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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
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Index

A

Accounting, 117

Adaptable systems, 5-6, 58

for concurrent manufacturing, 16-17

creating reconfigurable enterprises, 30-33, 38-40

design methodologies, 16

future of manufacturing, 11

integrated manufacturing systems, 23

manufacturing operations, 32-33, 38-39

theoretical foundation, 39

workforce in, 18-19

Artificial intelligence, 26-27, 44

Automation, 12, 19

Aviation industry, 74

B

Biotechnology, 3, 38, 74

materials development, 17

prospects, 12, 35-36, 59

research opportunities, 42-43, 120

Business unit managers, 18-19

C

Challenges for manufacturers, 91, 93, 95, 97, 100, 113

accommodating cultural diversity, 95

concurrent manufacturing, 13-17

conversion processes and tools, 115-116

converting information to knowledge, 24-27

creating reconfigurable enterprises, 30-33

design and planning, 114

global competition, 86

global crises, 98

global management, 92, 93

grand challenges, 3-4, 13, 57

growth, 91

innovation, 33-36

integration of multiple perspectives, 92

integration of resources, 17-24

intelligent communication systems, 114-115

interdisciplinary research, 63-64

managing change, 94

modeling and simulation, 88-89, 114, 119

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
×

research needs, 37-38, 57-58

sustaining manufacturing infrastructure, 94

systems management, 95

technologies for meeting, 4, 47

Chaos theory, 39, 111

Cognitive science, 6

Collaborations and partnerships

current status, 20, 31

future of manufacturing, 2-3, 30-31

government-industry, for environmental protection, 30

information technology for, 26, 47, 87

Competency, 11, 14

Competition

environmental issues, 29

future business practices, 89-90

future of manufacturing, 2, 9, 10, 14

global, 85-86

pressure for systems integration, 17-18

technology and, 111

in technology-driven industries, 74-75

Complexity theory, 111-112

Concurrency of operations

current status, 15-16

definition, 13-14

enabling technologies, 16-17

implications for enterprise functioning, 14-15

Crosscutting technologies, 5

research, 58

Cultural diversity, 95

Custom-made products, 97, 98

Customers/consumers

environmental concerns, 29

future of manufacturing, 9, 10, 87, 96

information needs of companies, 88

in innovation process, 108

D

Decision making, 11

artificial intelligence for, 26-27

in complex systems, 112

in concurrent manufacturing, 14

factory locations, 111

information technology for, 44

in integrated systems, 18, 19

technology research opportunities, 117

workforce education for, 25

Delphi survey, 2, 3, 9, 123-129, 134-145

Direct deposition processes, 35

Driver technologies, 60-61

E

Economics

future geo-economics, 76-80

future of manufacturing, 2

worker compensation, 76-77

Education and training

current status, 25

future challenges and needs, 95, 102, 109-110, 117, 119

human-machine interface, 46

human resources management, 121

public sector role, 122

research opportunities, 46

technology for, 22, 25-26, 109-110

worker compensation and, 76-77

Electronics industry, 110-111

microelectromechanical systems, 59, 74

Energy consumption, 30, 40, 122

Entrepreneurship, 73-74

Environmental disaster, 99

Environmental protection, 9

compliance, 28, 81

current status, 28-29

determinants of environmental impacts, 81

enabling technologies, 29-30, 116

government-industry relations, 30

grand challenge, 4, 13, 27-28

industrial ecology, 28, 81

infrastructure for, 81-83

issues in manufacturing, 83-84, 96

remediation, 28, 81

research opportunities, 40-41, 116

trends, 83

See also Waste management

Envisioning the future, 8-9, 12

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
×

G

Game theory, 32

Globalization, 24

management challenges, 92, 93

organizational linkages, 106

supply chains, 93

worker compensation and, 76-77

Goal-setting, 7

research agenda, 64-65

H

Holonics, 39, 100

I

Income, 76-77

Industrial ecology, 28, 81-83

Information management/technology, 58

artificial intelligence, 26-27

for collaborations, 20, 87

for concurrent manufacturing, 14

consumer behavior, 88

current status, 25

data presentation, 45

database design, 45

as driver technology, 60-61

enabling technologies, 25-27

filters and agents, 26, 44

future of manufacturing, 10, 24-25, 93, 96, 110-111, 118-119

grand challenge, 3, 13, 24

human-machine interface, 23-24, 45-46, 120-121

human resources management and, 121

for integrated systems, 22

intelligent communication systems, 114-115

knowledge delivery, 109-110

in knowledge economy, 106-108

language processing, 26, 33

megatrends, 87-88

for modeling and simulation, 27, 43-44

next-generation manufacturing knowledge base, 62-63

