Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
11 References Ackerman, B. A., S. Rose-Ackerman, J. W. Sawyer, and D. W. Henderson. 1974. The Uncertain Search for Environmental Quality. Free Press (Macmillan), London. Alexander, M. 1971. Microbial Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Anderson, R. M., and R. M. May, eds. 1982. Population Biology of Infectious Diseases. Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer, Berlin. Andreae, M. O., and H. Raemdonck. 1983. Dimethyl sulfide in surface oceans and marine atmosphere: A global view. Science 221:744-747. Andrews, R. N. L., P. Cromwell, G. A. Enk, E. G. Farworth, J. R. Hibbs, and V. L. Sharp. 1977. Substantive Guidance for Environmental Impact Assessment: An Explor- atory Study. The Institute of Ecology, Washington, D.C. Anonymous. 1980. Biological Evaluation of Environmental Impacts. FWS/OBS-80/26. U.S. Council on Environmental Quality and Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Anonymous. Undated. Post-development Audits to Test the Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Prediction Methods and Techniques. Final Report. Project Appraisal for Devel- opment Control, Environmental Impact Assessment and Planning Unit, Department of Geography, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland. Baker, H. G. 1974. The evolution of weeds. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5:1-24. Baker, H. G., and G. L. Stebbins. 1965. The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Academic Press, New York. Baker, J. M. 1976. Biological monitoring Principles, methods and difficulties. Pp. 41- 53 in J. M. Baker, ed. Marine Ecology and Oil Pollution. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Baldwin, I. T., and J. C. Schultz. 1983. Rapid changes in tree chemistry induced by damage: Evidence for communication between plants. Science 221:227-280. Barber, R. T., and F. P. Chavez. 1983. Biological consequences of El Nino. Science 222: 1203-1210. BarTons, K. C. 1981. Are Pesticides Really Necessary? Regnery Gateway, Chicago. 116
REFERENCES 117 Bar-Shalom, Y. 1976. Caution, probing, and the value of information in the control of uncertain systems. Ann. Econ. Soc. Meas. 5:323-337. Baxter, R. M., and P. Glaude. 1980. Environmental Effects of Dams and Impoundments in Canada: Experience and Prospects. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 205. Beanlands, G. E., and P. N. Duinker. 1983. An Ecological Framework for Environmental Impact Assessment in Canada. Institute for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dal- housie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office, Ottawa, Ont. Beanlands, G. E., W. J. Erckmann, G. H. Orians, J. O'Riordan, D. Policansky, M. H. Sadar, and B. Sadler, eds. In press. Cumulative Environmental Effects: A Binational Perspective. Canadian Environmental Assessment Research Council, Ottawa, Ont., and National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Beddington, J. R. 1974. Age structure, sex ratio, and population density in the harvesting of natural populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 11:915-924. Beddington, J. R.9 rapporteur. 1984a. Management under uncertainty. Group report. Pp. 227-244 in R. M. May, ed. Exploitation of Marine Communities. Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer, Berlin. Beddington, J. R. 1984b. The response of multispecies systems to perturbations. Pp. 209- 225 in R. M. May, ed. Exploitation of Marine Communities. Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer, Berlin. Belovsky, G. E. 1984. Moose and snowshoe hare competition and a mechanistic explanation from foraging theory. Oecologia 61: 150-159. Berg, K. 1938. Studies on the bottom animals of Esrom Lake. K. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. Nat. Mat. Afd. 9(8):1-255. Berry, J. A. 1975. Adaptation of photosynthetic processes to stress. Science 188:644-650. Berryman, A. A. 1981. Population Systems: A General Introduction. Plenum, New York. Beverton, R. J. H. 1983. Science and decision-making in fisheries regulation. Pp. 919- 938 in G. D. Sharpe and J. Csirke, eds. Proceedings of the Expert Consultation to Examine Changes in Abundance and Species Composition of Neritic Fish Resources. FAO Fishery Report 291. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Beverton, R. J. H., rapporteur. 1984. Dynamics of single species. Group report. Pp. 13- 58 in R. M. May, ed. Exploitation of Marine Communities. Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer, Berlin. Birch, L. C. 1957. The meanings of competition. Am. Nat. 91:5-18. Biswell, H. H. 1974. Effects of fire on chaparral. Pp. 321-364 in T. T. Kozlowski and C. E. Ahlgren, eds. Fire and Ecosystems. Academic Press, New York. Bjorkman, O., and J. Berry. 1973. High-efficiency photosynthesis. Sci. Am. 229(4):80- 93. Bobrov, R. A. 1955. Use of plants as biological indicators of smog in the air of Los Angeles County. Science 121:510-511. Bodaly, R. A., R. E. Hecky, and R. J. P. Fudge. 1984. Increases in fish mercury levels in lakes flooded by the Churchill River diversion, northern Manitoba. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41 :682-691. Boersma, P. D. In press. Seabirds reflect petroleum pollution. Science. Bond, G. 1967. Fixation of nitrogen by higher plants other than legumes. Annul Rev. Plant Physiol. 18: 107-126. Borisov, V. M. 1978. The selective effect of fishing on the population structure of species with a long life cycle. J. Ichthyol. 18:896-904. Bormann, F. H., G. E. Likens, D. W. Fisher, and R. S. Pierce. 1968. Nutrient loss accelerated by clear-cutting of a forest ecosystem. Science 159:882-884.
