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Inclex A Ablation, 283 pressure, 224 surface, 231 Accelerator, 18, 19 beat-wave, 104 collective, 101-103, 286 collective focusing, 103 cyclotron resonant, 105-106 electron-ring (ERA), 102-103 grating, 105 high-gradient, 105 inverse Cerenkov, 105 inverse free-electron-laser, 105 laser-driven, 103-107 radio-frequency (rf), 107-108 space-charge, 102 wave, 102 Accretion, 283 Acoustics, 69-70 Activation, 283 Active galactic nuclei, 283 Adiabatic compression, 283 Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), 18, 99, 101 Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), 267 307 Aerodynamics, 76-80 computational, 90 Aerosol suspensions, 29, 39 Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), 45, 46 Air shower, 283-284 Air-sea interaction, 69 Alcator tokamak, 162-163, 165-166 Alfven speed, 284 waves, 84, 284 Alpha particle, 132, 146- 150, 284 Alpha-particle heating, 12 Ambipolar diffusion, 284 potential, 180, 284 Analytical methods, 88-89 Anisotropy, 284 Anomalous transport, 165, 284 ANTARES laser, 235, 284 Antenna, 284 Army Research Office (ARO), 45, 46 Arterial disease, 81-82 Aspect ratio, 284 Astronomical research, 265-266 Astrophysical magnetospheres, 249, 251- 252 Astrophysical plasma physics, 14, 243-281 ..

308 INDEX active space experiments, 270-271 definition, 246 future research opportunities, 27-28 impact of research on, 264-266 laboratory experiments, 269-270 in last 10 years, 255-263 in next 10 years, 263-264 principal conclusions, 243-244 principal recommendations, 244 relationship between space plasma physics and, 247-255 role of theory in, 271-272 significant recent accomplishments, 26- 27 support for, 35-36 in university curriculum, 280-281 Astrophysics, 280-281 Asymptotic analyses, 76-77 ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator), 18, 99, 101 Atmosphere, circulation of, 74 Atomic physics, 127-128 Atomic processes in plasmas, 124-128 Aurora, 252-254, 284-285 Auxiliary heating, 154, 285 AXAF (Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility), 267 Axial confinement, 176, 178-181 losses, 176 B Ballooning instability. 285 mode, 167-168 Banana orbits, 164-165, 285 Barn, 285 Beam-plasma interactions, 262, 285 Beat-wave accelerator, 104 Beta limits, 166-168, 181 values, 21, 23, 150, 152, 285 Bifurcation sequence, 62 theory, 61 Biofluid dynamics, 81-83 mechanics, see Fluid physics Bioheat transfer theory, 82 Black holes, 259, 285 Blackbodies, plasmas as, 132 Blackjack V, 98, 101 Blanket, 285 Boundary-value problems, 58 Bow shocks, planetary, 27 Boycott effect, 67 Breakeven, 285 thermalized, 148-149 Breaking of waves, 68 Bremsstrahlung, 286 inverse, 111, 228-229, 292 Brillouin instability, 229, 286 scattering, 286 Brownian motion, 59 Bubble formation, 75 Bumpsy tours, 286 Bunching, electron, 108-109, 289 Buoyancy-driven motion, 66-67 C Calutron, 114 Carbon dioxide, increasing, 85 Carbon dioxide laser, 286 Cardiovascular fluid mechanics, 82 Caviton, 2, 118 Cellular physiological function, 31, 42 Central cell, 286 Central-cell plasma, 180-181 Cerenkov radiation, 286 CFD (computational fluid dynamics), 28, 38-39, 78, 89-91 Chaos in Hamiltonian systems, 116-117 Charge exchange, 131, 286 neutrality, 286 Charged-particle beams, 99-100 Chemical kinetics, equations of, 49 Chromatography, hydrodynamic, 59 Circulation, mean, eddies and, 65 Classical confinement, 286 plasma, ideal, 7-8 Cloudy-day effect, 232 Coating flows, 69 Coherent radiation, 286 Collective accelerator, 101-103, 286 effects, 286

