endogenous growth theory, 19 grocery retailing, 157, 161-165, 172-174 neoclassical model, 19 powder metallurgy industry, 106 profit margin as measure of, 162-163 R&D spending and, 100-101 in retail banking, 203-207 social capability model, 19 steel industry, 76, 84-87 technology flows in, 19-20 trends, 1-2 trucking industry, 146, 149- 150 See also Competitive performance; Productivity Economies of scale/scope apparel industry, 329 biotechnology research, 385-386 chemicals industry, 52, 53 computing industry, 234 retail banking, 183 Efficient customer response, 156-157, 165-169, 172-174, 176 Electronic data interchange in apparel industry, 344 grocery retailing applications, 159 trucking industry applications, 139-140, 148-149 Electronic point of sale data, 343, 344 England apparel industry, 353 biotechnology research, 383, 386, 388-389, 393 drug price regulation, 376-377 educational system in chemicals industry development, 33, 34 historical development of chemicals industry, 24-26 institutional factors in chemicals industry development, 30 labor factors in chemicals industry development, 32 macroeconomic factors in chemicals industry development, 27-28, 29 patent system, 30 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372, 373, 375-376

INDEX share of chemicals industry market, 47, 48, 49 sociopolitical factors in chemicals industry development, 26-27 structure of chemicals industry, 35-36 Entry of new competitors, 3 biotechnology industry, 378-379, 384, 388 development of chemicals industry, 56-58 effects on industry performance, 6 networked computing industry, 236-237 patent regulation and, 281 pharmaceuticals industry, 364, 375 powder metallurgy industry, 106- 107, 109 semiconductor industry, 268, 276 Environmental regulation historical development of chemicals industry, 31-32 as source of innovation, 98 steel industry, 98 trucking industry, 137 Europe Financial services biotechnology research, 386-387, 388-389, 390, 391, 392 chemicals industry, 22, 64 computing industry, 231, 236, 239 disk drive industry, 289, 291, 294, 295, 320 hard disk drive research, 311, 314 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372, 373-374, 375 semiconductor industry, 270-271, 282 steel industry R&D, 99 U.S. collaborations, 7 See also specific country F effects of strategic restructuring, 6 historical development of chemicals industry, 30-31 See also Retail banking Food and Drug Administration, 375 Foreign investment in U.S. benefits for U.S. industry, 12 grocery retailing, 175-176 in patenting and licensing, 9 powder metallurgy industry, 110 R&D, 9, 67 semiconductor R&D, 270 steel industry, 98 See also International collaboration 403 France biotechnology research, 386, 387, 389 pharmaceutical industry, 373-374 Funding basic research in semiconductor industry, 273-275 chemicals industry R&D, 20 foreign R&D spending in U.S., 9, 67 government support of semiconductor industry, 247-248, 271-273, 274 pharmaceutical R&D, 368-371, 372-374 R&D public policy issues, 11- 12 R&D trends, 8 steel industry R&D, 99 university patenting and licensing revenues, 8 U.S. offshore R&D spending, 9, 67, 270 G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 29 Germany biotechnology research, 383, 386, 387, 389, 393 chemicals industry R&D, 68 educational system in chemicals industry development, 33, 34 environmental regulation, 32 historical development of chemicals industry, 24-26, 51-52 institutional factors in chemicals industry development, 30-31 labor factors in chemicals industry development, 32 macroeconomic factors in chemicals industry development, 27-29 patent system, 30 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372, 373-374 share of chemicals industry market, 47, 48, 49 sociopolitical factors in chemicals industry development, 26-27 structure of chemicals industry, 35-36, 38 Global positioning system, 141-142 Globalization, 131 apparel industry, 335-336 apparel industry prospects, 358-359 chemicals industry R&D, 67-68 chemicals industry structure, 60 driving forces, 68