1 18 KINDS OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Brinkhurst, R. O. 1974. The Benthos of Lakes. St. Martin's Press, New York. Brittingham, M. C., and S. A. Temple. 1983. Have cowbirds caused forest songbirds to decline? BioSeienee 33:31-35. Bromenshenk, J. J., S. R. Carlson, J. C. Simpson, and J. M. Thomas. 1985. Pollution monitoring of Puget Sound with honey bees. Science 227:632-634. Brooks, J. L., and S. I. Dodson. 1965. Predation, body size, and composition of the plankton. Science 150:28-35. Brown, J. H. 1984. On the relationship between abundance and distribution of species. Am. Nat. 124:255-279. Brown, J. H. In press. Discussion: Cumulative impacts in terrestrial communities. In G. E. Beanlands, W. J. Erckmann, G. H. Orians, J. O'Riordan, D. Policansky, M. H. Sadar, and B. Sadler, eds. Cumulative Environmental Effects: A Binational Perspective. Canadian Environmental Assessment Research Council, Ottawa, Ont., and National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Bryson, R. A., and T. J. Murray. 1977. Climates of Hunger. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. Buck, W. B. 1979. Animals as monitors of environmental quality. Vet. Human Toxicol. 21 :277-284. Bull, D. 1982. A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. Oxfam, London. Cain, S. A. 1938. The species-area curve. Am. Midl. Nat. 20:573-581. Cairns, J., Jr. 1977. Effects of temperature changes and chlorination upon the community structure of aquatic organisms. Pp. 129-144 in M. Marois, ed. Towards a Plan of Actions for Mankind. Vol. 3. Biological Balance and Thermal Modifications. Pergamon Press, Oxford, Eng. Cairns, J., Jr. 1980. The Recovery Process in Damaged Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Sciences, Ann Arbor, Mieh. Cairns, J., Jr., and K. L. Dickson. 1980. Risk analysis for aquatic ecosystems. Pp. 73-83 in Biological Evaluation of Environmental Impacts. FWS/OBS-80/26. U.S. Council on Environmental Quality and Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Cairns, J., Jr., G. R. Larra, R. E. Sparks, and W. T. Walter. 1973. Developing biological information systems for water quality management. Water Res. Bull. 9:81-99. Cameron, R. D., K. R. Whitten, W. T. Smith, and D. D. Roby. 1979. Caribou distribution and group composition associated with construction of the trans-Alaska pipeline. Can. Field Nat. 93: 155-162. Campbell, R. W., and R. J. Sloan. 1977. Natural regulation of innocuous gypsy moth populations. Environ. Entomol. 6:315-322. Campbell, R. W., and R. J. Sloan. 1978. Natural maintenance and decline of gypsy moth outbreaks. Environ. Entomol. 7:389-395. Carpenter, R. A. 1976. The scientific basis of NEPA Is it adequate? Environ. Law Reporter 6:50014-50019. Carpenter, S. R., and J. F. Kitchell. 1984. Plankton community structure and limnetic primary production. Am. Nat. 124: 159- 172. Carson, R. 1962. Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. Caswell, H., and P. A. Werner. 1978. Transient behavior and life history of teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris Huds.). Ecology 59:53-66. Caswell, H., F. Reed, S. N. Stephenson, and P. A. Werner. 1973. Photosynthetic pathways and selective herbivory, a hypothesis. Am. Nat. 107:465-480. Chapra, S. C., and K. H. Reckhow. 1983. Engineering Approaches for Lake Management. Vol. 2. Ann Arbor Sciences, Ann Arbor, Mieh.
REFERENCES 119 Charnov, E. L., and G. H. Orians. 1973. Optimal Foraging: Some Theoretical Explorations. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. Christensen, S. W., W. Van Winkle, and J. S. Mattice. 1976. Defining and determining the significance of impacts: Concepts and methods. Pp. 191-219 in R. K. Sharma, J. D. Buffington, and J. T. McFadden, eds. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Biological Significance of Environmental Impacts. NR-CONF-002. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Com- mission, Washington, D.C. Clark, L. R., P. W. Geier, R. D. Hughes, and R. F. Morris. 1967. The Ecology of Insect Populations in Theory and Practice. Methuen, London. Clark, W. C. In press. The cumulative impacts of human activities on the atmosphere. In G. E. Beanlands, W. J. Erckmann, G. H. Orians, J. O'Riordan, D. Policansky, M. H. Sadar, and B. Sadler, eds. Cumulative Environmental Effects: A Binational Perspective. Canadian Environmental Assessment Research Council, Ottawa, Ont., and National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Cody, M. L. 1969. Convergent characteristics in sympatric species: A possible relation to interspecific competition and aggression. Condor 71:223-239. Cody, M. L. 1974. Competition and the Structure of Bird Communities. Princeton Uni- versity Press, Princeton, N.J. Connell, J. H. 1975. Some mechanisms producing structure in natural communities: A model and evidence from field experiments. Pp. 460-490 in M. L. Cody and J. M. Diamond, eds. Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Harvard University Press, Cam- bridge, Mass. Connell, J. H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302- 1310. Connell, J. H. 1980. Diversity and the convolution of competitors, or the ghost of com- petition past. Oikos 35:131-138. Connell, J. H. 1983. On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: Evidence from field experiments. Am. Nat. 122:661-696. Connell, J. H., and E. Orias. 1964. The ecological regulation of species diversity. Am. Nat. 98:399-414 Connister, R. Z. 1964. The mechanism of prey digestion in the spotted crab, Cancer ocellatus. J. Am. Syst. Assoc. 42:36-54. Connor, E. F., and E. McCoy. 1979. The statistics and biology of the species-area rela- tionship. Am. Nat. 113:791-833. Cooke, A. S. 1973. Shell-thinning in avian eggs by environmental pollutants. Environ. Pollut. 4:85-157. Cooper, C. F., and P. H. Zedler. 1980. Ecological assessment for regional development. J. Environ. Manage. 10:285-296. Council on Environmental Quality. 1978. Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act. Reprint 43 FR 55978-56007, November 29, 1978, 40CFR Parts 1500-1508. Washington, D.C. Courtenay, W. R., Jr., and J. R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. 1984. Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md. Cowell, E. B. 1978. Ecological monitoring as a management tool in industry. Ocean Manage. 4:273-285. Cowell, E. B., and W. J. Syratt. 1979. A technique for assessing ecological damage to the intertidal zone of rocky shores for which no previous baseline data is available. Pp. 29-39 in Proceedings of the Ecological Damage Assessment Conference. Society of Petroleum Industry Biologists, Los Angeles. Cowie, R. J. 1977. Optimal foraging in great tits (Paws major). Nature 268:137-139.
