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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
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Index

A

Addiction, 20(n.2), 28, 32, 33-34, 36-38, 119, 120

benefit-cost analyses, 170

DSM-IV, 18, 119

general theory, 40-41

historical perspectives, 9-11

prevalence, 80

substitutes for gambling, 194

treatment, 192, 194, 205, 206-208

withdrawal symptoms, 27, 29, 38, 119, 205, 227, 281

see also Alcohol use and abuse;

Substance use and abuse

Adolescents, 42, 118, 249-250, 256, 257

alcohol abuse, 93-94

American Indians, 116

card games, 85, 88, 140

casino gambling, 88, 283-311 (passim)

criminal behavior, 160

diagnostic tools, 43

gambling machines, 88, 113, 255

lotteries, 88, 140, 250

methodological issues, 85-87, 89, 92-93

onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 118, 140, 274, 276, 280

peer influences, 117

prevalence, 3, 63, 84-94, 113-114

prevention, 219-220

state by state legislative summary, 285-311

state legal age for gambling, by state, 283-284, 285-311

substance abuse, 93-94, 99-100, 110-111, 117

treatment, 222

urban, 109

Advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307

African Americans, 97, 115-116

Age factors, 3, 108, 110-111, 113-115, 133

cohort effects, 65, 94-95, 108, 110-111

elderly persons, 3-4, 63, 94-95, 114, 250, 251, 253

onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 131, 138, 142, 274, 276, 280

prevalence, 94-95

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

state by state legislative summary, 285-311

state legal age for gambling, by state, 283-284, 285-311

treatment, 114, 217, 222

see also Adolescents;

Children

Alabama, 285

Alaska, 285

Alcohol use and abuse

adolescents, 93-94

American Indians, 131

children of alcoholics, 34, 118, 274

comorbidity, 131, 135, 139, 159, 251, 277

health insurance, 221

pathological gambling compared with, 18, 22, 34, 119, 122, 274

natural recovery, 210

prevalence, 63, 80, 81, 93-94, 99

treatment, 205, 206

spouses, 276

see also Addiction

American Academy of Health Care Providers in the Addictive Disorders , 218

American Compulsive Gambling Counselor Certification Board, 218

American Indians, 82, 115-116, 182, 287, 303

alcohol abuse, 131

benefits of gambling, 156

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131

American Psychiatric Association, 2, 31, 38, 212

see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Anxiety and anxiety disorders, 24, 109, 126, 138, 202, 223

DSM criteria, 274, 276, 278, 281

Antisocial personality disorder, 5, 31, 122, 137-138, 139, 142

DSM criteria, 137, 138, 274-275, 277, 281

substance abuse and, 137-138

Arizona, 246, 285-286

Arkansas, 286

Arousal, see Sensation-seeking

Asians, 115-116

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 33, 41, 120, 122, 138, 279

Attitudes and beliefs

luck, 29-30, 196, 241-242, 243, 245

gamblers, other, 42, 46, 61, 179, 202, 220, 237, 241-246, 250, 276 , 279;

see also Risk-taking

social, 164;

see also Public opinion

Australia, 137, 161, 164, 178-181, 186

Autobiography as treatment, 206-207

Aversion therapy, 199-201

B

Balanced measurement studies, 174-185, 186

Behavioral-environmental models, 17, 37, 38, 39-40, 46, 112, 115-119

see also Organization of gambling;

Social factors;

Technology of gambling

Behavioral treatments, 199-203, 224, 313-316

Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs

Benefit-cost studies, 157-158, 162-186

casinos, 163-166, 175, 177-178, 182-184, 186

crime, 176, 177, 178, 180

methodology, 157-158, 162-186

social factors, 163-164, 173-174, 175-178, 180-185

Bingo, 78-79, 80, 238, 248, 250-251, 252

state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim)

state legal age for participation, by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim)

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

Biological factors, 16, 109, 111, 119-127, 142, 143, 223

addiction, 37-38, 120-127

comorbidity, 128

reward deficiency syndrome, 41

risk-taking, 17

twin studies, 4, 119-120, 143

see also Neurobiological factors;

Pharmacological treatments

Bipolar disorder, 134, 204

Black persons, see African Americans

Brain, 37, 41, 119, 120, 124-127, 142

see also Neurobiological factors

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 165-166

C

California, 70, 74, 118, 215, 246, 286-287

Canada, 66-67, 114, 135, 139, 161, 179(n.11), 210

Carbamazepine, 204, 313

Card games, 16, 241-242, 244, 251, 255

adolescents, 85, 88, 140

prevalence, 72, 73, 85, 88, 252

Case studies, treatment, 192, 199, 200, 202-203

Casino gambling, 8, 11, 16, 247, 251, 253, 255

adolescents, 88, 283-311 (passim)

arousal rates, 35, 40

benefit-cost analyses, 163-166, 175, 177-178, 182-184, 186

family factors, 117

historical perspectives, 238

prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79, 82, 88, 195, 252

state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim)

state legal age for participation by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4