404 hard disk drive industry, 287-288, 301-309, 325 management of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324, 325 trucking indushry, 124, 131- 133 Government initiatives apparel industry intermediation, 358 banking regulation, 181 - 183 biotechnology regulation/support, 378-379, 391-392 chemicals industry R&D funding, 20 early computer industry, 230 hard disk drive industry support, 314-315, 326 intellectual property issues, 11-12 pharmaceutical R&D, 368-371, 372-374 powder metallurgy research, 119 R&D spending, 8, 11 semiconductor ant/trust law, 278-279 semiconductor indushry support, 247-248, 271-273, 274, 283 semiconductor trade policy, 277-278 steel industry R&D, 99 See also Policy making Grocery retailing category management, 169, 173-174 compeUtion-driven innovation, 157- 159 competitive environment, 156, 157-159, 174 Inflation, 1 consumer behavior, 156, 160, 161, 165, 170-172, 175, 176 consumer food expenditures, 161 discount mass merchandisers/supercenters, 158-159, 165 efficient customer response, 156-157, 165 169, 172-174, 176 factors influencing innovation, 156-160 future prospects, 175-176 labor issues, 159-160, 163, 176 obstacles to research, 155 performance outcomes of innovahon,172- 174 process innovation, 165-166, 174-175 productivity measures, 162-165, 176 service innovation, 169-172, 175 sources of innovation, 160-161, 175 store design, 163, 170-172, 175 technology areas, 156, 159-160 H Hard disk drive industry areal density, 296-297 INDEX assembly of drives, 298-299 captive manufacturers, 299-301 form factors, 293 future prospects, 310, 324-325 globalization, 287-288, 299, 301-309, 325 government support, 314-315, 326 home market performance, 288 industry shructure, 297-301 interfirm collaborations, 316-317 magneto-resistive heads, 295 management of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 market share distribution, 287, 289-290, 291-292 origins and development, 288-290 patenting and licensing in, 311 personal computing market and, 290-292 R&D Trends, 310-314 significance of, 287, 288, 301, 325 sources of competitive advantage, 287-288, 293, 297, 301, 325-326 High-technology industries, 4 Household income distribution, 1-2 I impact on grocery retailing, 156, 157 inventory management and, 156 Information management/technology apparel industry, 335, 343, 344, 345 banking technology, 185, 186-187 computer services market, 222 computerized data processing in organizations, 226, 227-231 data fusion, 142-143 efficient customer response system in grocery retailing, 168 In geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 imaging systems, 142 for managing innovation, 10 on-line banking, 194 rapid replenishment apparel markets, 352- 353 retail banking, 181, 197, 204-207 semiconductor manufacturing, 258-260 · · r. r A S1gn1T1CanCe OT, ~ skill requirements, 5 trucking indushry, 124, 137, 139- 141, 142- 143, 145-146, 148-149

INDEX Innovation banking delivery system, 195-202 banking industry implementation, 202-203 banking products, 190-195 banking technology, 185-187 co-invention, 4, 9, 219 competition and, 30-39, 99-101 in computing, areas of, 224-225, 231-232 in computing, historical development, 218 221 in computing, processes of, 4, 219, 222 in computing, prospects for, 238-242 customer as source of. See Customer prompted innovation data collection, 4 dataon,4,10-11 definition, 4, 18, 124-125 deployment of, vs. creation of, 3-4, 9-10 duration of competitive advantage, 14 employee sources, 97 in geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 in grocery retailing, forces for, 157-160 in grocery retailing, measures of, 161-165 in grocery retailing, performance outcomes, 172-174 in grocery retailing, sources of, 160-161, 175 in grocery retailing processes, 165-169 in grocery retailing services, 169-172 in hard disk drive industry, 288-289, 293 295 intersectoral flows, 4-5 investments, 4 market structure and functioning in, 14 national styles of, 292-293 in networked computing, 237, 238 in personal computing, 235 in pharmaceutical industry, 367-368 polymer science, 51-54 in retail banking, 179, 180, 203-210 in semiconductor industry, 247, 282-283 steel industry competition and, 99-101 steel industry sources, 93-95, 97-99, 99 steel production, 83-84, 92 steel products, 82-83 structural trends, 9-10 systems integration activities in, 207-210 in trucking industry, 131, 138-139, 147-149, 150-151 See also Research and development 405 Interfirm relations apparel industry, 353, 356-358 biotechnology research, 384 chemicals industry, 70 hard disk drive basic research, 316-317, 318 R&D collaboration, 7, 70, 270-273 size of firms and, 107, 120-121 as source of competitive advantage, 297 technology flows, 4-5 International collaborations, 7, 9, 68, 93-94, 99, 270-271, 299 Internet package tracking, 143 trucking industry innovation, 134, 140 Intersectoral relationships, 5 Inventory management apparel market demands, 343 in grocery retailing, 156, 157, 158, 165-166, 169 progressive bundle system in apparel manufacture, 337-338 rapid replenishment apparel markets, 343- 344, 352-353, 354-356, 359-360 trucking industry trends, 133- 134 See also Just in time inventory See also Logistics ISO 9000, 134- 135 Italy, pharmaceutical industry, 374 J Japan auto industry, 83 biotechnology research, 383, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 392, 393-394 chemicals industry development, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32-33 chemicals industry market share, 47, 48-49, 65 chemicals industry R&D spending, 64 chemicals industry structure, 37, 38-39, 46 47 competitive environment, 393-394 computing industry, 231, 236 disk drive industry, 289, 291, 297-301, 302 306, 307-309, 325 disk drive industry innovations, 294, 295 297 disk drive research, 311, 312-314, 317-318, 324-325