INDEX 309 fluctuations, 133 focusing accelerators, 103 Collimated bipolar jets, 249 Collision, 286 Collisional absorption, 228-229 Collisionless plasma, 4, 286 shock waves, 120, 254-255, 287 shocks, 262 Combustion, 48-51 research, 92 underground, 49 Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP), 266-267 Compact toroids (CTs), 22, 195-204, 287 Compressed fuel, cold, 224 Computational aerodynamics, 90 fluid dynamics (CFD), 28, 38-39, 78, 89-91 program, national, 15, 278-279 techniques, fluid physics, 43 Condensation, nonequilibrium, 75 Confinement axial, 176, 178-181 classical, 286 inertial, see Inertial, confinement magnetic, see Magnetic, confinement parameter, 148, 179, 287 radial, 176, 183-184 toroidal, 304 Contact line, 69 Controlled thermonuclear fusion, 287 Convection, 66 cells, large-scale, 256 in materials processes, 67 turbulent buoyant, 66 Coriolis force, 74 Corona, 287 Cosmic ray, 27, 254, 287 Cosmic-ray observations, 15 Coulomb collisions, 122 interaction energy, 7, 8 Coupled plasma physics, strongly, 8, 19, 136-140, 303 Coupling efficiency, 223-224 Cray computers, 138 CRM (cyclotron resonance masers), 109 E Cross section, 287 Cryosurgery, 75 CSSP (Committee on Solar and Space Physics), 266-267 CTs (compact toroids), 22, 195-204, 287 Current drive, 212-213, 287-288 radio-frequency, 21, 212-216 Cyclotron frequency, radiation, and resonance, 288 resonance masers (CRM), 109 resonant accelerator, 105- 106 D Darcy's law, 72 Data acquisition and instrumentation, 133-134 de Broglie wavelength, 8 Debye length, 7 shielding, 140, 288 Dense plasma, 7 Density current, 67 Department of Energy (DOE), 45, 46, 47 Deuterium, 132, 146-150, 288 Deuterium-deuterium reaction, 148 Deuterium-tritium fuel, 13, 14, 24 Deuterium-tritium reaction, 146- 150 Deuteron, 288 Diagnostics, 288 heavy-ion, 132 plasma, 128-136 Dielectric recombination, 125 Direct conversion, 288 converter, 174 illumination, 288 Disruption, 288 Divertor, 163, 288 DOE (Department of Energy), 45-47 Doppler measurements, 130-131 Double layers, 120, 288 Drag reduction, 52-53 Drift wave, 289 Drift-wave turbulence, 124 Driver, 289 energy, 155 technology, 25 Dynamo processes, 289 Earth's magnetic tail, 289

3 1 0 INDEX Earth's magnetosphere, 249-250, 256 EBFA (Electron Beam Fusion Accelera- tor), 98 EBT (Elmo Bumpy Torus), 22, 185- 189, 290 ECRH (electron cyclotron resonance heating) power, 187, 206-212 Eddies, mean circulation and? 65 Eddy-resolving computer models, 29, 39 Education, fluid physics, 43-44, 45 Electrically conducting fluids, flows of, 83-84 Electromagnetic modes, 110 radiation, 289 wave-plasma interaction, 111 - 116 Electron, 289 beams, intense, 98 bunching, 108-109, 289 collisional ionization, 126 cyclotron frequency, 114- 115 cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power, 187, 206-212, 289 density, 289 gas, 8 heat transport in solar wind, 26 plasmas, 141 - 142 superthermal, 305 suprathermal, 229 temperature, 289 volt (eV), 147, 289 Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator (EBFA), 98 Electron-ion scattering, 126 Electron-positron pair plasmas, 289 Electron-ring accelerator (ERA), 102-103 Electrostatic localization, 182 plugging, 179, 289 potential, 290 Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT), 22, 185- 189, 290 Elmo linear mirror, 187 End plugs, 290 End-mirror cells, 174-175 Endocytosis, 57 Energetic particles, acceleration of, 260- 261 Energy multiplication factor Q. 148-150 Energy-confinement time, 290 Energy-loss processes, 153 ERA (electron-ring accelerator), 102-103 Erosion switch, 100 eV (electron volt), 147, 289-290 Evaporation, nonequilibrium, 75 Executive summary, 1-35 Exocytosis, 57 "Exploding pusher?' regime, 233 F FEL (free-electron laser), 5, 109, 290 Fermi energy, 8 Fertile material, 290 Field-reversed configuration (FRC), 