Charitable gambling, 80, 283-284

prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79

Children, 17, 33, 40, 113, 249-250, 255, 274

of alcoholics, 34, 118, 274

of gamblers, 4, 159, 168, 207, 250, 274

onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 138, 140, 142

see also Adolescents

Clinical diagnosis, see Diagnosis

Clinical studies, 42, 48-49, 108, 179

comorbidity, 128-129, 132-133, 135, 136

DSM criteria and, 26, 27

suicide, 135

treatment, 199, 203, 204-205

Clomipramine, 204

Cognitive factors, 10, 16, 29, 40-41, 240-243, 250, 279

definitional issues, 16

family factors, 118

gambling skills, 16, 48, 72, 73, 88, 117, 238-239, 242, 244-245, 253;

see also Mathematical skills

organization of gambling, 238-239

prevention, 220

treatment, 202-203, 206-207, 209, 224, 313-316

see also Attitudes and beliefs;

Risk-taking

Cohort effects, 65, 94-95, 108, 110-111

defined, 110

see also Age factors

Colorado, 287-288

Commission on a National Policy Toward Gambling, 42

Comorbidity, 4, 9, 19, 35-36, 80, 107, 127-139, 141, 142-143

alcoholism, 131, 135, 139, 159, 251, 277

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

clinical studies, 128-129, 132-133, 135, 136

defined, 32, 127-128

DSM, 32, 129, 133, 137, 139

methodological issues, 128-139 (passim), 141, 259

personality disorders, 137-138, 142, 196, 279

population studies, 131, 135, 136, 139

psychiatric disorders, 9, 37, 126, 129, 133, 137-138

substance abuse, 130-132, 135, 139, 142, 196, 207, 224, 276, 279

treatment issues, 128-129, 133, 138, 196, 198, 205

see also Depression;

Mood disorders;

Suicide

Compulsive gambling, 29, 38, 205, 240, 275-277, 278

defined, 12, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31-33

Gamblers Anonymous, 20 questions, 11, 271-272

legalization of gambling and, 80

national prevalence, 65-66

pathological gambling vs, 23-24

see also Impulse control disorders

Compulsive Gambling Society of New Zealand, 135

Computer technology, 5, 251-252, 253, 256-257, 258

research methodology, 143

see also Internet;

Gambling machines

Connecticut, 70, 74, 82, 83, 86, 90, 179(n.11), 215, 216, 288

Cooccurrence, see Comorbidity

Costs to individuals, 79, 156-157

adolescents, 92

benefit-cost analyses, 157, 158-160, 163, 180-181

debt, 158, 160, 161, 163, 168-171, 176, 177, 181

DSM criteria, 158, 273-279 (passim), 282

Gambler's Anonymous 20 questions, 271-272

longitudinal studies, 259

treatment issues, 194, 196, 206-207, 212

see also Debt

Counseling, 135, 207, 213, 217-218

behavioral, 200, 224

certification, 217-218, 222-223

psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, 197-199, 205, 313-315

telephone help lines, 114-115, 135, 214-217

therapist characteristics, 224-225

see also Gamblers Anonymous;

Self-help treatments

Crime and criminal behavior

adolescents, 160

benefit-cost analyses, 176, 177, 178, 180

gamblers involved in, 2, 5, 11, 26, 48, 135, 137, 158-159, 160-161 , 176, 177, 178, 180, 196, 272

DSM criteria, 273-274, 275, 276, 281

illegal gambling, 65, 72, 73, 88, 248

organized, 7-8

pathological gambling as exculpatory condition, 30-31

see also Substance use and abuse

Cultural factors, 1, 7, 16, 18, 19, 38, 219

moral viewpoints, 5, 8, 16, 26, 39

religious influences, 11, 194, 239

stigmatization of gamblers, 5, 26;

see also Shame and guilt

see also Minority groups;

Social factors

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

D

Debt, 3, 48, 158-159, 271

benefit-cost analyses, 158, 160, 161, 163, 168-171, 176, 177, 181

crime, gamblers involved in, 2, 5, 11, 26, 48, 135, 137, 158-159, 160-161, 176, 177, 178, 180, 196, 272