real-time transactions, 24-25, 26

research opportunities, 44-45, 121-122

research recommendations, 5-6, 61

security, 26

significance of, 87

standards for data exchange, 15, 22

systems interaction, 12

workforce access, 11-12

Innovation

current status, 34

customer role in, 108

grand challenge, 33-34

in knowledge economy, 106

management challenges, 96, 106-108, 117

in materials development, 41-42

technology transfer/diffusion, 104

Integrated systems

communications in, 18, 22

current status, 19-21

enabling technologies, 21-24

need for, 17-18

operations, 18-19

performance assessment in, 19

pressure for, 18

research opportunities, 103

International trade, 73, 77-80

K

Knowledge economy, 106-108

L

Labor. See Workforce

Life cycle design, 15, 42, 81, 119

Local markets, 11

M

Manufacturing

characteristics of successful, 93

concurrency of operations, 13-17

definition, 9

enterprise structure, 10-11

future challenges, 3-4, 13

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
×

future environment, 1, 2-3, 8-9, 9, 92, 94-95, 96-98, 99, 100-101

next-generation, 61-63

production processes, 12

significance of, 1

Materials development/management, 74

for concurrent manufacturing, 14, 17

design, 42

future of manufacturing, 3, 10, 11

global supply chains, 92

research opportunities, 41-42

self-replicating materials, 59

technical challenges, 17, 116

theoretical foundation, 42

waste management and, 27-28, 83

MEMS. See Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), 59, 74

Modeling and simulation, 121

for concurrent manufacturing, 16

consumer behavior, 88

current status, 20

environmental risk assessment, 29

of human factors, 60

information technology for, 27

for integrating systems, 21

next-generation manufacturing goals and, 63

rapid prototyping, 38

for reconfigurable systems, 39-40

research opportunities, 43-44, 58, 60, 88-89

research recommendations, 5, 6

technical challenges, 119

tools, 44, 114

Multidisciplinary approach

in research, 5

technology for collaborations, 20

N

Nanofabrication, 3, 34, 36, 38, 41, 59

applications, 35

processes, 35

prospects, 12, 41-42, 59

Net-shape processes, 38, 40, 42

Next-generation manufacturing, 61-63

O

Organizational structure

business unit managers, 18-19

complex systems, 112

current, 20-21

decision making, 11

fractal, 84-86

future prospects, 2-3, 10-11, 90, 102, 105, 111

holonic system, 100-101

integration of human and technical resources, 17-24

manufacturing network, 18, 98

reconfiguring, 32

systems modeling technology, 16

P

Performance assessment, 19, 31-32

Political environment. See Sociopolitical context

Population growth, 27-28

immigration trends, 73

Process technology, 12

biotechnology applications, 43

custom-made products, 97, 98

evolution, 102

flexibility, 110

future prospects, 94-95, 97-98

intelligent processing, 63

reconfigurable systems, 32-33, 38-40

research opportunities, 45, 116, 117-118

technical challenges, 115, 119, 120

Product development

adaptable design methodologies, 16

concurrent manufacturing, 13-14

design team, 45

exchange standards for product data, 15

in industrial ecology, 81

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
×

information management challenges, 24-25

in integrated systems, 18-19, 22-23

life cycle design, 15

market pressures, 17

research opportunities, 45

software design, 23

stakeholders in, 23

technical challenges, 119

technology trends, 15-16

time-to-market, 14, 15-16

tools for, 114

waste-free manufacturing, 29-30, 41

R

Reconfigurable enterprises and systems, 30-33, 38-40

Research

basic, 6

biotechnology, 42-43

breakthrough, 58

collaboration software, 47

crosscutting, 58

enterprise modeling and simulation, 43-44, 60, 88-89

goal-setting, 64-65

human-machine interface, 45-46, 120-121

information technology, 44-45, 60-61

intelligent communication systems, 115

interdisciplinary, 5, 6, 63-64

for meeting grand challenges, 37-38, 57-58

multidisciplinary, 5

for next-generation manufacturing, 62-63

opportunities, 117-119, 120

product and process design, 45, 114, 120

recommendations for, 5-7, 58, 60, 61, 64

reconfigurable systems, 38-40

in smaller companies, 104-105

submicron manufacturing, 59

waste-free processing, 40-41

workforce education and training, 46, 102

Resistance to change, 106

Resources

enterprise resource planning, 15

future of manufacturing, 2-3, 10

waste control, 27-28, 83

S

Security, information, 26

Semiconductor industry, 59

Smart materials, 42

Sociopolitical context, 2, 72-73, 75

crises, 96, 98, 99

global competition, 85-86

managing change, 94

megatrends, 87-88

Software, 74

for enterprise modeling and simulation, 43-44

for intelligent collaboration systems, 47

product development, 23