195 203, 290 Fissile material, 290 Flame turbulent, 50-51 propagation, 50 Flight, study of, 81 Flow facilities, 93-94 physics, 9 systems, multiphase, 31, 41 Fluctuations, 290 Fluid dynamics computational (CFD), 28, 38-39, 78, 89-91 geophysical (GFD), 84-86 Lagrangian, 85 flow, stability of, 60-62 mechanics, see also Fluid physics cardiovascular, 82 classical, 49 historical funding for, 48 viscous, 57-60 motion, 8-9, 36 turbulent, 2 physics, 8-1O, 36-94; see also Inertial, confinement; Magnetic, confine ment branches of, 48-76 computational techniques, 43 education, 43-44, 45 future research opportunities, 22-23, 25, 30-32, 40-42 general findings concerning, 1-2 instrumentation techniques, 43 introduction and overview, 36-38 principal findings, 42-44

INDEX principal recommendations, 44-45 recommendations, 2-3 research field of, 16-17 research support, 44-45 significant recent accomplishments, 20-22, 24-25, 28-30, 38-40 significant research opportunities, 40 support for, 35 support structure for, 42-43 technical disciplines, 88-94 topical subject areas, 76-88 Fluid-dynamic instrumentation tech niques, 91-93 Fluid-dynamic modeling, 29, 40 Fluid-physics research funding levels, 47 Force-free states, turbulent relaxation to 119-120 Forced reconnection, 119 FRC (field-reversed configuration), 195- H 203, 290 Free-electron laser (FEL), 5, 109, 290 radiation sources, 19, 107- 110, 290 "Frozen-in" theorem, 118 Fuel droplets, individual, 50 Fuel economy, 31, 41 transport, 78 Funding resources, 32, 33 Fusion, 290 applications, advanced, 236-237 concepts, alternate, 241 controlled thermonuclear, 287 laser, 112, 293 plasma, 5 confinement and heating, 11-14, 144 242 funding of research, 238-239 ignited, 12 scope and objectives of research, 144 156 power systems, 144 process, 146-150 reaction rate, 147 reactors, 236-237 research, 144-146 systems, inertial-confinement, 221-236 thermonuclear, 4-5, 108, 144 Fusion-fission hybrid, 290 G Gabor lens, 142 311 Galaxy, 248 Gamma rays, 290 Gas dynamics, see Fluid, physics Gas turbine engine, 37 Gaseous diffusion plants, 114 Geometrical optics, 291 Geophysical flows, 54, 76 fluid dynamics (GFD), 84-86 motions, 60 turbulence, 65 GFD (geophysical fluid dynamics), 84-86 Grating accelerator, 105 Gravity current, 67 Guiding center, 291 Gyrofrequency, 206 Gyrotron, 109, 209, 291 Hamiltonian systems, chaos in, 116- 117 Heat flow, 231-232 Heavy-ion beams, 155-156, 291 diagnostics, 132 Heavy-ion-beam generators, 226 Helical, term, 291 Hertz, 291 High-gradient accelerator, 105 High-speed flows, 55-56 HNC (hyper-netted chain) equation, 137- 138 Hohlraum, 25, 227, 291 Hybrid confinement system, 141 Hydrodynamic chromatography, 59 efficiency, 291 instability, 234, 291 Hydrodynamics low-Reynolds-number, 57-59 physicochemical, 58 radiation, 70-72 Hydromagnetic instability, 291 Hyper-netted chain (HNC) equation, 137- 138 I ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating), 188-189, 206-212 Ideal magnetohydrodynamics, 122-123, 291

3 12 INDEX Ignition, 224, 291-292 Implosion, 292 symmetry, 224 uniformity, 233-234 Impurities, 292 Induced spatial incoherence, 234 Inertial confinement, 13-14, 145-146, 151, 154- 156, 292 future research opportunities, 25 national laboratories involved in, 34 principal findings and recommenda- tions, 241-242 significant recent accomplishments, 24-25 confinement fusion systems, 221-236 major, 225 Instability theory, 74 Institutional involvement, 32-35 Instrumentation techniques fluid-dynamic, 91-93 noninvasive, 30, 40 Intense beams, 97-101 Interchange instability, 292 mode, 167 Interface phenomena, 67-69 Interferometry microwave, 130 very-long-baseline technique, 259 International