DSM criteria, 273-279 (passim), 281, 282

historical perspectives, 9-10

treatment issues, 196, 207, 212

Definitional issues, 15-62

adolescents, 22

cognitive factors, 16

cohort effects, 110

comorbidity, 32, 127-128

compulsive gambling, 12, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31-33

diagnosis, 15-41, 49-50

etiology, 107

excessive gambling, 20, 21-22

historical perspectives, 16, 23, 25-27

incidence, 64

medicalization of gambling, 19-20, 22, 38, 108

pathological gambling, 21-25

problem gambling, 20-25

psychiatric disorders, general, 21-24, 44, 45, 49-51, 106, 121

recreational gambling, 21

research methodology, 15-41, 48-50, 64

self-help treatments, 25, 37

social factors, 16, 18, 19, 32, 38

DSM criteria, 27, 273, 277, 278

treatment, 193-194

see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Delaware, 215, 289

Demographic factors, 97-98, 109, 112-118, 141, 142, 239

disabled persons, 98

educational attainment, 98, 99, 109, 195, 244

rural areas, 142

treatment seekers, 195, 216-217

see also Age factors;

Family factors;

Gender factors;

Minority groups;

Urban areas

Department of Commerce, BEA, 165-166

Depression, 28, 35, 126, 132-134, 136, 159, 196, 198, 204, 207, 212 , 278, 279, 281

see also Escapism;

Shame and guilt;

Suicide

Descriptive studies, 45, 141, 160, 171, 173-174

Diagnosis, 2-3, 12, 42-47, 108

definitional issues, 15-41, 49-50

historical perspectives, 10-11

prevalence research and, 64

tools, table, 43

see also Etiology;

Screening

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2, 18, 21, 30, 38, 48-49, 50, 114, 142, 203

addiction, 36-37

comorbidity, 32, 129, 133, 137, 139

compulsive behavior, 24, 33

crime, 273-274, 275, 276, 281

family factors, 25, 273-277 (passim), 281

gender factors, 115, 274, 276, 277, 279-280

gradations of gambling problems, 23, 24

historical perspectives, 25-27, 48-49, 108, 273-282

individual costs, 158, 273-279 (passim), 282

legal issues, pathological gambling as exculpatory condition, 30-31

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

natural recovery, 210

prevalence, 68, 70-71, 76, 80, 86-87, 99, 276, 279-280

problem gambling, 23-24

text of, 273-282

twin studies, 119

Disabled persons, 98

District of Columbia, 289

Dog racing, see Horse and dog racing

Dopamine system, 37-38, 120-122, 124, 125, 205

Drug abuse, see Alcohol use and abuse; Substance use and abuse

Drugs, treatment of gamblers, see Pharmacological treatments

DSM, see Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

E

Economic factors, 4, 12, 15, 19, 156-186, 252-253

benefit-cost analyses, 157-158, 162-186

benefits of gambling, 8, 156, 160, 172

health insurance, 5, 211-212, 214, 221, 222

indirect effects, 165

input-output models, 165-166, 172-173

natural recovery, 210

socioeconomic status and prevalence, 97-98, 99, 157-158, 249

taxes, 156, 176, 213-214, 219, 273

tourism, 156, 178

transfer effects, 164-165, 167-170, 179

treatment costs, 194, 206-207, 213-214, 221-222;

see also "health insurance" supra benefit-cost analyses, 181, 183-184, 220-222

see also Costs to individuals;

Debt;

Employment issues;

Funding;

Poverty

Educational attainment, 98, 99, 109, 195, 244

Elderly persons, 3-4, 63, 94-95, 114, 250, 251, 253

Employment issues, 97-98, 156, 160, 161, 165, 166, 180, 182-183, 185, 196

DSM criteria, 275, 277, 278, 282

Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 129, 133, 135-136, 139

Escapism, 26, 27, 29, 35-36, 40

Ethnicity, see Minority groups

Etiology, 2-3, 28-30, 45, 107-155

associations vs causal relations, 108-109, 111-112

defined, 107

diagnostic criteria, 108, 114, 115, 129, 133, 137, 139, 142, 273-282 (passim)

see also Clinical studies;

Comorbidity;

Diagnosis;

specific risk factors (Age factors, Biological factors, Suicide, etc.)