for reconfiguring enterprises, 32

for reconfiguring operations, 33

Standard for Exchange of Product-Model Data (STEP), 15

Standard of living, 74, 76-80

Standards, information exchange, 15, 22

STEP. See Standard for Exchange of Product-Model Data

Submicron manufacturing, 6, 41

research opportunities, 59

significance of, 59

See also Nanofabrication

Systems management, 95

T

Taxonomy, 39

Teams/teamwork, 14

design team, 45

program team, 105

team theory, 32

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
×

Technology, generally

for collaboration, 20, 26, 47, 87

for concurrent manufacturing, 15-17

crosscutting, 5

design methodologies, 16

diffusion, 104

driver, 60-61

for education and training, 22, 25-26, 109-110

for environmental protection, 29-30, 116

future of manufacturing, 2, 3, 12, 73, 86, 102-103

goal setting, 7

human-machine interface, 23-24, 45-46, 104, 120-121

innovative processes, 33-36

integrated systems, 21-24

manufacturing equipment, 16-17, 27

materials development, 17, 41-42

for meeting grand challenges, 4, 47

monitoring development of, 7

product development time, 15-16

push/pull model, 86-87

for reconfiguring enterprises and operations, 32-33

research recommendations, 5-7

software design methods, 23

systems modeling, 16

technology-driven industries, 73, 74-75

worker compensation and, 76, 77

Telecommunications

industry prospects, 74-75

social implications, 75-76

Timetable for progress, 7, 64-65

Tooling, 39

Tools

modeling research, 44, 114

for planning and design, 114

Translation, language, 26

U

United States, 74-75

worker compensation in, 76-77

W

Waste management, 27-30

energy consumption, 30

environmental management, 83

research opportunities, 40-41, 116

technical challenges, 116

waste-free manufacturing, 29-30

Workforce

access to information, 11-12

adaptability, 104

automation and, 12, 19

business unit managers, 18-19

in concurrent manufacturing, 14

critical technologies for, 102-103

decision-making autonomy, 19

education and training, 46, 95, 109-110, 121

factory locations, 111

future of manufacturing, 10, 11-12, 110

globalization of manufacturing, 24

implications of telecommunications technology, 75-76, 109-110

integrated systems approach, 17-24

in knowledge economy, 106

in manufacturing network, 18

motivation, 19, 100, 121

performance evaluation, 19, 121

in programmable manufacturing, 97

research opportunities, 103

skills development, 18, 19, 22

in smaller companies, 104-105

standard of living, 75-76

systems interaction, 12, 14, 103

technical challenges, 117

work environment trends, 102, 104-105

Workshop on Visionary Manufacturing Challenges, 69-70

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
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Page 151
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
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Page 152
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
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Page 153
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
×
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
×
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1998. Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6314.
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Page 156
Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020 Get This Book
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Manufacturing will unquestionably be a very different enterprise in 2020 from what it is today. This book presents an exciting picture of the profitable and productive potential of manufacturing two decades hence.

This book takes an international view of future manufacturing that considers the leaps and bounds of technological innovation and the blurring of the lines between the manufacturing and service industries. The authors identify ten strategic technology areas as the most important for research and development and they recommend ways to address crosscutting questions. Representing a variety of industries, the authors identify six "grand challenges" that must be overcome for their vision to be realized, including the human/technology interface, environmental concerns, and miniaturization.

A host of issues are discussed that will push and pull at manufacturing over the next 20 years: the changing workforce, the changing consumer, the rise of bio- and nanotechnology, the prospects for waste-free processing, simulation and modeling as design tools, shifts in global competition, and much more.

The information and analyses in this book will be vitally important to everyone concerned about the future of manufacturing: policymakers, executives, design and engineering professionals, researchers, faculty, and students.

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