Solar-Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP), 267, 276-277 Inverse bremsstrahlung, 111, 228-229, 292 Inverse Cerenkov accelerator, 105 Inverse free-electron-laser accelerator, 105 Ion, 292 acoustic wave, 292 beams, intense, 98 cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), 188-189, 206-212, 292 temperature, 292 Ion-ion collisions, 126 Ionization, 292 Ionization Front Accelerator, 102 Ionosphere, 4, 292 Irradiation, 292 Isotope, 292 separation, 114-116 separation research, 5 ISTP (International Solar-Terrestrial Physics Program), 266, 275-276 J JET (Joint European Torus), 158, 293 Jet noise, 70 Jets collimated bipolar, 249 magnetohydrodynamic, 257-259 Joint European Torus (JET), 158, 293 JT-60, 293 K KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser) theo- rem, 116 Kedem-Katchalsky equations, 56 Kilometric radiation, 293 Kink instability, 293 mode, 167 Klystron, 107, 293 Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser (KAM) theo- rem, 116 Krypton-fluoride excimer laser, 25 laser, 293 L Lagrangian fluid dynamics, 85 Laminar-flame structures, 50 Langmuir turbulence, 118 wave, 293 Large-scale plasma flows, 256-259 Laser, 293 free-electron (FEL), 5, 109, 290 fusion, 112, 293 krypton fluoride examiner, 25, 293 light, 111 coupling of, to plasma, 228, 231 neodymium-glass, 226, 297 pumping, 293 scattering, 130 Laser-coupling physics, 13 Laser-driven accelerators, 103-107 Laser-plasma coupling, 24, 25 Laser-target physics, 226-227

INDEX 3 13 Lawson criterion, 293 parameter, 20-21, 148 LHH (lower-hybrid frequency), 208, 209, 212 Lie algebraic techniques, 120 Light-ion beams, 293 driver technology, 24 fusion, 293 Light-ion-beam generators, 226 Limiter, 163, 293-294 Linear stability theory, 83 Linear waves, 294 Liquefied natural gas, 49 Loss cone, 294 Loss-cone instabilities, 177-178, 294 Low-impedance multiterawatt machines, 98 Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics, 57-59 Lower hybrid, 294 Lower-hybrid frequency (LHH), 208, 209, 212 Luce diode, 102 M Macroscopic equilibrium, 122 instability, 294 Macrostability, 176, 181-183 Magnetic bottle, 150, 153, 294 confinement, 11-13, 20-23, 145, 150- 154, 294; see also Stellarator; Tokamak mirror, 151, 152 plasma theory developments related to, 120-124 principal findings and recommenda- tions, 240-241 toroidal, 151, 152, 304 universities involved in, 34 field, 4 interaction of turbulence with, 259- 260 flux, 121 hills and wells, 122-123 insulation, 294 island, 294 mirror, 294 mirror confinement, 294-295 mirror field, 173 mirror systems, 172-185; see also Mir- ror entries pressure, 295 reconnection, 118-119, 252-254 storm, 265, 295 Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee (MFAC), 12 Magneto hydrodynamic atmospheres and winds, 248-249 instability, 181 jets, 257-259 Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), 84, 247, 295 ideal, 122-123, 292 resistive, 123, 301 Magnetopause, 295 Magnetosonic waves, 295 Magnetosphere, 26, 249-252, 295 astrophysical, 249, 251-252 Earth's, 249-250, 256 neutron star, 257 planetary, 249, 251-252, 256 Magnetron, 107 relativistic, 109 Manpower resources, 32, 33 Marangoni ejects, 61 Marx generator, 295 MFAC (Magnetic Fusion Advisory Com- mittee), 12 MHD, see Magnetohydrodynamics Microhydrodynamic theory, 82 Microinstabilities, 123-124, 166, 173, 296 in tokamaks, 20 Micrometer, 296 Microscopic instability, 296 Microstability, 176, 177-178 Microwave interferometry, 130 Microwaves, 296 Minimum-B configuration, 296 Minimum-energy state, 296 Mirror, 172-173 machine, 152-153 single-cell, 174, 179, 180 tandem, 174-185 magnetic confinement, 151, 152 ratio, 178, 179, 296 tandem, see Tandem mirror entries