120 KINDS OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Crawley, M. J. 1983. Herbivory: The Dynamics of Plant-Animal Interactions. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, Eng. Crow, M. E., and F. B. Taub. 1979. Designing a microcosm bioassay to detect ecosystem level effects. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 13: 141-147. Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Pres- ervation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Existence. John Murray, London. Davidson, D. W., J. H. Brown, and R. S. Inouye. 1980. Competition and the structure of granivore communities. BioScience 30:233-238. Davidson, D. W., R. S. Inouye, and J. H. Brown. 1984. Granivory in a desert ecosystem: Experimental evidence for indirect facilitation of ants by rodents. Ecology 65:1780-1786. Dayton, P. K. 1971. Competition, disturbance, and community organization: The provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecol. Monogr. 41:351-389. Dayton, P. K. 1984. Processes structuring some marine communities: Are they general? Pp. 181-197 in D. R. Strong, Jr., D. Simberloff, L. Abele, and A. Thistle, eds. Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Dayton, P. K. 1985. Ecology of kelp communities. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16:215-245. Dayton, P. K. In press. Cumulative impacts in the marine realm. In G. E. Beanlands, W. J. Erckmann, G. H. Orians, J. O'Riordan, D. Policansky, M. H. Sadar, and B. Sadler, eds. Cumulative Environmental Effects: A Binational Perspective. Canadian Environ- mental Assessment Research Council, Ottawa, Ont., and National Research Council, Washington, D.C. DeMott, W. R., and W. C. Kerfoot. 1982. Competition among cladocerans: Coexistence of Bosmina and Daphnia. Ecology 63: 1949- 1966. Diamond, J. M., and M. E. Gilpin. 1982. Examination of the "null" model of Connor and Simberloff for species co-occurrences on islands. Oecologia 52:64-74. Dickman, M. 1968. The relation of freshwater plankton productivity to species composition during induced successions. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Dillon, P. J., and F. H. Rigler. 1974. The phosphorus-chlorophyll relationship in lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19:767-773. Doberstyn, E. B. 1984. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum. Experientia 40:1311-1317. Dodd, A. P. 1959. The biological control of prickly pear in Australia. Pp. 565-577 in A. Keast, R. L. Crocker, and C. S. Christian, eds. Biogeography and Ecology in Australia. Monographiae Biologicae. Vol. 8. W. Junk, The Hague. Drury, W. B., and I. C. T. Nisbet. 1973. Succession. J. Arnold Arbor. 54:331-368. Duggins, D. O. 1980. Kelp beds and sea otters: An experimental approach. Ecology 61:447- 453. Duinker, P. N., and G. E. Beanlands. 1983. Ecology and Environmental Assessment: An Annotated Bibliography. Institute for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office, Ottawa, Ont. Dunlap, T. R. 1981. DDT: Scientists, Citizens, and Public Policy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Eberhardt, L. L. 1976. Quantitative ecology and impact assessment. J. Environ. Manage. 4:27-70. Eberhardt, L. L. 1978. Appraising variability in population studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:207-238. Ebersole, J. P. 1977. The adaptive significance of territoriality in the reef fish Eupoma- centrus leucostictus. Ecology 58:914-920.
REFERENCES 121 Edmondson, W. T. 1969. Eutrophication in North America. Pp. 124-149 in Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C. Edmondson, W. T. 1972. Nutrients and phytoplankton in Lake Washington. Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr. Spec. Symp. 1:172-193. Edmondson, W. T. 1974. Environmental Phosphorus Handbook. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19:369- 374. (book review) Edmondson, W. T., and J. T. Lehman. 1981. The effect of changes in the nutrient income on the condition of Lake Washington. Limnol. Oceanogr. 26:1-29. Edmondson, W. T., and A. H. Litt. 1982. Daphnia in Lake Washington. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27:272-293. Ehrlich, P. R., and A. Ehrlich. 1981. Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species. Random House, New York. Ehrlich, P. R., and P. H. Raven. 1965. Butterflies and plants: A study in convolution. Evolution 18:586-608. Elton, C. S. 1958. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Methuen, London. Emlen, J. M. 1970. Age specificity and ecological theory. Ecology 51:588-601. Endler, J. A. 1977. Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Eppley, R. W., and B. Peterson. 1979. Particulate organic matter flux and planktonic new production in the deep ocean. Nature 282:677-680. ESSA (Environmental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd.). 1982. Review and Evaluation of Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Environment Canada, Van- couver, B.C. Estes, J. A., R. J. Jameson, and E. B. Rhode. 1982. Activity and prey selection in the sea otter: Influence of population status on community structure. Am. Nat. 120:242-258. Ewald, P. W. 1983. Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 14:465-485. Feeny, P. 1976. Plant apparency and chemical defense. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 10:1-40. Finn, J. T. 19760 Measures of ecosystem structure and function derived from analysis of flows. J. Theoret. Biol. 56:363-380. Finn, J. T. 1978. Cycling index: A general definition for cycling in compartment models. Pp. 138-164 in D. C. Adriano and I. L. Brisbin, eds. Environmental Chemistry and Cycling Processes. CONF-760429. Technical Information Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Flemer, D. A., G. B. Mackiernan, W. Nehlsen, R. B. Biggs, D. Blaylock, N. H. Burger, L. C. Davidson, D. Haberman, K. S. Price, and J. L Taft. 1983. Chesapeake Bay: A Profile of Environmental Change. Chesapeake Bay Program, U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency, Annapolis, Md. Forsman, E. D., E. C. Meslow, and H. M. Wight. 1984. Distribution and biology of the spotted owl in Oregon. Wildl. Monogr. 87:1-64. Fox, L. R. 1981. Defense and dynamics in plant-herbivore systems. Am. Zool. 21:853- 864. Fox, L. R., and B. J. Macauley. 1977. Insect grazing on Eucalyptus in response to variation in leaf tanning and nitrogen. Oecologia 29:145-162. Franey, J. R., M. V. Ivanov, and H. Rhodhe. 1983. The sulphur cycle. Ch. 2.5 in B. Bolin and R. B. Cook, eds. The Major Biogeochemical Cycles and Their Interactions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment Publ. 21. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, Eng. Frank, P. W. 1968. Life histories and community stability. Ecology 49:355-356.
