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A.2 ITS Communication System Design Communication Systems for rrs are designed to cost-effectively transmit data, video, and/or voice from sources to destinations (sinks) to meet user and application requirements. No single combination of communication architecture, topology, or mediums is optimum for aU requirements. Thus, con~nun~cations system design involves considerations, evaluations, and trade-offs of: I. User and application requirements; 2. Data loads (or equivalently composite data rate) between sources and destinations; 3. Geographic area and commun~cabon infrastructure topology; 4. Multimedia requirements: voice, data, and video; 5. Communication media alternatives; 6. Link budget analysis; 7. Communication Architectural requirements: TOC backup, data sharing, etc.; 8. Standards; 9. Reliability, maintainability, and availability requirements; 10. Operational and maintenance support requirements; and ~ I. Costs and available budgets. Section A.3 win present representative suburban, urban, metropolitan, and rural system designs wad cost estimates. Section A.4 win address reliability, maintainability, and availability, as weD as estimating requirements. A.2.1 Analog versus Digital Communication System Table A.2.1-! summarizes generic analog and digital communication systems and Weir comparative charactenstics. The principle advantage of digital communication channels is the complete reconstruction of the signal at repeaters (not amplifiers) and He availability of modern error control techniques. Figure A.2.1-1 illustrates He comparison of analog and digital communication links. t;`NCHRPPhase~rpti N~3-51 · IF A2-1