314 INDEX Modeling, 88-89 numerical, 6 Modular stellarator, 157 Molecular-scale phenomena, 56 Monte Carlo techniques, 57, 137-139, 296 Multiphase flow, 86-88 flow systems, 31, 41 Multiphoton excitation, 29, 39-40 Multiterawatt machines, low-impedance, 98 N National Aeronautics and Space Admin- istration (NASA), 46, 47 National computational program, 15, 278- 279 National Magnetic Fusion Energy Com- puter Center (NMFECC), 11, 240 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- ministration (NOAA), 46, 47 National Science Foundation (NSF), 46, 47 Natural gas, liquefied, 49 Navier-Stokes equations, 49, 88 Reynolds-averaged, 90, 91 Negative-ion beams, 296 Neoclassical, term, 296 Neodymium-glass laser, 226, 296 Neutral gas interaction with plasma, 263-264 injection, 296 plasma, 140-141 Neutral-beam heating, 21, 204, 216-221 Neutron, 132, 296 star, 27, 297 star magnetosphere, 257 NMFECC (National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center), 11, 240 NMR (nuclear-magnetic-resonance) scans, 116 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration), 46, 47 Noise generation, 70 Nonequilibrium evaporation and conden- sation, 75 Noninvasive instrumentation techniques, SO, 40 Nonlinear, term, 297 Nonlinear wave, 297 Nonneutral plasma, 20, 140-143, 297 Non-Newtonian fluids, 51-53 NOVA neodymium-glass laser, 235, 297 NSF (National Science Foundation), 46, 47 Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) scans, 116 Nuclear reactions, vortex containment of, 55 reactors, 86 war, 85 Nucleation phenomena, 75 Nucleosynthesis, 297 Nucleus, polarized, 236 Numerical models and simulations, 6, 16- 17, 89, 274-280, 297 o Oceanographic sensors, 92 Oceans, circulation of, 74 OCP (one-component classical plasma), 136-139 Office of Naval Research (ONR), 46, 47 Ohmic heating, 297 One-component classical plasma (OCP), 136-139 ONR (Office of Naval Research), 46, 47 OPEN mission, 266 Osmosis, 57 microstructure of, 83 p Parametric decay, 229, 297 instabilities, 111-112, 118, 297-298 Particle acceleration, 254 confinement and transport, 262 ring, 196-197, 298 Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA), 98 Particle-beam inertial fusion, 226 Particulate suspensions, 29, 39 PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelera- tor), 98 PBFA I (Particle Beam Fusion Accelera- tor), 98 PBFA II, 297 Pellet design, 24 Penning trap, 141

INDEX 3 15 Perfusion, lung, 83 Phase change, 74-76 Photon, 298 Physicochemical hydrodynamics, 58 Physics atomic, 127-128 flow, 9 fluid, see Fluid entries laser-coupling, 13 laser-target, 226-227 plasma, see Plasma, physics transport, 202 Physiological function, cellular, 31, 42 Pinch effect, 298 Pipe flows, 75 Pipelines, slurry, 87 Pitch angle, 298 scattering, 298 Planetary bow shocks, 27 magnetospheres, 249, 251-252, 256 rotation, 74 Plasma, 4, 95, 298 activity, time-resolved, 132-133 atomic processes in, 124-128 as blackbody, 132 central-cell, 180-181 classification of, 6-8 collisionless, 4, 286 confinement, 144-146, 298; see also Inertial, confinement; Magnetic, confinement corona, 111 coupling of laser light to, 228-231 cross section, 298 dense, 7 dense nonneutral, 10 diagnostics, 128-136 effects, 3 electromagnetic wave interaction with, 111-116 electron, 141-142 equilibrium, 298 erosion opening switch, 100 flows, large-scale, 256-259 flows, small-scale, 166 frequency, 298 fusion, see Fusion, plasma heating, 204-221 ideal classical, 7-8 instabilities, 153, 298 jet, 27 neutral, 140-141 neutral gas interaction with, 262-263 nonlinear phenomenain, 116-120 nonneutral, 20, 140-143, 297 one-component classical (OCP), 136- 139 oscillations, 4, 245 parameters, 