Excessive gambling, defined, 20, 21-22

Extraversion, 109

F

Family factors, 4, 38, 109, 114, 117-118, 142, 249, 254, 257

benefit-cost analyses, 163, 176, 180-181

DSM criteria, 25, 273-277 (passim), 281

gambling promotions, 219

impact on, 3, 11, 25, 48, 156-157, 158-159, 163, 168

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

psychoanalytic treatment, 198, 199

spouses of gamblers, 159, 201, 207, 209, 215, 225, 274, 275, 305, 311

treatment, 198, 199, 207, 209, 225

see also Children

Federal government, see Legislation; specific departments and agencies

Financial impacts of gambling, see Debt

Financial market gambling, 72, 73, 88

Florida, 86, 90, 177-178, 177-178, 216, 289

Fluvoxamine, 204-205

Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries

Friends, see Peer influences

Funding, 222

telephone help lines, 215

treatment, other, 213-214, 221-222

G

Gam-Anon, 213

Gamblers Anonymous, 11, 20(n.2), 182, 204, 207, 208-209, 213, 224

definitional issues, 23

etiological studies, 115, 121, 134-135, 160

families, 159

meetings by state, 317-318

twenty questions, 11, 271-272

Gambling machines, 5, 215, 238, 242, 244, 245, 252, 253, 254-257, 258

adolescents, 88, 113, 255

arousal, 35, 124

escapism, 29

prevalence, 72, 73, 88

state by state legislative summary, 294-295

state legal age for participation, by state, 283, 294-295

Gender factors, 29, 109, 115, 140-141, 142, 238-239, 244, 250-251, 253

children, 113

DSM criteria, 115, 274, 276, 277, 279-280

escapism, 29

prevalence of gambling, 63, 95-96, 99, 255, 277, 279-280

risk-taking, 28

skill level of games, 238-239, 244, 253

treatment issues, 195, 198, 217, 222

Genetic factors, see Biological factors

Georgia, 70, 74, 86, 90, 116, 289-290

Germany, 179(n.11)

Government role, see Federal government; State government

Gross impact studies, 172-173

Guilt, see Shame and guilt

H

Hawaii, 290

Health insurance, 5, 211-212, 214, 221, 222

Hispanics, 97, 115-116, 217

Historical perspectives, 7, 9-12, 16-17, 42, 48-49, 80

definitional issues, 16, 23, 25-27

DSM, 25-27, 48-49, 108, 273-282

input-output models, 165-166

organization and technology of gambling, 238-240

treatment approaches, 197

Home gambling, 256-258

Horse and dog racing, 11, 124, 248, 251, 253-254

arousal, 35, 124

family factors, 117

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

gambling skills, 16, 238, 244

prevalence, 78-79, 252

social factors, 238-239

state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim)

state legal age for participation by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim)

technology, 238, 252

Hot lines, see Telephone help lines

Hypomania, see Mania

I

Idaho, 290

Illegal activities, see Crime and criminal behavior

Illinois, 174-175, 179(n.11), 290-291

Impulse control disorders, 2, 20, 23, 27, 30, 31-36, 41, 119, 120, 122, 143, 159, 199, 205, 273, 275-281

see also Compulsive gambling

Incidence of gambling

acute treatment, 181

defined, 64

prevalence vs, 64-65, 101

research methodology, 51, 64-65, 101, 179-180, 181

see also Prevalence of gambling

Indiana, 70, 74, 291-292

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131

Indians, see American Indians

Input-output models, 165-166, 172-173

Insurance, see Health insurance

International perspectives, 178-181

children, 113

comorbidity, 129

see also specific countries

Internet, 5, 213, 216, 246, 251, 252, 253-254, 256-258

Interventions, see Preventive interventions; Treatment issues

In-transition gamblers, see Problem gambling

Iowa, 70, 74, 82, 83, 216, 292

K

Kansas, 292-293

Kentucky, 293

L

Laboratory studies, 35, 40, 240, 258-259

neurobiological factors, 121, 123, 124-127

Legal issues

legal-age gambling, by state and type, 283-312

legalization of gambling, 80-84, 100, 237, 247-250, 253, 259

see also Crime and criminal behavior

Legislation

committee charge, 8-9

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131

lotteries, 7, 283-312

state by state analysis, 285-312

state legal-age gambling, by state and type, 283-312

Longitudinal research, 4, 65, 142, 210, 259

Lotteries, 7, 8, 17, 80, 82, 242, 244, 245-246, 248, 251, 253, 254 -255

adolescents, 88, 140, 250

family factors, 117

prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79, 88, 195-196, 249, 252

state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim)

state legal age for participation, by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim)

