Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
A.5 Strategies and Tools This section discusses: barriers, procurement policy, life cycle costs, measures of effectiveness, and reliability. A.5.1 Barriers The Phase ~ survey of junsdictional users identified perceived barriers as: Capital funding, Maintenance funding, Training funding, In-house experts to evaluate technology, In-house design capability, In-house maintenance capability, Procurement policies, and · No llS plan. Funding was defined in terms of bamers to initial acquisition and funding for maintenance transition to advanced technology which includes spares and new test equipment, as wed as funding for ~raining. Based on discussions and reviews avid He NCHRP Project 3-51, FY '94 oversight committee, He consensus was that funding barriers are He results of over bamers including: No ITS deployment plan to: . Define needs and rRs service requirements, · Define architecture and technology candidates to meet needs, · Support wad funding requirements and schedule; Unfamilianty with processes to obtain federal funding support from venous funding programs and agencies including FHWA and FTA; ~.;~NCHRP~Ph ~NCHRP3-51 · Phase2F~nalReport A5-1
Unf~milianty with approach to acquiring federal funding support for transitional maintenance and Gaining cost; and Commitment of local junsdictional agencies to Trs deployment and associated matching funding. This perhaps is a symptom of local government planning and financial personnel not understanding the benefits of firs and ~us, a failure of ITS information dissemination to non-ma~nline traffic transportation management personnel. Basically, federal funding is available for jurisdictions wig ITS plans and funding will support not only initial acqu~sidon of new ITS systems but also maintenance and gaining transition costs. Perhaps even more important is Mat We in-house deficiency in jurisdictional industry of advanced technology produces a bamer to understanding He Rue cost Impacts of advanced technology, such as cost benefits of: High-reliability, fault-tolerant technologies wad built-m test and failure reporting; and Graphical user interface and associated graphical communicators between advanced systems and operators, making operations-self-evident decision choices clear, Bus decreasing operations Gaining requirements. Added to He confusion of cost is perhaps madcedng "propaganda" armed at distorting He truth about a new technology in order Hat an older technology is maintained. Lability to separate facts from marketing propaganda continues to be a major problem, creating false cost barriers for operations and maintenance. Two over barriers defined In Phase ~ involved He availability of: In-house experts to evaluate technology, and In-house design capability. These two barriers basically involve junsdicdons having no, or limited, in-house technical skills to evaluate advanced technology, understand its applicability and benefits, and understand the differences of alternatives. L;wagwbase2~pt NC:HRP 3-51 · ~ 2 Few ~-2
Traffic operations divisions are generally staffed by civil engineers mained In traffic operations and management. The maintenance organizations of jur~sdicdons seldom have professionally trained engineers, proficient in modern communications technology. Only in the management information systems ~S) group of He associated government organization is there a reasonable probability of finding an engineer professionally Gained in communications. The exception to this would be large cides, which may also have a separate communications organization wad degreed electrical engineers specializing in communications. While the MIS group may have local area network and metropolitan area network communications engineers, it is unlikely Cat wireless communications technology engineering experience win exist in Me MIS group. One battier to traffic operations borrowing professional skins from the MIS and communications groups (or departments) generally lies in "terntonal boundary protection." Rawer Han being technical "advisors," MIS groups may strive to acquire management control of traffic operations computers, displays, networks), and associated budgeters), leaving traffic operations subject to management decisions not in He best interest of traffic. The fear of loss of budget and decision control from one governmental organization to another clearly fonns a banter to achieving internal technical advancements. Professional consulting engineering assistance is an alternative to finding internal technical knowledge and experience. Consulting eng~neenng support does not represent a threat to Chic operations. Issues involved in selection of professional consulting include: · Selection of an eng~neenng consultant knowledgeable of bow traffic operations and communications technology. This requires a team of professional traffic and electronic communications engineers. The consuming team provides in-depth la~owledge of technology, operational requirements, and, perhaps equally important, the ability to communicate with jurisdictional traffic personnel in a manner mutually understood. · Early contracting for consulting engineers to provide needed technical assistance. The procurement process is usually lengthy and time consuming to a generally understaffed . . Orgamzatlon. L:wa~rp' NCHRP3-51 · Phase2FmalReport A5-3