134 tokamak, 161, 162 physics applications of, 1-2 astrophysical, see Astrophysical plasma physics basic, 95 basic research, 10 emergence of, 3-6 funding for, 32-33 future research opportunities, 19-20 general, 10-11, 95-143 scope and objectives of, 95-97 general findings concerning, 1-2 magnetic confinement and, 120-124 modern, 4, 245 nonlinear, 2, 10, 96 Rayleigh-Taylor instability in, 26 recommendations, 2-3 research in, 33, 97 significant recent accomplishments, 18-19 solar-system, 14- 15, 266-267 space, see Space plasma physics strongly coupled, 136- 140, 302 in university curriculum, 279-281 plug, 181 quantum, 8 radiation, 298-299 space, 5-6 strongly coupled, 8, 19, 302 with superhigh-energy densities, 277 temperature, 6-7 tenuous, 6 toroidal, 161 wave, 299 Plasma-arc centrifuge, 142 Plug plasma, 181 Polarization, 299 Polarized nucleus, 236 Poloidal diverter, 299 field, 299

3 16 INDEX Ponderomotive force, 18, 299 Porous media, 72-73 Positron, 299 Process simulations in next decade, 276- 277 Proton, 299 Proton Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA A, 98 Pulsar, 252, 299 Pulse power system, 299 technology, 97-98 Pulselac, 103 Pumped limiter, 163, 299 Q Q energy multiplication factor, 148-150 Quantitative models, 273-275 Quantum plasma, 8 Quasars, 299-300 R Radar, 108 backscatter, 300 Radial very-high-frequency, 271 confinement, 176, 183-184 losses, 176 Radiation, 300 belts, terrestrial, 4 hydrodynamics, 70-72 sources, free-electron, 19-20, 107-110, 290 Radio emissions, generation of, 262 Radio-frequency (rf) accelerators, 107-108 current drive, 21, 212-216 heating, 204-212, 300 frequencies and power sources used for, 206 major ongoing projects, 208 major planned experiments, 212 Radio galaxies, 300 Radius of gyration, 300 Raman instability, 229, 300 Raman scattering, stimulated (SRS), 112 Rayleigh-Taylor instability, 26, 234-235 Reacting flows, 48-51 Reconnection, 26, 260, 300 forced, 119 magnetic, 118-119, 252-254 Refraction, 300 Relativistic magnetron, 109 particles, 301 "Reptation" theory, 53 Resistive instability, 301 magnetohydrodynamics, 123, 301 Resonance absorption, 111, 229 "Resonant transport" loss, 183-184 Resources, funding and manpower, 32, 33 Reversed-field pinch (REP), 22, 190-195, 301 Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equa- tions, 90, 91 rf, see Radio-frequency entries RFP (reversed-field pinch), 22, 190-195, 301 Rheology, 53 Rotating phenomena, 73-74 Rotational fields, initially, 53-54 transform, 160, 301 S Safety factor, 301 Scattering, 301 Second stability regime, 301 Secondary flow, 54 Sediment transport, 68 Sedimentation of particles, 59 Self-focusing instabilities, 229-230 Separated flows, 55 Separation, isotope, 114-116 Separatrix, 195, 301 Shear flows, 64 deformation and breakup of small drops in, 68 Shock-free flows, 77 Single-cell mirror machine, 174, 179, 180 Single-particle orbits, 121 Single-phase flows, 72-73 Size scaling, 22 Slurry pipelines, 87 Solar chromosphere, 302 corona, 27, 301 coronal holes, 256, 301 coronal loops, 256, 301

INDEX 3 17 flare, 252, 264, 301-302 photosphere, 302 research, 246 surface, 26 system, 6, 14, 243 wind, 4, 248-249, 253, 302 electron heat transport in, 26 Solar-system plasma physics, 14- 15, 266- 267 Solar-terrestrial physics, 302 Solar-Terrestrial Theory Program, 272 Solid surface, spreading of liquids on, 69 Soliton, 2, 18, 68, 117-118, 302 Sound generation and propagation, 69-70 Space charge, 302 accelerators, 102 Space plasma physics, 5-6, 14-15, 243-281 active space experiments, 270-271 definition, 246 future research opportunities, 27-28 impact of research on, 264-265 laboratory experiments, 269-270 in last 10 years, 