Louisiana, 70, 75, 86, 90, 215, 293-295

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

M

Machines, see Gambling machines

Maine, 295

Managed care, 222

Mania, 133, 134, 274, 277, 281, 282

Maryland, 70, 75, 195, 216, 295-296

Massachusetts, 70, 75, 86, 90, 296

Mass media

advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307

Internet, 5, 213, 216, 246, 251, 252, 253-254, 256-258

television, 251, 252, 254, 257, 258

Mathematical skills, 16, 238, 239, 241, 243-244

Medicalization of gambling, 19-20, 22, 38, 108

comorbidity, general, 32, 127

see also Biological factors

Men, see Gender factors

Methodology, see Research methodology

Michigan, 86, 90, 296-297

Minnesota, 70, 75, 76, 82, 83, 86, 91, 114, 195, 215, 216, 217, 297 -298

Minority groups, 97, 115-117, 141, 217, 222, 239

poverty, 126, 141

prevalence of gambling, 63, 96-97, 99, 114, 141

research methodology, 115-116

see also specific groups

Mississippi, 70, 72, 75, 76, 298-299

Missouri, 70, 299-300

Montana, 70, 75, 300

Mood and mood disorders, 4, 122, 125, 126, 132-134, 142, 204, 274, 277, 279

see also Depression;

Mania

Moral viewpoints, 5, 8, 16, 26, 39

N

Naltrexone, 205, 206

Narcissism, 198, 179

National Center for Responsible Gaming, 66

National Comorbidity Survey, 80

National Council on Compulsive Gambling, 30, 177

National Council on Problem Gambling, 212, 213, 214, 218

National Gambling Impact Study Commission, 67, 77-78, 81, 92, 93

National Institute of Mental Health, 129

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 220-221

National Institutes of Health, 4

National Opinion Research Center, 67, 77-78, 81, 92, 93

National prevalence, 1, 3, 8, 19, 65-67, 71, 77-78, 98-100

Natural recovery, 193, 210-211

Native Americans, see American Indians

Nebraska, 300-301

Neurobiological factors, 4, 45, 111, 120-127, 142, 143

brain studies, 37, 41, 119, 120, 124-127, 142

comorbidity, 128

dopamine system, 37-38, 120-122, 124, 125, 205

laboratory studies, 121, 123, 124-127

methodology, 121, 124-127

norepinephrine, 120, 205

pharmacological treatments, 203-206, 224, 225, 313, 314

serotonin, 122-123, 204-205

Neuroticism, 109, 126

Nevada, 7, 11, 71, 87, 91, 114, 238, 246, 301-302

New Hampshire, 8, 302

New Jersey, 71, 75, 87, 91, 114, 216, 218, 302-303

New Mexico, 71, 75, 76, 303

New York State, 71, 72, 75, 82, 83, 87, 91, 114, 215, 216, 303-304

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

New Zealand, 135

Norepinephrine, 120, 205

North Carolina, 304

North Dakota, 71, 75, 76, 304-305

O

Ohio, 71, 305

Oklahoma, 87, 91, 114, 305

Older persons, see Elderly persons

Oregon, 195, 246, 305-306

Organization of gambling, 237-251, 257-260

advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307

legalization of gambling and, 80-84, 100, 237, 247-250, 253, 259

research methodology, 238, 240

see also Technology of gambling

P

Parents, see Family factors

Pari-mutuel gambling, 7, 80, 238

adolescents, 88

prevalence, 72, 73, 88

state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim)

state legal age for participation, by state, 283-284, 285-311 (passim)

see also Horse and dog racing

Peer influences, 3, 48, 109, 114, 117, 239, 249-250, 251, 254, 257 , 276

adolescents, 117

alienation of friends, 159

American Indians, 116

Pennsylvania, 216, 306

Personality disorders, general, 4, 5, 137-138

antisocial personalities, 5, 31, 122, 137-138, 139, 142, 274-275, 281

comorbidity, 137-138, 142, 196, 279

historical perspectives, 9, 10, 11-12

treatment seekers, 196

Pharmacological treatments, 203-206, 224, 225, 313, 314

Population studies, 2, 3, 115-116, 124, 142

clinical studies vs, 43

comorbidity, 131, 135, 136, 139

Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 129, 133, 135-136, 139

screening tools, use in, 44, 47

Posttraumatic stress disorder, 109-110

Poverty, 176, 184

depressed areas, benefits of gambling, 1, 160

minority status and, 126, 141

prevalence of gambling among the poor, 3-4, 63, 97-98, 99

see also Debt

Prevalence of gambling, 1, 3, 8, 19, 44, 63-101, 276, 279-280

adolescents, 3, 63, 84-94, 113-114

onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 118, 140, 274, 276, 280

age at onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 131, 138, 142, 274 , 276, 280

