Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
CONTENTS A0-1 INTRODUCTION Al-1 CHAPTER ONE Communication Mediums, Protocols, and Terminals A.1.1 Wire Mediums and Terminals, A1-2 A.1.1.1 TWP Cable Plants, A1-2 A.1.1.2 Wireline Modems, A1-6 A.1.1.3 High-Speed TWPCircuits(SDES/HDES), A1-40 A.1.1.4 T1 Digital Hierarchy and Digitized Voice, A1-44 A.1.2 Fiber Mediums and Terminals, A1-55 A.1.2.1 Fiber Cable Plants, A1-55 A.1.2.2 Low-End Fiber Optic Transmission Systems for ITS Applications, A1-87 A.1.2.3 SONET, Al -112 A.1.2.4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), A 1 - 119 A.1.3 Wireless Communications, A1-124 A.1.3.1 Wireless Propagation and Coverage, A1-126 A.1.3.2 FCC Rules, A1-133 A.1.3.3 Microwave- Point-to-PointWireless,Al-146 A.1.3.4 Spread Spectrum, A1-161 A.1.3.5 FCC Part 90 Private Land Mobile Radio Services, A1-173 A.1.4 Computer Considerations in Communication, Al-191 A.1.5 Communication Networks and Protocols, A1- 197 A.1.5.1 Packet Networks, OST Stack, and Standards, A1-197 A.1.5.2 NTCIP ProtocoT Suite, A1-209 A.1.5.3 Circuit-Switched Technology, A1-227 A.1.5.4 LANs, A1-229 A.1.6 Video Applications in ITS, A1-238 A.1.6.1 Television Fundamentals, A1-239 A.1.6.2 Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Camera Technologies, A1-243 A.1.6.3 Video Compression, A1-247 A.1.6.4 ITS Video Communication Issues, A1-253 Commercial Communication Serv~ces, A1-255 A.1.7 A.1.7.1 Rates for Commercial Services, A1-255 A.1.7.2 Satellite Communications, Al-258 A.1.7.3 Broadcast Subcarners for ITS, A1-303 A.1.7.4 CommercialWirelessServ~ces,Al-323 A.1.7.5 ISDN, A1-331 A2-1 CHAPTER Two ITS Communication System Design A.2.1 Analog versus Digital Communication System, A2-1 A.2.2 Theoretical and "In Practice" Capacity of Digital Communication Mediums, A2-4 A.2.3 RepeaterIess Link Distances: Link Budgets, A2-9 A.2.4 Multimedia Communications Networks, A2-14 A.2.5 A.2.6 A.2.7 A.2.S Communication Load Analysis, A2- 17 ITS Network Architecture and Topology, A2-22 ITS Communication Network Topology, A2-34 Fault Tolerant Networks, A2-35 A3-1 CHAPTER THREE Example ITS Communication Designs and Costs A.3.1 TTS Communication Infrastructure Cost Estimating, A3-1 A.3.1.1 Fiber and TWP Cable Plant Costs, A3-1 A.3.1.2 Typical ITS Communication Terminal Costs, A3-6 A.3.2 Example ITS Communication System Designs and Costs, A3-16
A.3 .2. ~ Urban TTS Systems, A3- ~ ~ A.3.2.2 Suburban TTS Systems, A3-25 A.3.2.3 MetropolitanITSSystems,A3-32 A.3.2.4 Rural ITS System, A3-43 A4- I CHAPTER FOUR Communication System Support A.4. ~ General Overview: Maintainability of Advanced Communication Systems, A4-1 A.4.2 Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Planning and Estimating, A4-14 A.4.3 Maintenance Personnel Staffing, A4- ~ 7 A.4.4 Spares, A4-25 A.4.5 Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE), A4-26 A.4.6 Life Cycle Cost Estimating, A4-36 A.4.7 References and Standards, A4-53 \5-1 CHAPTER FIVE Strategies and Tools A.5.l garners, A5-! A.5.2 Procurement Policy, A5-4 A.5.3 Life Cycle Cost Analyses and Evaluation of a Technology, A5-7 A.5.4 Measures of Effectiveness for Communications Technology, A5-16 A.5.5 Reliability, A5-20
SUMMARY The communications industry is rapidly evolving within the United States and the world. The material and installation costs of fiber optic cable are now comparable to twisted wire pair cable costs with significant bandwidth advantages. Wireless technologies (including spread spectrum radio, cellular/PCS, and microwave) do not have the bandwidth of fiber optic cable but can offer significant advantages in installation cost and time. The following are some of the important trends emerging in the communication industry: · Single-mode fiber optic cable has achieved parity with copper twisted wire pair cable in cost and _~¢ ~ r is less expensive than multi-mode fiber optic cable. Fiber optic terminals are still more expensive than twisted wire terminals (e.g., modems) and single-mode terminals are more expensive than multi-mode terminals; however, the cost difference is narrowing rapidly. · SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) fiber terminals, based on open standards, are emerging and becoming very cost effective. These provide bit rates from 5 ~ Mbps to over 10 Gbps. They also provide cost-effective add/drop capabilities for lower bit rate payloads (e.g., DS-3 from a SONET OC-n). In addition to fiber optic media, the SONET standards support wireless microwave to OC-3 (155 Mbps). The cost of wireless terminals is decreasing. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is making and considering rule changes that focus on opening new spectrum at higher frequencies and improving utilization at lower frequencies. Wireline modems are achieving 28,800 bps speeds over dialup circuits. In support of commercial T! services and video-on-demand, higher speed bit rates from I.5 to more than 6.2 Mbps are becoming cost-effective over twisted wire pair cable. Communication standards to support and promote multi-vendor interoperability are an important element of modern communication system design. Usually equipment designed to comply with standards is the most cost effective. Standards are readily available for bit rates ranging from RS 232 up to 38.4 bps, the digital hierarchy (DS-0 at 64 kbps to DS-3 at 145 Mbps), and SONET (OC-! at 51 Mbps to OC-192 at 9,953 Mbps). These standards support wire, wireless, and fiber mediums although bit rates supported varies. Communication equipment are evolving from cabinets to boards to assembliesiboxes as a result of continuing semiconductor advances and greater integration. This significantly increases equipment reliability with mean time between failure, which historically ranged from 5,000 to 20,000 hours, now ranging from 40,000 to 100,000 hours. Increasingly, manufacturers include self-test and redundancy features. Repair is accomplished by replacing the complete assembly or box and returning it to the manufacturer for replacement or repair. Manufacturer warranties can cover multiple years and can often be extended for costs usually at or below ~ percent of the equipment purchase price per year. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) typically have communication subsystem costs of approximately 50 percent. Thus, communication subsystem design and operations are important considerations. Modern communication offers many benefits for implementation of ITS that include: Open standards that support multivendor interoperability. Integrated support for redundant configuration including hot stand-by that greatly reduces cost of extended-hour maintenance staffing. Although initial deployment costs might be higher, life- cycle costs are usually less. Emerging network management for computer-aided support of system monitoring and operations. Pending and actual failures are often detected by the system. Emerging range of equipment suppliers providing wireless, wire, and fiber products that are well suited for ITS communication infrastructure applications. Availability of communication experts/personnel to support the design, deployment and operation of ITS communication infrastructure. High reliability, system redundancy, and network management creates a very favorable environment to support cost-effective ITS implementation and operations. Local test equipment requirements for maintenance are modest. Modern network management allows jurisdictional staff to maintain the