122 KINDS OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Frankel, O. H., and M. E. Soule. 1981. Conservation and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, New York. Franklin, I. R. 1980. Evolutionary change in small populations. Pp. 135-149 in M. Soule and B. Wilcox, eds. Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. Frenkiel, F. N., and D. W. Goodall, eds. 1978. Simulation Modelling of Environmental Problems. SCOPE Report 9. International Council of Scientific Unions-Scientific Com- mittee on Problems of the Environment. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, Eng. Fretwell, S. D. 1972. Populations in a Seasonal Environment. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Fritz, E. S., P. J. Rago, and I. D. Murarka. 1980. Strategy for Assessing impacts of Power Plants on Fish and Shellfish Populations. FWS/OBS-80/34. National Power Plant Team, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Ann Arbor, Mich. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1980. Western Forest Insects. Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Galli, A. E., C. F. Leck, and R. T. T. Forrnan. 1976. Avian distribution patterns in forest islands of different sizes in central New Jersey. Auk 93:356-364. Gause, G. F. 1934. The Struggle for Existence. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md. Gavereski, C. A. 1976. Relation of park size and vegetation to urban bird populations in Seattle, Washington. Condor 78:375-382. Georghiou, G. P., A. Lagunes, and J. D. Baker. 1983. Effect of insecticide rotations on the evolution of insecticide resistance. Pp. 183-189 in J. Miyamoto, ed. Pesticide Chem- istry: Human Welfare and the Environment. Pergamon Press, New York. Geppert, R. R., C. W. Lorenz, and A. G. Larson. 1984. Cumulative Effects of Forest Practices on the Environment: A State of the Knowledge. Ecosystems, Inc., Olympia, Wash. Giddings, J. M. 1980. Field experiments. Pp. 315-331 in F. S. Sanders, S. M. Adams, L. W. Barnthouse, J. M. Giddings, E. E. Huber, K. D. Kumar, D. Lee, B. Murphy, G. W. Suter, and W. Van Winkle, eds. Strategies for Ecological Effects Assessment at DOE Energy Activity Sites. Environmental Sciences Division Publ. 1639. ORNL/TM- 6783. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. Gilman, A. P., D. B. Peakall, D. J. Hallett, G. A. Fox, and R. J. Norstrom. 1979. Animals as Monitors of Environmental Pollutants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Gilpin, M. E. 1975. Limit cycles in competition communities. Am. Nat. 109:51-60. Gilpin, M. E., and J. M. Diamond. 1982. Factors contributing to non-randomness in species eo-oceurrences on islands. Oecologia 52:75-84. Gleason, H. A. 1922. On the relation between species and area. Ecology 3:158-162. Godron, M., and R. T. T. Forman. 1983. Landscape modification and changing ecological characteristics. Pp. 12-28 in H. A. Mooney and M. Godron, eds. Disturbance and Ecosystems. Springer, New York. Goldberg, E. D., V. T. Bowen, J. W. Farrington, G. Harvey, J. H. Martin, P. L. Parker, R. W. Riseborough, W. Robertson, E. Schneider, and E. Gamble. 1978. The Mussel Watch. Environ. Conserv. 5:101-125. Gomez-Pompa, A. C., C. Vasquez-Yaues, and S. Guerarra. 1972. The tropical rainforest: A nonrenewable resource. Science 177:762-765. Goodman, D. 1975. The theory of diversity-stability relationships in ecology. Q. Rev. Biol. 50:237-266. Grassle, J. F., H. L. Sanders, R. R. Hessler, G. T. Rowe, and T. McLellan. 1975. Pattern
REFERENCES 123 and zonation: A study of the bathyal megafauna using the research submersible Alvin. Deep-Sea Res. 22:457-481. Green, R. H. 1979. Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental Biologists. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto. Greenland, D. J., and R. Lal. 1977. Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, Eng. Gross, M. R. 1984. Sunfish, salmon, and the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies and tactics in fishes. Pp. 55-75 in G. W. Potts and R. J. Wootton, eds. Fish Reproduction. Academic Press, New York. Gross, M. R. 1985. Disruptive selection for alternative life histories in salmon. Nature 313:47-48. Hairston, N. G., F. E. Smith, and L. B. Slobodkin. 1960. Community structure, population control and competition. Am. Nat. 94:421-425. Handford, P., G. Bell, and T. Reimchen. 1977. A gillnet fishery considered as an exper- iment in artificial selection. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 34:954-961. Harcourt, D. G., and E. J. Leroux. 1967. Population regulation in insects and man. Am. Sci. 55:400-415. Hare, J. D. 1983. Manipulation of host suitability for herbivore pest management. Pp. 655-680 in R. F. Denno and M. S. McClure, eds. Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Ecosystems. Academic Press, New York. Harper, J. L. 1969. The role of predation in vegetational diversity. Pp. 48-62 in Diversity and Stability in Ecological Systems. Brookhaven Symposia in Biology 22. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N.Y. Harper, J. L., P. H. Lovell, and K. G. Moore. 1970. The shapes and sizes of seeds. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1:327-356. Harris, G. P. 1980. Temporal and spatial scales in phytoplankton ecology: Mechanisms, models and management. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:877-900. Harrison, W. G. 1980. Nutrient regeneration and primary production in the sea. Pp. 433- 460 in P. G. Falkowski, ed. Primary Productivity in the Sea. Plenum, New York. Harshbarger, J. C., and J. J. Black. In press. A strategy for using fish bioassays and surveys to identify and eliminate point source environmental carcinogens. In Towards a Transboundary Monitoring Network: Proceedings of a Workshop. International Joint Commission, Washington, D.C., and Ottawa, Ont. Hartzbank, D. J., and A. McCusker. 1979. Establishing criteria for offshore sampling design. Pp. 59-78 in Proceedings of the Ecological Damage Assessment Conference. Society of Petroleum Industry Biologists, Los Angeles. Hasler, A. D. 1947. Eutrophication of lakes by domestic sewage. Ecology 28:383-395. Hassell, M. P. 1985. Insect natural enemies as regulating factors. J. Anim. Ecol. 54:323- 334. Haukioja, E., and T. Hakala. 1975. Herbivore cycles and periodic outbreaks. Formulation of a general hypothesis. Rep. Kevo Subarctic Res. Stn. 12:1-9. Haukioja, E., and P. Niemela. 1979. Birch leaves as a resource for herbivores: Seasonal occurrence of increased resistance in foliage after mechanical damage of adjacent leaves. Oecologia 39:151-159. Hawksworth, D. 1971. Lichens as litmus for air pollution: A historical review. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 1:281-296. Heath, R. T. 1979. Holistic study of an aquatic microcosm: Theoretical and practical implications. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 13:87-93. Hecky, R. E. 1984. Thermal and optical characteristics of Southern Indian Lake before,
124 KINDS OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS during, and after impoundment and Churchill River diversion. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41 :579-590. Hecky, R. E., R. W. Newbury, R. A. Bodaly, K. Patalas, and D. M. Rosenberg. 1984. Environmental impact prediction and assessment: The Southern Indian Lake experience. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41:720-732. Heinrich, B. 1979. Resource heterogeneity and problems of movement in foraging bees. Oecologia 40:235-245. Hilborn, R. 1979. Some failures and successes in applying systems analysis to ecological systems. J. Appl. Syst. Anal. 6:25-31. Hilborn, R., and C. Walters. 1981. Some pitfalls of environmental baseline and process studies. Report 3. Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Hilborn, R., C. S. Holling, and C. J. Walters. 1980. Managing the unknown: Approaches to ecological policy design. Pp. 103-113 in Biological Evaluation of Environmental Impacts. FWS/OBS-80/26. Council on Environmental Quality and Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Hirsch, A. 1980. The baseline study as a tool in environmental impact assessment. Pp. 84-93 in Biological Evaluation of Environmental Impacts. FWS/OBS-80/26. Council on Environmental Quality and Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Holdridge, L. R. 1967. Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica. Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4:1-23. Holling, C. S., ed. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Int. Ser. on Applied Systems Analysis 3, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto. Horn, H. S. 1974. The ecology of secondary succession. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5:25-37. Horn, H. 1976. Succession. Pp. 187-204 in R. M. May, ed. Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, Eng. Hornbeck, J. W., G. E. Likens, R. S. Pierce, and F. H. Bormann. 1975. Strip cutting as a means of protecting site and streamflow quality when clearcutting northern hardwoods. Pp. 209-225 in B. Bernier and C. H. Winget, eds. Forest Soils and Forest Land Man- agement. Proceedings of the Fourth North American Forest Soils Conference. Les Presses de l'Universite Laval, Quebec, Que. Huston, M. 1979. A general hypothesis of species diversity. Am. Nat. 113:81-101. Hutchinson, G. E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia, or why are there so many kinds of animals? Am. Nat. 93:145-159. Istock, C. A. 1967. The evolution of comple.x life cycle phenomena: An ecological per- spective. Evolution 21:592-605. Jewell, P. A., and S. Holt, eds. 1981. Problems in Management of Locally Abundant Wild Mammals. Academic Press, New York. Jonasson, P. M. 1972. Ecology and production of the profundal benthos in relation to phytoplankton in Lake Estrom. Oikos 14(Suppl.):1-148. Jordan, C. F. 1971. A world pattern in plant energetics. Am. Sci. 59:425-433. Juday, C., and E. A. Birge. 1931. A second report on the phosphorus content of Wisconsin lake waters. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 26:353-382. Juday, C., E. A. Birge, G. I. Kemmerer, and R. J. Robinson. 1928. Phosphorus content of lake waters of northeastern Wisconsin. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 23:233- 248.