alcohol abuse compared with, 63, 80, 81, 93-94, 99

benefit-cost analyses, 169, 175, 177-178

card games, 72, 73, 85, 88, 252

casino gambling, 72, 73, 78-79, 82, 88, 195, 252

charitable gambling, 72, 73, 78-79

DSM, 68, 70-71, 76, 80, 86-87, 99, 276, 279-280

gender factors, 63, 95-96, 99, 255, 277, 279-280

horse and dog racing, 78-79, 252

incidence vs, 64-65, 101

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

legalization of gambling and, 80-84, 100, 237, 248-249

lifetime, 1, 23, 48, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 72, 73-75, 77, 80-81

adolescents, 85, 88, 89, 90, 113-114

lotteries, 72, 73, 78-79, 88, 195-196, 249, 252

methodological issues, 64-71, 76, 79, 86-87, 89, 92-93, 99, 100-101

national prevalence, 1, 3, 8, 19, 65-67, 71, 77-78, 98-100

natural recovery, 210

pari-mutuel wagering, 72, 73, 88;

see also ''horse and dog racing" supra

past-year, 3, 64, 67, 69, 72, 73-75, 76, 77-78

adolescents, 85, 88, 90

technology of gambling and, 238, 252

poor persons, 3-4, 63, 97-98, 99

regional factors, 65, 67(n.2), 71, 101

screening and, 64, 77, 100-101

socioeconomic status, 97-98, 99, 157-158, 249;

see also Minority groups

South Oaks Gambling Screen, 68, 71-72, 76, 77, 86-87, 99, 114

sports gambling, 72, 73, 78-79, 85, 88, 252

state-level, 66, 67, 68, 69-76, 81-84, 101

substance abuse, 63, 80, 81, 93-94

see also Incidence of gambling

Preventive interventions, 12, 107, 211, 219-220

adolescents, 219-220

relapse, 28, 194, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211

see also Screening

Problem gambling, 19

adolescents, 85-93

benefit-cost analyses, 177-181, 182-185, 186

definitional issues, 20-25

etiology of, 107-156

pathological gambling vs, 22-25, 65

prevalence, 64-101 (passim), 177-178

see also Costs to individuals;

Diagnosis;

Gamblers Anonymous;

Screening;

Treatment issues

Psychiatric disorders, 122

classification issues, 21-24, 44, 45, 49-51, 106, 121;

see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

comorbidity, 9, 37, 126, 129, 133, 137-138

pathological gambling as, 12

posttraumatic stress disorder, 109-110

see also American Psychiatric Association;

Impulse control disorders;

Mood and mood disorders;

Personality disorders

Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic treatments, 197-199, 205, 313-315

Public opinion, 21, 156, 249

advertising, 38, 214, 216, 219, 247, 249, 307

lotteries, 245-246

Puerto Rico, 307

Pull-tab, state by state legislative summary, 285-311 (passim)

R

Race/ethnicity, see Minority groups

Racetrack betting, see Horse and dog racing

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

Recreational gambling, 16, 156, 260

age at onset of gambling, 4, 112, 113-114, 117, 131, 138, 142, 274 , 276, 280

benefit-cost analyses, 163-164, 167

children, 113

defined, 21

DSM criteria, 274, 277, 280

minority groups, 116

pathological gamblers returning to, 19-20, 25

pathological gambling vs, 28

prevalence, 66

promotional activities, 219

substance abuse and, 26

Recovering gamblers, 20(n.2), 24, 193, 210, 211

natural recovery, 193, 210, 211

stages, general, 193

withdrawal symptoms, 27, 29, 38, 119, 205, 277, 281

see also Treatment issues

Regional factors

benefit-cost analyses, 164, 165-168

minority groups, 116-117

prevalence, 65, 67(n.2), 71, 101

telephone help lines, 216

Regional Input-Output Modeling System, 165-166

Relapse, 28, 136, 140, 142, 194, 198, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211, 221, 224

preventive interventions, 28, 194, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211

Religious factors, 11, 194, 239

Research methodology, 3, 4, 21-22, 250, 258-260

adolescent studies, 85-87, 89, 92-93

balanced measurement studies, 174-185, 186

benefit-cost analyses, 157-158, 162-186

classifications and definitions, 15-41, 48-50, 64;

see also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

cohort effects, 65, 94-95, 108, 110-111

comorbidity studies, 128-139 (passim), 141, 259

construct validity, 45-47, 49-50, 100-101

descriptive studies, 45, 141, 160, 171, 173-174

DSM criteria development, 25-27

etiological, 107-112, 121, 124-142 (passim)

excessive gambling, 21-22

gender factors, 115

gross impact studies, 172-173

incidence studies, 51, 64-65, 101, 179-180, 181

input-output models, 165-166, 172-173

longitudinal studies, 65

minority groups, 115-116

neurobiological studies, 121, 124-127

organization of gambling, 238, 240

prevalence studies, 64-71, 76, 79, 86-87, 89, 92-93, 99, 100-101

South Oaks Gambling Screen, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 68, 99, 114

treatment evaluation, 192, 199, 200-201, 202-203, 207-208, 220, 223 -224, 313-318

see also Case studies;