255-263 in next 10 years, 263-264 principal conclusions, 243-244 principal recommendations, 244 relationship between astrophysical plasma physics and, 247-255 relationship between laboratory and, 246-247 role of theory in, 271-272 significant recent accomplishments, 26- 27 support for, 34-35 in university curriculum, 279-280 Space Shuttle, 271 Spectroscopy, 130-131 Spheromak, 19, 192, 196, 198, 199-201, 302 SRS (stimulated Raman scattering), 112 Stability of fluid flow, 60-62 Statistical phenomena, 56-57 Stellarator, 22, 156-172, 302 current frontiers of research, 168-171 major advances, 161-168 modular, 157 prospects for future advances, 171-172 representative, 159 Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), 112 STM (Symmetric Tandem Mirror) experi- ment, 188 Strange attractors, 64, 120 Substorms, 302 Sun, 246, 248; see also Solar entries in situ measurements near, 263 Sunspot, 302-303 Super-Alfvenic, term, 303 Superconductor, 303 Supernova, 303 Supersettlers, 67 Superthermal electrons, 303 Suprathermal electrons, 229 Surfatron, 104 Suspended particles, 67 Suspensions, particulate and aerosol, 29, 39 Symmetric Tandem Mirror (STM) experi- ment, 188 Synchrotron radiation, 303 Systems models in next decade, 275-276 T Tailed radio galaxies, 252 Tandem mirror, 12, 303 concept, 21, 23 system, 174-185 Symmetric (STM), 188 Target, 303 Tearing instability, 303 Tearing mode, 167, 168 Temperature, plasma, 6-7 Tenuous plasma, 6 Terrella, 303 Terrestrial radiation belts, 4 TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor), 12, 158, 303 Thermal barrier, 303-304 conductivity, 304 Thermalized breakeven, 148-149 Thermonuclear burn, 304 conditions, 304 fusion, 4-5, 108, 144; see also Fusion entries controlled, 287 Theta-pinch configuration, 5 Thomson scattering, 130 Three-dimensional flows, 90 Time-resolved plasma activity, 132-133 Tokamak, 5, 11, 108, 152, 156-172, 304 Alcator, 162-163, 165-166 approach, 20

3 18 INDEX current frontiers of research, 168- 171 major advances, 161 - 168 plasma parameters, 160, 162 prospects for future advances, 171-172 representative, 159 scaling laws, 23 trapped-particle orbits in, 164 Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), 12, 158, 304 Tokamak-stellarator hybrids, 170-171 Toroidal field, 304 magnetic confinement, 151, 152, 304 plasma, 161 Toroids, compact (CTs), 22, 195-204, 287 Torsatron, 304 Transmission line, 304 Transport fuel economy, 78 physics, 202 Trapped particles, 304 Traveling-wave tube, 107 Tritium, 146-150, 304 Triton, 304 Tsunamis, 68 Turbomachinery flows, 73 Turbulence, 30, 40, 62-66, 304 drift-wave, 124 geophysical, 65 interaction of, with magnetic fields, 259-260 Langmuir, 118 Turbulent buoyant convection, 66 flame, 50-51 flows, 28-29, 39 fluid motion, 2 relaxation to force-free states, 119- 120 Two-plasmon instability, 229 U Underground combustion, 49 University curriculum, plasma physics in, 279-281 Unsteady separated flows, 56 V Vacuum-plasma-arc centrifuge, 115 Velocity space instability, 305 Ventilation, lung, 83 Very-high-frequency radar backscatter, 270 Very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) technique, 259 Viscosity-dominated flows, 57-60 Viscous fluid mechanics, 57-60 VLBI (very-long-baseline-interferometry) technique, 258-259 Vortex containment of nuclear reactions, 55 Vortex tubes, 54 Vortex-dominated flows, 53-55 W W Weissenberg number, 52 Wave accelerators, 102 Wave-antenna coupling, 207 Wave-particle interactions, 305 Wave propagation, 207 Waveguide, 305 Wavelength, 305 Waves, breaking of, 68 Weissenberg number W. 52 Wiggler field, 105, 109 X X ray, 305 X-ray sources, Z-pinch, 99 z Z-pinch, 305 Z-pinch x-ray sources, 99