REFERENCES 125 Karr, J. K. 1982. Avian extinction on Barro Colorado Island, Panama: A reassessment. Am. Nat. 119:228-239. Karr, J. R., and R. R. Roth. 1971. Vegetation structure and avian diversity in several New World areas. Am. Nat. 105:423-435. Kettlewell, H. B. D. 1973. The Evolution of Melanism. Clarendon Press, Oxford, Eng. Kimball, K. D., and S. A. Levin. 1985. Limitations of laboratory bioassays: The need for ecosystem-level testing. BioScience 35:165-171. Kodric-Brown, A., and J. H. Brown. 1979. Competition between distantly related taxa in the convolution of plants and pollinators. Am. Zool. 19:1115-1127. Kozlowski, T. T., and C. E. Ahlgren, eds. 1974. Fire and Ecosystems. Academic Press, New York. Krebs, C. J. 1985. Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. 3rd ed. Harper and Row, New York. Kubicki, B. 1969a. Investigations on sex dete'~ination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Parts 3-8. Genet. Poll 10:5-144. Kubicki, B. 1969b. Sex determination in muskmelon (Cucumis melo). Genet. Poll 10:145- 166. Kubicki, B. 1969c. Comparative studies on sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sa- tivus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo). Genet. Poll 10:167-184. Kumar, K. D. 1980. Statistical considerations. Pp. 333-348 in F. S. Sanders, S. M. Adams, L. W. Barnthouse, J. M. Giddings, E. E. Huber, K. D. Kumar, D. Lee, B. Murphy, G. W. Suter, and W. Van Winkle, eds. Strategies for Ecological Effects Assessment at DOE Energy Activity Sites. Environmental Sciences Division Publ. 1639. ORNL/TM- 6783. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. Lack, D. 1954. The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers. Clarendon Press, Oxford, Eng. Larkin, P. A. 1978. Fisheries management An essay for ecologists. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 9:57-73. Larkin, P. A. 1984. A commentary on environmental impact assessment for large projects affecting lakes and streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41:1121-1127. Law, R. 1979. Optimal life histories under age-specif~c predation. Am. Nat. 114:399-417. Lawrey, J. D., and M. E. Hale, Jr. 1979. Lichen growth responses to stress induced by automobile exhaust pollution. Science 204:423-424. Lawton, J. H., and M. P. Hassell. 1981. Asymmetrical competition in insects. Nature 289:793-795 Leonard, D. E. 1974. Recent developments in ecology and control of the gypsy moth. Annul Rev. Entomol. 19:197-229. Levin, B. R., and R. E. Lenski. 1983. Coevolution in bacteria and their viruses and plasmids. Pp. 99-127 in D. J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin, eds. Coevolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. Levins, R., and R. H. MacArthur. 1969. An hypothesis to explain the incidence of mon- ophagy. Ecology 15:910-911. Lewis, R. A., N. Stein, and C. W. Lewis, eds. 1984. Environmental Specimen Banking and Monitoring as Related to Banking. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston. Lewontin, R. C. 1965. Selection for colonizing ability. Pp. 77-94 in H. G. Baker and G. L. Stebbins, eds. The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Academic Press, New York. Likens, G. E., ed. 1972. Nutrients and eutrophication: The limiting nutrients controversy. Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr. Spec. Symp. 1:1-328. Likens, G. E., and F. H. Bormann. 1972. Nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Pp. 25-67 in
126 KINDS OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS J. A. Wiens, ed. Ecosystem Structure and Function. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. Lovejoy, T. E. 1979. A projection of species extinctions. Pp. 328-329 in Council on Environmental Quality and Department of State. The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C. Lucas, H. L. 1976. Some statistical aspects of assessing environmental impact. Pp. 295- 306 in R. K. Sharma, J. D. Buffington, and J. T. McFadden, eds. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Biological Significance of Environmental Impacts. NR-CONF-002. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. Ludwig, D., and R. Hilborn. 1983. Adaptive probing strategies for age-structured fish stocks. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:559-569. MacArthur, R. H. 1955. Fluctuations of animal populations, and a measure of community stability. Ecology 36:533-536. MacArthur, R. H. 1965. Patterns of species diversity. Biol. Rev. 40:510-533. MacArthur, R. H. 1972. Geographical Ecology. Harper and Row, New York. MacArthur, R. H., and J. W. MacArthur. 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology 42:594- 598. MacArthur, R. H., and E. O. Wilson. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. MacClintock, L., R. F. Whitcomb, and D. L. Whitcomb. 1977. Island biogeography and "habitat islands" of eastern forest. II. Evidence for the value of corridors and minim- ization of isolation in preservation of biotic diversity. Am. Birds 32:6-16. Mack, R. N. In press. Alien plant invasion into the Intermountain West: A case history. In H. A. Mooney, ed. Ecology of Biological Invasions in North America and Hawaii. Springer, New York. Mack, R. N., and J. N. Thompson. 1982. Evolution in steppe with few large, hooved mammals. Am. Nat. 119:757-773. MacLeod, J. M. 1977. Discontinuous Stability in a Sawfly Life System and Its Relevance to Pest Management. Working Paper W-22, Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Mann, K. H., and P. A. Breen. 1972. The relation between lobster abundance, sea urchins, and kelp beds. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 29:603-605. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. 1984. Power Plant Cumulative Environmental Impact Report. PPSP-CEIR-4. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, Md. Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management. 1981. Gypsy Moth Control. Final Environmental Impact Report. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Boston. Mathisen, O. A. 1962. The effect of altered sex ratios on the spawning of red salmon. Pp. 137-245 in T. Y. Koo, ed. Studies of Alaska Red Salmon. University of Washington Press, Seattle. Maxwell, F. G., and P. R. Jennings, eds. 1980. Breeding Plant Resistance to Insects. John Wiley & Sons, New York. May, R. M. 1973. Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. May, R. M. 1977. Food lost to pests. Nature 267:669-670. May, R. M. 1980. Mathematical models in whaling and fisheries management. Am. Math. Soc. Lect. Math. Life Sci. 13:1-64. May, R. M. 1981. Models for single populations. Pp. 5-29 in R. M. May, ed. Theoretical Ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.