Clinical studies;

Laboratory studies;

Population studies

Rhode Island, 215-216, 207

Risk-taking, 16-18, 48, 237, 239, 242-243, 253

gender factors, 28-29

impulse control disorders, 33, 34-35

see also Sensation-seeking

Rural areas, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

S

Screening, 42-45, 47-48

NORC DSM SCREEN, 77

population studies and, 44, 47

prevalence research and, 64, 77, 100-101

see also Diagnosis;

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders;

South Oaks Gambling Screen

Self-esteem, 10, 116, 159, 198

see also Depression;

Shame and guilt

Self-help treatments, 25, 209, 211

age factors, 114

definitional issues, 25, 37

see also Gamblers Anonymous

Sensation-seeking, 17, 33, 34-35, 40, 119, 121-122, 123, 125, 198-199, 239, 278

behavioral treatments, 199-202, 224

see also Risk-taking

Serotonin, 122-123, 204-205

Sex-based factors, see Gender factors

Shame and guilt, 10-11, 26, 28, 159, 198, 278

Slot machines, see Gambling machines

Social factors, general, 4, 15, 17, 38, 110, 112-118, 142, 247-251 , 254, 256-258

antisocial personalities, 5, 31, 122, 137-138, 139, 142, 274-275, 281

benefits of gambling, 8, 12, 156, 157

benefit-cost analyses, 163-164, 173-174, 175-178, 180-185

cohort effects, 110

costs of gambling, 12, 15, 19, 156-186

definitional issues, 16, 18, 19, 32, 38

DSM criteria, 27, 273, 277, 278

historical perspectives, 7, 16, 18

legalization of gambling and, 80-84, 100, 237, 247-250, 253, 259

natural recovery, 210

organization of gambling, 237-239;

see "legalization. . ." supra

see also Cultural factors;

Demographic factors;

Family factors;

Peer influences;

Public opinion;

Religious factors

Social gambling, see Recreational gambling

South Carolina, 308

South Dakota, 71, 75, 82, 83, 175-177, 215, 308-309

South Oaks Gambling Screen, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 118

alcoholism, comorbidity, 131

methodology, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 68, 99, 114

prevalence studies, 68, 71-72, 76, 77, 86-87, 99, 114

Spiritual factors, see Religious factors

Sports betting, 8, 242

adolescents, 85, 88, 140

family factors, 117

prevalence, 72, 73, 78-79, 85, 88, 252

Spouses of gamblers, 159, 201, 207, 209, 215, 225, 305, 311

DSM criteria, 274, 275, 276

State government, 1, 7, 8, 11, 80

counselor certification boards, 218, 222-223

gambling promotions, 219

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 8, 116, 131

legal age for gambling, by state and type, 283-284, 285-311 (passim)

legislative review, by state, 285-312

telephone help lines, 215-216

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

treatment issues, 213-214, 222

see also Casino gambling;

Horse and dog racing;

Lotteries;

specific states

State-level factors, other

benefit-cost analyses, 166, 167-168

Gamblers Anonymous meetings, by state, 1995-1998, 317-318

health insurance coverage, 212, 213

prevalence, 66, 67, 68, 69-76, 81-84, 101

see also specific states

Statistics

Gamblers Anonymous meetings, by state, 317-318

types of gambling, 8

see also Incidence of gambling;

Prevalence of gambling

Substance use and abuse, 4, 5, 9

adolescents, 93-94, 99-100, 110-111, 117

antisocial personality disorder, 137-138

benefit-cost analyses, 170

children of abusers, 118

cohort effects, 110-111

comorbidity, 130-132, 135, 139, 142, 196, 207, 224, 276, 279

pathological gambling compared to, 25-26, 28-29, 31, 37, 122, 124-126

adolescents, 93-94, 99

natural recovery, 210, 211

prevalence, 63, 80, 81, 93-94

treatment, 193, 196, 206, 212, 220-221, 224

recreational gambling, 26

see also Addiction;

Alcohol use and abuse

Suicide, 3, 5, 10, 48, 134-137, 159-160, 196, 272, 274

Survey of American Gambling Attitudes and Behavior, 42

T

Taxes, 156, 176, 213-214, 219, 273

Technology of gambling, 12-13, 237, 239, 251-260

see also Computer technology;

Gambling machines;

Internet;

Mass media

Telecommunications, 5, 246, 252, 253-254, 255-256

see also Internet

Telephone help lines, 114-115, 135, 214-217

Television, 251, 252, 254, 257, 258

Tennessee, 309

Texas, 71, 75, 82, 83, 87, 91, 114, 131, 215, 216-217, 309

Tourism, 156, 178

Transfer effects, 164-165, 167-170, 179

Treatment issues, 2, 5, 12, 107, 109, 192-236

acute intervention, 193

addiction, general, 192, 194, 205, 206-208

age factors, 114, 217, 222

alcoholism, 205, 206

autobiography, 206-207

availability of and access to, 211-214

aversion therapy, 199-201

behavioral approaches, 199-202, 224

benefit-cost analyses, 181, 183-184, 220-222

characteristics of treatment seekers, 195-196

clinical studies, 199, 203, 204-205

cognitive factors, 202-203, 206-207, 209, 224, 313-316

comorbidity, 128-129, 133, 138, 196, 198, 205

cost of, 194, 206-207, 213-214, 221-222;

see also "benefit-cost analyses" supra and "health insurance" infra

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
×

costs to individuals, 194, 196, 206-207, 212

debt, 196, 207, 212

defined, 193-194

evaluation methodology, 192, 199, 200-201, 202-203, 207-208, 220, 223-224, 313-318

gender factors, 195, 198, 217, 222

health insurance coverage, 5, 211-212, 214, 221, 222

incurability, 20(n.2)

literature on, summary table, 313-316

maintenance, 193

mood disorders, 133

multimodal, 207-208, 314

natural recovery, 193, 210-211

pharmacological treatments, 203-206, 224, 225, 313, 314

psychoanalytic/psychodynamic approaches, 197-199, 205

rehabilitation, 193

relapse, 28, 136, 140, 142, 194, 198, 202, 206, 207, 208-209, 211, 221, 224

stages, general, 193

telephone help lines, 114-115, 135, 214-217

see also Counseling;

Health insurance;

Preventive interventions;

Recovering gamblers;

Screening;

Self-help treatment

Twin studies, 4, 119-120, 143

U

United Kingdom, 113, 134-135, 137, 160, 250-251, 255

Urban areas, 109, 114, 116, 131, 133, 135, 139, 142, 174-175

Utah, 309

V

Vermont, 309

Veterans, see Posttraumatic stress disorder

Veterans Administration, 115, 118, 134, 206

Video games, see Gambling machines

Virginia, 310

Virgin Islands, 309-310

W

Washington, D.C., 289

Washington State, 71, 75, 87, 310

West Virginia, 310-311

Wisconsin, 71, 75, 87, 179(n.11), 181-185, 186, 216, 311

Withdrawal symptoms, 27, 29, 38, 119, 205, 277, 281

Women, see Gender factors

World Wide Web, see Internet

Wyoming, 311-312

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6329.
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Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review Get This Book
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As states have moved from merely tolerating gambling to running their own games, as communities have increasingly turned to gambling for an economic boost, important questions arise. Has the new age of gambling increased the proportion of pathological or problem gamblers in the U.S. population? Where is the threshold between "social betting" and pathology? Is there a real threat to our families, communities, and the larger society? Pathological Gambling explores America's experience of gambling, examining:

  • The diverse and frequently controversial issues surrounding the definition of pathological gambling.
  • Its co-occurrence with disorders such as alcoholism, drug abuse, and depression.
  • Its social characteristics and economic consequences, both good and bad, for communities.
  • The role of video gaming, Internet gambling, and other technologies in the development of gambling problems.
  • Treatment approaches and their effectiveness, from Gambler's Anonymous to cognitive therapy to pharmacology.

This book provides the most up-to-date information available on the prevalence of pathological and problem gambling in the United States, including a look at populations that may have a particular vulnerability to gambling: women, adolescents, and minority populations. Its describes the effects of problem gambling on families, friendships, employment, finances, and propensity to crime.

How do pathological gamblers perceive and misperceive randomness and chance? What are the causal pathways to pathological gambling? What do genetics, brain imaging, and other studies tell us about the biology of gambling? Is there a bit of sensation-seeking in all of us? Who needs treatment? What do we know about the effectiveness of different policies for dealing with pathological gambling? The book reviews the available facts and frames the intriguing questions yet to be answered.

Pathological Gambling will be the odds-on favorite for anyone interested in gambling in America: policymakers, public officials, economics and social researchers, treatment professionals, and concerned gamblers and their families.

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