406 environment for innovation, 292-293 future prospects, 14 industrial organization, 297 industry structure as source of competitive advantage, 297, 301 pharmaceutical industry, 372, 374, 376 powder metallurgy industry, 115 semiconductor industry, 246, 247, 250-256, 264, 266, 267, 271, 276, 282 semiconductor manufacturing collaborations, 270-271 steel industry, 79, 80, 81, 82, 94, 98 Just in time inventory apparel industry, 343-350 grocery retailing, 157, 165- 166 powder metallurgy industry, 106 principles of, 344 trucking industry, 125-126, 133-134 L Labor market apparel industry employment, 330-332, 336, 354 chemicals industry, 32-33 grocery retailing, 159, 163, 176 innovation in retail banking, 199-200, 201 Market share powder metallurgy industry, 116-117 steel industry R&D personnel, 88-89 Labor productivity apparel industry, 334, 349 semiconductor industry, 260-262 steel industry, 79-80 trends, 1 trucking industry, 136- 137 Land grant college system, 33-34 Lean retailing, 157, 165-166, 343, 344, 348 350, 352, 355, 359-360 Logistics applications, 128-129 definition, 128 global economy, 132 providers, 129-130 technology for, 129 Long-term growth basic research in semiconductor industry, 273-275 chemicals industry, 39, 40, 70 economic modeling, 19-20 policy factors, 5-6, 11 steel industry research, 89-90, 92 INDEX M Macroeconomic policy in development of chemicals industry, 27-29 significance of, 5-6 Magnetics research, 314- 316 Management computing industry structures, 225, 229 of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 in grocery retailing innovation, 168 historical development of chemicals industry, 31 human resources, 97 logistics industry, 128- 130 requirements of information technology, 5 semiconductor manufacturing, 256-263, 266-267 steel industry, 84 trucking industry, 133- 135 Manufacturing processes, 13 geographically distant from R&D center, 320-324 globalization, 299, 301 hard disk drive assembly, 299-309 See also Apparel industry; Semiconductor industry apparel industry, 330, 332, 335, 342 apparel industry prospects, 356-357 hard disk drive industry, 287, 289-290, 291- 292 home market advantage, 288 personal computers, 290 pharmaceutical industry, 372 Market structure and functioning apparel industry, 339-343 applications software, 221, 224-225 chemicals industry, 36-39, 61 computer services, 221-222 computing industry, 216-217, 228-229, 242 computing industry demand, 226-227, 231- 232 computing industry prospects, 238-239, 241 determinants of competitive performance, 111-112 for economic growth, 18 grocery retailing, 161, 162- 163 industry comparisons, 40-43 powder metallurgy, 105, 107, 109-110, 112 semiconductor industry, 245, 248-255, 263- 265, 266, 278