REFERENCES 127 May, R. M. 1983. The structure of food webs. Nature 301:566-568. May, R. M., ed. 1984. Exploitation of Marine Communities. Dahlem Konferenzen. Sprin- ger, Berlin. May, R. M. 1985. Evolution of pesticide resistance. Nature 315:12-13. May, R. M., and A. P. Dobson. In press. Population dynamics and the rate of evolution of pesticide resistance. In National Research Council. Management of Resistance to Pesticides: Strategies, Tactics, and Research Needs. National Academy Press, Wash- ington, D.C. McNab, B. 1963. Bioenergetics and the determination of home range size. Am. Nat. 97: 1 33- 140. McNamee, P. J., J. M. McLeod, and C. S. Holling. 1981. The Structure and Behavior of Defoliating Insect/Forest Systems. Research Publication R-25. Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Menge, B. A., and J. P. Sutherland. 1976. Species diversity gradients: Synthesis of the roles of predation, competition, and temporal heterogeneity. Am. Nat. 110:351-369. Meyer, S. L.1975. Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Middleton, J. T. 1956. Response of plants to air pollution. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 6:7-9. Mindinger, P. C., and S. Hope. 1982. Expansion of the range of the house finch. Am. Birds 36:347-353. Mineau, P. G., G. A. Fox, R. J. Norstrom, D. V. Weseloh, D. J. Hallett, and J. A. Ellenton. 1984. Using the herring gull to monitor levels and effects of organochlorine contaminants in the Canadian great lakes. Pp. 425452 in J. O. Nriagu and M. S. Simmons, eds. Contaminants in the Great Lakes. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto. Moav, R., T. Brody, and G. Hulata. 1978. Genetic improvement of wild fish populations. Science 201:1090-1094. Moore, F. R. 1978. Interspecific aggression: Toward whom should it be addressed? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 3:173-176. Mortimer, A. M. 1984. Population ecology and weed science. Pp. 363-388 in R. Dirzo and J. Sarukhan, eds. Perspectives on Plant Population Ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. Munn, R. E., ed. 1979. Environmental Impact Assessment: Principles and Procedures. SCOPE 5. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, Eng. Murphy, G. 1.1977. Clupeoids. Pp. 283-308 in J. Gulland, ed. Fish Population Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Myerberg, A. A., Jr., and R. E. Thresher. 1974. Interspecific aggression and its relevance to the concept of territoriality in reef fishes. Am. Zool. 14:81-96. Myers' N. 1979. The Sinking Ark. Pergamon Press, Oxford, Eng. Myers, N. 1980. Conversion of Tropical Moist Forests. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Myers, N. 1984. The Primary Source. Norton, New York. National Research Council. 1969. Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1981. Testing for Effects of Chemicals on Ecosystems. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1982. Assessment of Multichemical Contamination. Proceed- ings of an International Workshop, Milan, April 28-30,1981. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
128 KINDS OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS National Research Council. 1983a. Acid Deposition in Eastern North America. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1983b. Effects of atmospheric transformations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Pp. 3- 1 to 3-48 in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Evaluation of Sources and Effects. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1983c. Changing Climate. Report of the Carbon Dioxide As- sessment Committee. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. In press. Monitoring and Assessment of Trends in Acid Dep- osition. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Niering, W. A., and F. E. Egler. 1955. A shrub community of Viburnum lentagon, stable for twenty-five years. Ecology 36:356-360. O'Donald, P. 1967. A general model of sexual and natural selection. Heredity 22:499- 518. Odum, E. P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270. Odum, E. P., J. T. Finn, and E. H. Franz. 1979. Perturbation theory and the subsidy- stress gradient. BioScience 29:349-352. Odum, W. E. 1982. Environmental degradation and the tyranny of small decisions. BioScience 32:728-729. Olson, J. S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern Lake Michigan sand dunes. Bot. Gaz. 119:125-170. Orians, G. H. 1969. The number of bird species in some tropical forests. Ecology 50:783- 801. Orians, G. H. 1975. Diversity, stability and maturity in natural ecosystems. Pp. 139-150 in W. H. Van Dobben and R. H. Lowe-McConnell, eds. Unifying Concepts in Ecology. W. Junk, The Hague. Orians, G. H. 1980. Some Adaptations of Marsh-nesting Blackbirds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Orians, G. H. In press. Site characteristics favoring invasions. In H. A. Mooney, ed. Ecology of Biological Invasions in North America and Hawaii. Springer, New York. Orians, G. H., and O. T. Solbrig, eds. 1977. Convergent Evolution in Warm Deserts. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa. Orians, G. H., and M. F. Willson. 1964. Interspecific territories of birds. Ecology 17:736- 745. Paine, R. T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. Am. Nat. 100:65-75. Paine, R. T. 1969. The Pisaster-Tegula interaction: Prey patches, predator food preference, and intertidal community structure. Ecology 50:950-961. Paine, R. T. 1974. Intertidal community structure: Experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia 15:93-120. Paine, R. T. 1980. Food webs: Linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure. J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685. Paine, R. T. 1981. Truth in ecology. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 62:256-258. Paine, R. T. 1984. Ecological determinism in the competition for space. Ecology 65:1339 1348. Paine, R. T., and S. A. Levin. 1981. Intertidal landscapes: Disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecol. Monogr. 51: 145- 198. Park, T. 1948. Experimental studies of interspecies competition. I. Competition between populations of the flour beetles Tribolium confusum Duval and Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Ecol. Monogr. 18:265-308. Parrish, R. H., and A. D. MacCall. 1978. Climatic Variation and Exploitation in the Pacific Mackerel Fishery. Fish Bull. 167. California Department of Fish and Game, La Jolla.