INDEX trucking industry, 124 U.S. advantages, 14 Mature industries, 4 Medical research, 374 Mergers and acquisitions, banking industry, 182-185 Metallocene catalysts, 66-67 M.I.T. Commission, 1, 2, 13 Multi-Fiber Agreement, 335-336 N National Cooperative Research Act, 279 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 315 National Science Foundation, 10- 11 National Storage Industry Consortium, 316-317 Natural resources, 39 Navigation systems, 141-142 Nonmanufacturing industries competitive environment, 3 R&D investments, 10- 11 technology flows, 4 North American Free Trade Agreement, 132, 335, 349, 359 o Oil shocks, 59 p Patenting and licensing benefits of regulation, 281 biotechnology industry, 390-391 chemicals industry, 29-30, 49, 65, 66-67 hard disk drive industry, 311 pharmaceuticals industry, 364, 374-377 policy issues, 11-12 powder metallurgy industry, 118 semiconductor industry, 279-281 university activities, 8 U.S. patents to foreign inventors, 9 Path dependency, 356 Petrochemical industry, 26, 29, 34, 46-47, 55, 56,60 Pharmaceutical industry competitive environment, 363, 393-394 drug pricing, 376-377 entry of new competitors, 364, 375 407 evolution of research methods, 368-372 historical development, 363, 365-368, 372 intellectual property protection, 364, 374 market share distribution, 49, 372 policy environment, 363-364, 375-376 public sector support, 368-371, 372-374, 378-379 R&D spending/trends, 65-66, 67 source of competitive advantage, 363, 364, 365 structure, 3, 392-393 See also Biotechnology Pilot manufacturing, 322-323 Policy making benefits of competition and, 12 biotechnology industry development, 378- 379, 388-396 chemicals industry development, 26-27, 39 computer industry development, 230-231 data collection for, 10- 11, 13- 14 issues in innovation process, 10 labor market issues, 12- 13 long-term competitive performance, 5-6, 11 patenting and licensing issues, 11-12 pharmaceuticals industry regulation, 363- 364, 365, 375-377 public R&D spending, 11- 12 significance of, in economic performance, 19,20 in support of semiconductor industry, 277- 281 technology issues, 12 U.S. successes, 12, 14-15 See also Government initiatives; Macroeconomic policy; Tax policy; Trade policy Polyethylene chemistry, 66-67 Polymer science, 46 historical development, 51-54 international distribution of market, 49 metallocene catalyst research, 66-67 Powder metallurgy industry auto industry market, 107, 110 capacity/production, 114-115 customer relations, 106-107 demand conditions, 111-112 economic performance, 106 environmental impacts, 104 factor conditions, 111 financial health, 115-116 future prospects, 119 historical development, 103, 104-106

408 Prices interfirm relations, 107, 120-121 international comparison, 110 labor costs, 116 market share distribution, 109- 110, 112- 113 patenting activity, 118 productivity, 117 products and processes, 103, 104, 105, 106, 110-111 raw materials market, 116 R&D efforts, 118-119 R&D goals, 110 R&D structure, 9, 103-104 structure, 3, 105, 108-110 structure of, 103 supplier relations, 107, 112, 119 types of firms, 108 U.S. performance, 110, 111-112 apparel, 341-342 drug, 376-377 grocery retailing, 158 semiconductor industry, 248-249 trucking industry, 135- 136 Private sector R&D spending chemicals industry, 20 trends, 2, 8 Product transfer teams, 322-323 Productivity apparel industry, 329, 334, 345-350 grocery retailing, 162- 165, 176 powder metallurgy industry, 117 semiconductor industry, 260-262 steel industry, 78, 79-80, 81-82 trucking industry, 136- 137 Q QS 9000, 134-135 Quality semiconductor industry performance, 255- 256, 258 steel industry performance, 82-83 trucking industry standards, 134- 135 R Research and development biotechnology, historical development, 384- 387 INDEX biotechnology, national influences in, 392 395 biotechnology methods, 377-378, 379-381 chemicals industry, historical development, 33-35 chemicals industry spending, 20 chemicals industry trends, 51, 61-70 data for analysis of, 10- 11 economic performance and, 100-101 environmental protection, 98 foreign spending in U.S., 9, 67, 270 future of steel industry, 95 geographically distant from manufacturing facilities, 320-324 globalization trends, 67-68 hard disk drive industry, historical development, 326 hard disk drive industry trends, 310-320, 324-325 implications of restructuring, 9-10 international collaborations, 7, 9, 99, 270-271 intranational collaborations, 7, 70, 270-273 long-term investment, 11 offshore spending, 9, 67, 270 pharmaceutical industry, public support for, 368-371, 372-374, 378-379 pharmaceutical industry historical development, 365-368 pharmaceutical industry methods, 368-372 pharmaceutical industry trends, 364-365 powder metallurgyindustry, 103-104, 110, 118-119 private sector, 2 public policy issues, 10-12 semiconductor collaborations, 270-273 semiconductor industry, government support for, 283 spending trends, 8 steel industry, government-supported, 99 steel industry, international collaborations, 99 steel industry allocations, 75-76, 87-88, 89 90 steel industry nonintegrated producers, 91 92 steel industry personnel, 88-89 steel industry structure, 90-91 structural trends, 9 See also Basic research Retail banking ATM machines, 188- 190

INDEX branching, 188 competitive environment, 180- 181 consumer behavior, 187-190 future prospects, 209-210 human resources management, 198, 199- 200, 201 industry structure, 181, 182- 185 inefficiencies, 183-184 innovation process, 202-203 market characteristics, 180 measuring benefits of innovation, 203-207 mergers and acquisitions, 182- 185 organizational innovation, 195-202 PC banking, 186, 187, 190-195 performance factors, 179- 180 platform innovation, 186- 187 regulation, 181 - 183 revenue enhancement, 186 sources of innovation in, 179 systems integration function, 207-209 technological innovation, 185- 187 use of payment instruments, 188 Retail sales apparel industry, 341-343, 344-345, 348- 349 disintermediation, 134 See also Grocery retailing; Retail banking S Safety, trucking industry, 137-138, 142 Salaries and wages household income distribution, 1-2 trucking industry, 136- 137 Satellite systems navigation/positioning systems, 141-142 trucking industry communications, 139 Second industrial revolution, 329 SEMATECH, 247-248, 256, 271-273, 279 Semiconductor Chip Protection Act, 280-281 Semiconductor industry antitrust law, 278-279 application-specific integrated circuits, 263 applications, 245 basic research, 273-275 benefits of strategic restructuring, 6, 282 capital investment, 265-266, 275-277 collaborations, 267, 282 development facilities, 262 digital signal processors, 263-264 409 domestic collaboration, 271-273 DRAM market, 246-247, 250-251, 253-254, 264-265, 267, 277-278 electronically programmable memory chips, 278 fabless firms, 247, 268-269, 273, 281 future prospects, 275, 282-284 government support, 247-248, 271-273, 274, 283 innovation, 247 international collaborations, 270-271 intersectoral relationships, 4-5 introduction of new processing technologies, 262-263 labor productivity, 260-262 logic products, 264, 265 manufacturing equipment industry, 252 253, 272 manufacturing process performance, 256 263, 266-267, 272 manufacturing process technologies, 264 market share distribution, 248-255, 263 265, 278 metal-oxide manufacturing, 264, 268 microcomponent market, 264-265 nontechnological sources of competitive advantage, 275-281 origins and development, 249 patenting and licensing, 279-281 producer-designer collaborations, 268-269 product categories, 263, 264 product quality, 255-256 production, 245 sources of competitive advantage, 247-248, 266-267, 282, 283-284 specialized design firms, 265, 267, 268 structure, 3, 9, 247, 249, 263-264, 282 trade policy, 277-278 U.S. competitive performance, 245-248, 250-255, 282, 283-284 Singapore, 302, 307, 319-320, 324 Size of company apparel industry firms, 332 apparel industry trends, 350-351, 353-356, 359-360, 360 interfirm relations and, 107, 120- 121 R&D efforts and, 103-104, 119, 120 Sloan Foundation, 2 South Korea, 253, 254, 266, 267, 276, 282, 291 hard disk drive research, 318-319 steel industry, 78, 81, 82

410 Standardization, 33, 150 computer design, 215, 234 computer platform compatibility, 227-228, 241 semiconductor manufacturing, 268 Statistical process control, 255, 258 Steel industry basic research, 89-90 capacity/production, 77 capital productivity, 81 conditions prior to restructuring, 76 current operating environment, 75-76, 101 current R&D activities, 93 customer-prompted innovation, 97 determinants of competitive performance, 96-97 economic performance, 76, 84-87 environmental regulation, 98 foreign investment in U.S., 98 future prospects, 78, 95, 101 government-supported R&D, 99 human resources practices, 97 innovation-competitiveness linkage, 99-101 integrated firms, 77-78, 86-87, 90, 91-92 joint ventures, 93-94 labor productivity, 79-80 minimills, 77-78, 86-87, 97, 100-101 process innovation, 83-84, 92, 94, 97 product innovation, 82-83 productivity, 78 quality performance, 82-83 R&D allocations, 75-76, 87-88 R&D personnel, 88-89 R&D structure, 9, 90-91 restructuring, 75, 101 sales, 87 sources of innovation, 93-95, 97-99, 99 supplier innovations, 94 total factor productivity, 81-82 trade issues, 98 unions, 97 university research, 95 worker training, 97-98 Strategic management, 6 Structure of industries apparel industry, 332-334, 350-352, 353- 356 apparel industry prospects, 356-358, 360 chemicals industry, 36-39, 46-51, 55-58 chemicals industry, historical development, 35-36 INDEX chemicals industry restructuring, 59-61 computer industry, 3, 221-222, 225-226, 228-229, 231, 236, 241 diversity, 4 fragmented industries, 109 hard disk drive industry, 297-301 intersectoral relationships, 5 powder metallurgyindustry, 103, 108-110 retail banking, 181, 182-185 semiconductor industry, 247, 249, 282 as source of competitive advantage, 6-7, 297, 299-301 trucking industry, 127-128, 130 U.S.R&D system, 2 Structure of innovation process, 7-10 computer industry, 225-226 Supplier-producer relations, 94, 107, 112, 119, 297 apparel industry, 333-334, 358 Supply chain management, 130, 168 Switzerland biotechnology research, 383, 392, 393 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372 T Taiwan, 253, 254, 267 Tax policy development of chemicals industry, 28 R&D funding, 99 Technology transfer/diffusion biotechnology, 388, 392 chemicals industry, 45, 51, 55-56, 70-71 data for analysis of, 10 intersectoral, 4-5 management of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 semiconductor manufacturing, 268, 280 steel industry joint ventures, 93-94 university activities, 8 worker preparedness, 12-13 Telecommunications technology banking services, 190-195, 197-198 benefits for other industries, 5 prospects for competition, 239 trucking industry, 139-140 Total factor productivity definition, 81 steel industry, 81-82 Total quality management, 255 Trade deficit, 1

INDEX Trade policy apparel products/services, 335-336, 349, 359 chemicals industry, 27, 28-29 computer industry, 230, 231 powder metallurgy products, 114 semiconductor market, 277-278 steel industry, 98 Trucking industry activity-based costing, 168-169 areas of innovation, 146 barriers to innovation, 150 business practices, 133- 135 cabotage rules, 132 characteristics of innovation, 123, 125 compatibility standards, 150 competitive environment, 123-124 computer technology, 140-141, 142-143 containerization, 133 customer-industry relations, 125- 126 data management, 141 - 142, 145- 146 disintermediation, 134 economic performance, 146 effects of innovation, 146- 147 environmental concerns, 137 factors influencing innovation, 131, 138- 139, 147-149, 151 fleet management, 140-142 future prospects, 149- 151 globalization, 124, 131- 133 hub-and-spoke network, 135 information management, 124, 137 intermodalism, 133 labor issues, 136- 137 less-than-truckload carriers, 127-128 logistics activities in, 129-130, 132 market share, 124 navigation technology, 141 - 142 package express carriers, 128, 132 price competition, 135-136 quality standards, 134- 135 safety management, 137-138, 142 scope of innovation, 124- 125 sleeper teams, 143-144 sources of innovation, 125, 126 structure, 127-128, 130 success factors, 151 telecommunications technology, 139-140, 148-149 trailer design, 144-145 transportation services firms, 130 truckload carriers, 127 411 unions, 136 vehicle design, 138, 143-144 worker skills, 137, 150- 151 U Unemployment, 1 Unions in apparel industry, 358 in steel industry, 97 trucking industry, 136 Universities, 2 in evolution of computing industry, 229-230 foreign investment in, 9 hard disk drive research, 312-314, 315-317, 324 historical development of chemicals industry, 33-35, 55 industry R&D collaborations, 7, 8 patenting and licensing, 8, 11-12, 391 pharmaceutical R&D, 364 public investment, 11-12 R&D spending, 7 semiconductor research, 274-275 steel industry R&D personnel, 88-89 steel industry research, 95 support for biotechnology development, 388-389, 394-395 technology transfer activities, 8 V Vertical competition, 234 Vertical integration computer industry, 225, 226, 234, 235, 238, 241 hard disk drive industry, 298-299, 301 W Worker skills apparel industry, 330 grocery retailing, 159- 160, 176 public policy issues, 12-13 requirements for information technology, 5 retail banking, 199 sources of innovation in steel industry, 97- 98 technology innovation outcomes, 206 trucking industry, 137, 150- 151

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U.S. industry faced a gloomy outlook in the late 1980s. Then, industrial performance improved dramatically through the 1990s and appears pervasively brighter today. A look at any group of industries, however, reveals important differences in the factors behind the resurgence--in industry structure and strategy, research performance, and location of activities--as well as similarities in the national policy environment, impact of information technology, and other factors.

U.S. Industry in 2000 examines eleven key manufacturing and service industries and explores how they arrived at the present and what they face in the future. It assesses changing practices in research and innovation, technology adoption, and international operations.

Industry analyses shed light on how science and technology are applied in the marketplace, how workers fare as jobs require greater knowledge, and how U.S. firms responded to their chief competitors in Europe and Asia. The book will be important to a wide range of readers with a stake in U.S. industrial performance: corporate executives, investors, labor representatives, faculty and students in business and economics, and public policymakers.

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