REFERENCES 129 Partridge, L. 1978. Habitat selection. Pp. 351-376 in J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies, eds. Behavioral Ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. Patrick, R., and R. R. Kiry. 1976. Estuarine surveys, biomonitoring and bioassays. De- partment of Limnology of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Patrick, R., B. Crum, and J. Coles. 1967. Temperature and manganese as determining factors in the presence of diatom or blue-green algal floras in streams. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 64:472-478. Peakall, D. B. 1975. Physiological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons on avian species. Pp. 343-360 in R. Hauge and V. Freed, eds. Environmental Dynamics of Pesticides. Plenum, New York. Perkins, J. H. 1982. Insects, Experts, and the Insecticide Crisis: The Quest for New Pest Management Strategies. Plenum, New York. Peterman, R. M. 1978. Testing for density-dependent marine survival in marine salmonids. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 35:1434-1450. Peterman, R. M. 1984. Interaction among sockeye salmon in the Gulf of Alaska. Pp. 187- 199 in W. G. Pearcy, ed. The Influence of Ocean Conditions on the Production of Sockeye Salmonids. Oregon State University Sea Grant Communications, Corvallis. Peters, W. 1984. New answers through chemotherapy? Experientia 40:1351-1357. Peters, W. In press. Resistance to antiparasitic drugs and its prevention. Parasitology. Pianka, E. R. 1966. Latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Am. Nat. 100:33-46. Pickett, S. T. A., and J. N. Thompson. 1978. Patch dynamics and the design of nature reserves. Biol. Conserv. 13:27-37. Pimentel, D., D. Andow, R. Dyson-Hudson, D. Gallahan, S. Jacobson, M. Irish, S. Kroop, A. Moss, I. Schreiner, M. Shepard, T. Thompson, and B. Vinzant. 1980. Environmental and social costs of pesticides: A preliminary assessment. Oikos 34:126- 140. Pimm, S. L. 1979. The structure of food webs. Theor. Pop. Biol. 16:144-158. Pimm, S. L. 1980. Food web design and the effect of species deletion. Oikos 35:139-147. Pimm, S. L. 1982. Food webs. Chapman and Hall, London. Pimm, S. L. 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature 307:321-326. Policansky, D. 1983. Size, age and demography of metamorphosis and sexual maturation in fishes. Am. Zool. 23:57-63. Porter, J. W., J. D. Woodley, G. J. Smith, J. E. Neigel, J. F. Battey, and D. G. Dallmeyer. 1981. Population trends among Jamaican reef corals. Nature 294:240-250. Preston, F. W. 1960. Time and space and the variation of species. Ecology 29:254-253. Price, P. W. 1980. Evolutionary Biology of Parasites. Princeton University Press, Prince- ton, N.J. Pyke, G. H., H. R. Pulliam, and E. L. Charnov. 1977. Optimal foraging: A selective review of theory and tests. Q. Rev. Biol. 52:137-154. Ratcliffe, P. R. 1984. Population dynamics of red deer (Cervus elephas L.) in Scottish commercial forests. Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 82B:291-302. Recher, H. F. 1969. Bird species diversity and habitat diversity in Australia and North America. Am. Nat. 103:75-80. Reckhow, K. H. 1979. Empirical lake models for phosphorus: Development, applications, limitations and uncertainty. Pp. 193-221 in D. Scavia and A. Robertson, eds. Perspectives in Lake Ecosystem Modeling. Ann Arbor Sciences, Ann Arbor, Mich. Reif, A. E. 1984. Synergism in carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 73:25-39. Rhoades, D. F. 1979. Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores. Pp. 3-54 in G. A. Rosenthal and D. N. Janzen, eds. Herbivores: Their Interaction with Secondary Plant Metabolites. Academic Press, New York.
130 KINDS OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Rhoades, D. F. 1982. Response of alder and willow to attack by tent caterpillars and fall webworms: Evidence for pheromonal sensitivity of willows. Pp. 55-68 in P. Hedin, ed. Plant Resistance to Insects. ACS Symposium Series 208. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. Rhoades, D. F. 1983. Offensive-defensive interactions between herbivores and plants: Their relevance in herbivore population dynamics and ecological theory. Am. Nat. 125:205- 238. Rhoades, D. F., and R. G. Cates. 1976. Toward a general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 10:168-213. Rice, E. L. 1974. Allelopathy. Academic Press, New York. Ricker, W. E. 1963. Big effects from small causes: Two examples from fish population dynamics. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 20:257-264. Ricker, W. E. 1981. Changes in the average size and average age of Pacific salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38:1636-1656. Ricklefs, R. E. 1979. Ecology. 2nd ed. Chiron Press, New York. Ricklefs, R. E., and K. O'Rourke. 1975. Aspect diversity in moths: A temperate-tropical comparison. Evolution 29:313-324. Robinson, R. W. H. M. Munger, T. W. Whitaker, and G. W. Bohn. 1976. Genes of the Cucurbitaceae. Hortoscience 11:554-568. Romesburg, H. C. 1981. Wildlife sciences: Gaining reliable knowledge. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:293-313. Rosenberg, D. M., V. H. Resh, et al. 1981. Recent trends in environmental impact assessment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38:591-624. Rosenzweig, M. L. 1972. Stability of enriched aquatic ecosystems. Science 175:562-565. Roth, R. R. 1976. Spatial heterogeneity and bird species diversity. Ecology 57:773-782. Ryan, C. A., and T. R. Green. 1974. Proteinase inhibitors in natural plant protection. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 8:123-140. Ryman, N., R. Baccus, C. Reuterwall, and KI. Smith. 1981. Effective population size, genetic interval, and potential loss of genetic variability in game species under various hunting regimes. Oikos 26:257-266. Salisbury, F. B. 1942. The Reproductive Capacities of Plants. George Bell & Sons, Ltd., London. Sanders, F. S., S. M. Adams, L. W. Barnthouse, J. M. Giddings, E. E. Huber, K. D. Kumar, D. Lee, B. Murphy, G. W. Suter, and W. Van Winkle, eds. 1980. Strategies for Ecological Effects Assessment at DOE Energy Activity Sites. Environmental Sciences Division Publ. 1639. ORNL/TM-6783. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, r ~ enn. Schindler, D. W. 1974. Eutrophication and recovery in experimental lakes: Implications for lake management. Science 184:897-898. Schindler, D. W., E. J. Fee, and T. Ruszczynski. 1978. Phosphorus input and its con- sequences for phytoplankton standing crop and production in the Experimental Lakes Area and in similar lakes. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 35:190-196. Schoener, T. W. 1968. Sizes of feeding territories among birds. Ecology 49:123-141. Schoener, T. W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2:369404. Schoener, T. W. 1983. Field experiments on interspecif~c competition. Am. Nat. 122:240- 285. Schonewald-Cox, C. 1983. Conclusions: Guidelines to management: A beginning attempt. Ch. 25 in C. Schonewald-Cox, S. M. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and L. Thomas, eds. Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Popu- lations. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif.