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Appendix B Control Laws by States and Canadian Provinces These data were collected by a survey conducted by Nace in 1970 and from the statutes. Assembly was accomplished through the assistance of Stafford Cox, student of Environmental Law at the University of Michigan. UNITED STATES ALABAMA No regulations Department of Conservation, Game and Fish Division, Montgomery, Alabama 36104 2. ALASKA No regulations Department of Fish and Game, Subport Building, Juneau, Alaska 99801 Comment The major amphibian is Rana sylvatica. It is doubtful there is any commercial harvesting of this amphibian. Reference Division of Biological Sciences, University of Alaska, College, Alaska 99701 3. AR IZONA Regulations Game and Fish Department, Arizona State Building, Phoenix, Arizona 85007 Species Rana catesbeiana Season June 1-November 30 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Research A scientific collecting permit is available. Take 1 2/day Possession 1 2 Techniques Day or night; using spear, gig, hook and line, bow and arrow, or artificial light; but no explosive, firearm, net, or trap Comment No other amphibians are protected by law. Reference Game and Fish Commission Order, Number T - 1 , Number T - 2, Date December 13, 1969 4. AR KANSAS R - ulations Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, Arkansas 72201 Species Frogs Season April 16-December 31 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. 133
134 Take 1 8/day Possession 36 Techniques Frogs may be taken only by the use of hand, handnet, hook and line, gig, spear, or bow and arrow. Breeders Frogs legally acquired may be raised in captivity for propagation and sale under a permit that costs $25.00/year. Some species may be raised for scientific and restocking purposes only under a permit that costs $2.50/year. Comment It is unlawful to ship, take, transport, or export out of the state for sale any Rana catesbeiana or parts thereof in any manner whatsoever, except those raised by a game breeder or fish farmer. Reference 4A-ASA, Title 47, § 508, 509 (1947) 5. CALI FORNIA R - ulations Department of Fish and Game, 1416 9th Street, Sacramento, California 95814 Species All edible frogs regardless of size Season Southern California, June 1-November 30; central and northern Cali- fornia, all year Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Research A permit of $5.00/year is required. Possession Southern California, 12; central and northern California, 24 Techniques Day or night; using light, spear, gig, grab, paddle, hook and line, dip net, bow and arrow, fishing tackle, or hand Reference 31-CAC, Div. 6, Ch. 7, § 6850-55, 6880-85 (1958) 6. COLORADO Regulations Game, Fish, and Parks Division, 6060 Broadway, Denver, Colorado 80216 Species Rana catesbezana Season August 1-September 30 Commercial No more than 5,000 participants/season. One~uarter ton of uro- deles exportedlyear by bait dealers. Take 10/day Comment Several amphibian suppliers have been discouraged due to fact that 89.7% of waters are contained by man-made impoundments. No other amphibians are protected by law. Reference 4-CRS, Ch. 62, § 1.1, 3.4 (1963) 7. CONNECTICUT No regulations Board of Fisheries and Game, State Office Building, Hartford, Connecticut 06101 Commercial Bait species are protected by law and a fishing or hunting license is required. Comment The commission may remove undesirable plants or animals from the waters by chemical, electrical, or mechanical means. Reference 1 3-CGSA, Title 26, § 22, 27 (1973) 8. DE LAWARE R - ulations Board of Game and Fish Commissioners, P.O. Box 457, Dover, Delaware 19901 Species Rana catesbewna Season May 1-December 31 Commercial A valid hunting or fishing license is required. Take With a fishing license, 10/day; with a hunting license, 24/day Reference 3-DCA, Title 7, § 701, 703, 704, 710 (1953) 9. FLORIDA Regulations Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Farris Bryant Building, 620 South Meridan Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32304
135 Species Frogs Season All year (except on wildlife management areas) Research A permit is available for wildlife management areas. Techniques May be taken by gig, club, blow gun, hand, hook and line, or by shooting during daylight hours only. Comment FloAda's laws relating to amphibians are designed primarily for the protection of animals other than amphibians. Reference 19 70 Wildlife Code of the State of Florida; 1 2-FSA, Title 18, Ch. 285.15 (1962) 10. GEORGIA No regulations Game and Fish Commission, 401 State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia 30334 11. HAWAI I R - ulations Division of Fish and Game, 400 S. Beretania Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813 Species Frogs greater than 9 in. from snout to extended hind feet Season All year Comment Small frogs less than 9 in. from snout to extended hind feet and tad- poles are protected. It is unlawful for any person to catch, take, kill, expose, to have in possession, or to offer for sale any tadpole or small frog. Violation Any person who violates these regulations shall be fined not less than $5.00 and not more than $50.00. Reference 3-HRS, Title 12, Ch. 188, § 62-67 (1968) 12. IDAHO Regulations Fish and Game Department, P.O. Box 25, Boise, Idaho 83707 Species Rana catesbeiana Season All year Commercial A valid fishing license is required. A permit is necessary to sell bull frogs. Take 1 2/day Possession 1 2 Techniques May use bow and arrow, spear, or mechanical devices. Comment No other amphibians are protected by law. Reference 1970 Idaho Fishing Seasons and Regulations 13. I LLINOIS Regulations Department of Consenration, State Office Building, Springfield, Illinois 62706 Species Rana catesbeiana Season June 15-August 31 Commercial A valid fishing or hunting license is required. Take 8/day Possession 8 Comment Article II, Fish Protection Regulations, Ownership and Title, § 20 "If any person causes any waste or sewage to be discharged into or causes or allows pollution of any waters of this State so as to kill aquatic life, the De- partment, through the Attorney General, may bring an action against such person and recover the reasonable value of the aquatic life destroyed by such waste, sewage, or pollution. Any money so recovered shall be placed in the Game and Fish Fund in the State Treasury." Reference Fish Code of Illinois, Article 2, § 15, 16, 20, 21, 23 (1969 edition); 19-ILP, Title Fish and Game, p. 457 (1968) 14. INDIANA Regulations Division of Fish and Game, Room 605 State Office Building, Indianapolis, Indiana 46209
136 Species Frogs Season June 15-April 30 Commercial A valid hunting and trapping license is required. Take 25/day Possession After 2 days, no more than 50 frogs Techniques May use gig, spear Mead not more than 3 in. in width and a single row of tines), long bow and arrow, air rifle, .22 caliber firearm, club, or hands. With not more than one pole or hand line, and these shall not have more than one hook or artificial lure. Comment No other amphibians are protected by law. Reference DNS Indiana Discretionary Order No. W-16; 4-ISA, Title 11, § 1643 (1956) 15. IOWA R - ulations Conservation Commission, 300 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa 50319 Species Frogs of the family Ranidae Season May 12-November 30 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Take 48/day Possession 96 (A licensed bait dealer may have 240.) Comment No person shall prevent frogs from having free access to and egress from water. Frog export is prohibited. There are no regulations enforced upon private landowners. Reference 7-ICA, Title 5, Ch. 109, § 12,13,32,38,45,63,67,84,85,119 (1946) 16. KANSAS Regulations Forestry, Fish, and Game Commission, Box 1028, Pratt, Kansas 67124 Species Rana catesbeiana Season July 1-September 30 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Take 8/day Techniques May use dip net, hook and line, or hand. Reference 3-KSA, Ch. 32, § 147, 148, 149, 161, 162, 164 (1964) 17. KENTUCKY R - ulations Fish and Wildlife Resources Department, State Office Building, Annex, Frankfort, Kentucky 40601 Species Salamanders, tadpoles, and frogs Commercial A valid live fish and bait license is required. Possession 100 salamanders, 100 tadpoles, frogs unlimited Techniques May hunt at night with lights to blind frogs. Reference 7-KRS, Ch. 150, § 175, 360 (1971) 18. LOUISIANA R - ulations Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, 400 Royal Street, New Orleans, Louisiana 70130 Species Bullfrogs and lagoon frogs Season June 1-March 31 Commercial A permit is necessary during closed season. Research A person may take any species of small frogs, green, grass, leopard, or spring frogs for scientific, educational, or propagating purposes, regardless of size, but not for food or sale. Reference 28-LRS, Title 56, Ch. 1, § 328,363,369,375,384 (1964)
137 19. MAINE No regulations Department of Inland Fisheries and Game, State House, Augusta, Maine 04330 20. MARYLAND No regulations Game and Inland Fish Department, State Office Building, Annapolis, Maryland 21404 21. MASSACHUSETTS No regulations Division of Fisheries and Game, 100 Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02202 22. MICHIGAN Regulations Department of Conservation, Stevens T. Mason Building, Lansing, Michigan 48926 Species Frogs Season May 30-November 15 Commercial No license is required to take or sell. Research A scientific collector's permit is available for November 1 6-May 29. Techniques May not spear with artificial light. Reference 9-MSA, Title 13, § 1711, 1712, 1713, 1716 (1967) 23. MINNESOTA R - ulations Department of Conservation, Centennial Office Building, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101 Species Frogs Season May 16-March 31 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Research A permit may be issued for April 1-May 15. Possession Unlimited when less than 6 in.; 150 frogs when greater than 6 in. in length from nose to tip of hind feet toes. Comment Commissioner shall establish regulations dealing with purchase, pos- session, and transportation of frogs for purposes other than bait. In the year of 1969: 416 persons were licensed to take, possess, transport, sell frogs for purposes other than bait; 9 persons, resident, received frog dealer license; and 5 persons, nonresident, received frog dealer license. Reference 8-MSA, Ch. 101.44 (1968) 24. MISSISSIPPI Regulations Game and Fish Commission, Box 451, Jackson, Mississippi 39205 Species Frogs Season All year Commercial A hunting and fishing license is required. Take 25/day Possession 50 Reference Digest of MississippiHunting and Trapping Regulations (1971) 25. MISSOUR I R - ulations Missouri Conservation Commission, P.O. Box 180, Jefferson City, Missouri 65101 Species Rana catesbeiana Season June November 30 Commercial A valid fishing or hunting license is required. Research A scientific collector's permit is available. Frogs may also be propa- gated and sold with a fish farming or fish hatchery permit. Take 8/day Possession 8
138 Techniques With a fishing permit, one may use hand, gig, handnet, long bow, hook and line, or artificial light. With a hunting permit, one may use .22 caliber timbre rifle, pistol, or pellet gun. Comment It is illegal to sell other amphibians of any kind under any condi- tions. It is suggested that the best approach to the biological supply problem would be artificial propagation. Reference 2-MRS, Ch. 252.020 (1969) 26. MONTANA No regulations Fish and Game Department, Helena, Montana 59601 27. NEBRASKA Regulations Game Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska 68509 Species Rana catesbeiana Season July 1-November 1 Commercial A bait vendor permit is required. Take 8/bag Techniques With a hunting permit, one may use firearms, bow and arrow, hand, or handnet. With a fishing permit, one may use hand, handnet, gig, hook and line, or artificial light. Reference 3-NRS, Ch. 37, § 226, 503, 505 (1943) 28. NEVADA Regulations Fish and Game Commission, Box 10678, Reno, Nevada 89510 Species Rana catesbeiana Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Take Douglas and Esmeralda counties, 10/day; all other counties, 15/day Possession 15 Endangered Vegas Valley leopard (Rana pipiens fisher)) Techniques May use hand, bow and arrow, hook and line, gig, or spear. Fire- arms are not allowed. Reference 16-NRS, Title 45, Ch. 501.037 and S03.290 (1971) 29. NEW HAMPSHIRE R - ulations Fish and Game Department, Concord, New Hampshire 03301 Comment A permit is required. 30. NEW JERSEY No regulations Division of Fish and Game, Box 1809, Trenton, New Jersey 08625 31. NEW MEXICO R - ulations Game and Fish Department, State Capitol, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 Species Rana catesbeiana Season August 1-August 31 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Research A scientific collector's permit is available. Take 8/day Possession 8 Reference NMSA, Title 53, Ch. 2, § 4, 18, 23 (1970) 32. NEW YORK R - ulations New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York 12201 Species Frogs Season June 16-September 30 Commercial A valid fishing or hunting license is required. Techniques With a fishing license, one may use hand, spear, club, hook and line. With a hunting license, one may use gun or long bow.
139 Comment No person shall use any device that prevents frogs from having free access to and egress from the water. Reference 10 CLNYA, Article 4, § 181, 210, 225, 228, 332, 387 (1967) 33. NORTH CAROLINA Regulations Wildlife Resources Commission, Box 2919, Raleigh, North Carolina 27602 Comment A collector's permit is required. Reference 3~SNC, Ch. 1 13.91 ( 196 3) 34. NORTH DAKOTA Regulations Game and Fish Department, Bismarck, North Dakota 58501 Species Frogs Season June 1-March 31 (May hunt Tom April 1-May 31 if for angling pur poses, academic study, or with a commercial frog license.) Possession 12 dozen for bait. There is no limit for persons with commercial license. Violation Guilty of misdemeanor Comment The state has extensive populations of salamanders and scattered mudpuppies. Reference 4-NDCCA, Ch. 20.12 (1970) 35. OHIO R - ulations Natural Resources Department, Wildlife Division, Columbus, Ohio 43212 Species Frogs Season June lS-May 1 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Take 10/day Possession 1 0 Techniques May use bow and arrow, but not shooting guns. Comment Field observation indicates that there is no overhar`'esting. Reference ORCA, Title IS, Ch. 1533.32 (1964) 36. OKLAHOMA R - ulations Wildlife Conservation Department, 1801 No. Lincoln, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73 105 Commercial Production of fish and frogs Reference OSA, Title 29, Ch. 1765 (1968) 37. OR EGON R - ulations State Game Commission, 1634 S.W. Alder Street, Portland, Oregon 97208 Species Rana catesbeiana Season Ad year Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Possession 1 2 Techniques Day or night; one can not use firearms, air- or gas-operated guns, or explosives. Comment There is one live fish bait supplier with bullfrogs. Reference BARS, Cal. 496.185, 496.190, 497.010, 497.020, 497.040, 497.050, 498.030, 498.095 (1953) 38. PENNSYLVANIA R - ulations Pennsylvania Game Commission, P.O. Box 1567, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17120 Species Frogs and tadpoles Season July 1-November 1 Commercial A valid fishing license is required. Research A scientific collector's permit is available. Take 1 S/day (frogs or tadpoles)
140 Possession 15 (frogs or tadpoles) Violation $10.00 for every frog or tadpole over 15 Techniques No lights at night ($25.00 fine) Reference PSA, Title 30, Ch. 2, § 321-329 (1958) 39. RHODE ISLAND No regulations Department of Natural Resources, Veterans Memorial Building, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 40. SOUTH CAROLINA No regulations Division of Game, Box 360, Columbia, South Carolina 29202 41. SOUTH DAKOTA R - ulations Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota 57501 Species Frogs Season May October 15 Commercial Frog farm and dealer licenses are available. 1967 19,544 lb wholesale; 5,242 dozen for bait 1968 5,175 lb wholesale; 507 dozen for bait Techniques Cannot use firearms. Comment Cannot export frogs less than 3 in. long. Reference 1 2-SDCLA, Title 41, Ch. 6, § 46~8, and Ch. 14, § 31 (1967) 42. TENNESSEE Regulations Game and Fish Commission, 706 Church Street, Nashville, Tennessee 37203 Species Rana catesbeiana Season All year Commercial A collector's or dealer's permit is available. One can sell only raised or imported bullfrogs. Research A scientific collecting permit is available. Take 1 0/day Possession 20 Techniques No firearms may be used in wildlife management and refuge areas defined as hunting. Reference Tennessee Game and Fish Commission, Proclamation No. 215. 43. TEXAS No regulations Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, Texas 78701 Comment Rana pipiens, Rana catesbeiana, and Necturus may be taken in any numbers and at any time. 44. UTAH No regulations Fish and Game Division, 1596 West North Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 84116 45. VERMONT No regulations Fish and Game Department, Montpellier, Vermont 05602 Comment There is one commercial dealer. 46. Vl RGINIA R - ulations Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries, Box 1642, Richmond, Virginia 23213 Comment A valid hunting license is required. 47. WASHINGTON R - ulations Department of Game, 600 N. Capitol Way, Olympia, Washington 98502 Species Rana catesbeiana Season At tunes and in waters that are open for the taking of fish. Commercial A valid hunting or fishing license is required. Take 10/day
141 Possession 10 Comment Waterdogs are prohibited in Silverlake and Cowlitz counties. Referral 1971 Game Fish Seasons and Catch Limits 48. WEST VIRGINIA R - ulations Department of Natural Resources, Charleston, West Virginia 25305 Species Frogs Season June 13-luly 31 Commercial A license is available to raise and sell frogs. Research A permit is issued with a written application explaining details, methods, and purpose. No charge. Take 10/day Possession 20 with no size limitations, cannot have more than 100 total aquatic animals. A survey of licensed fishermen on gigging showed that in 1968: 113,222 frogs were gigged. Comment In state: salamanders, 25 species; toads, 3 species; frogs, 11 species. These species are the property of the state, except on private land. Reference 8-WVC, 20.2.11, 20.2.48 (1966) 49. WISCONSIN Regulations Conservation Department, Box 450, Madison, Wisconsin 53701 Species Frogs Season May 2-December 31 Commercial May sell out of season if caught in season or raised. Techniques No firearms may be used. Reference Wisconsin Fishing Summary of I 9 70 Regulations 50. WYOMING No regulations Game and Fish Commission, Box 1589, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82001 Comment Frogs are included in wildlife, which is the property of the state. CANADIAN PROVINCES 1. ALBERTA No regulations Fish and Wildlife Division, Department of Lands and Forests, Edmonton, Alberta Reference 1 Statutes of Alberta, Ch. 1 13 (1970) 2. BRITISH COLUMBIA No regulations Fish and Wildlife Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation, Vic- toria, British Columbia Reference 2-Revised Statutes of British Columbia, "The Game Act," Ch. 160 (1960) 3. MANITOBA R - ulations Department of Mines, Resources, and Environmental Management, Box 11, Building 15, 139 Tuxedo Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3C OV8 Species Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), leopard frog (Rana pipiens), Plains spadefoot toad (Scaphiophus bombifrons), green frog (Rana clamitans), mink frog (Rana septentrionalis) Season Leopard frogs may be caught and sold from June 1 to September 30, 1973, or until 100,000 lb have been sold, whichever comes first. Tiger salamanders may be caught from June 1 to September 30, 1973, with no limit on numbers taken.
142 Plains spadefoot toad, green frog, and mink frog may be taken for scien- tific or educational purposes only under authority of a scientific collecting permit. They may be taken by others, e.g., fanciers, without a permit but may not be sold. Commercial Special licenses are required for "pickers" and "dealers." Take A report of amounts bought and sold is required from each dealer on the 15th and 30th of each month. Comment "The Wildlife Act" amended in 1970 to include amphibians in the definition of wildlife. Reference Manitoba Regulation 134/71 authorized under "The Wildlife Act," Statutes of Manitoba, Ch. W140; also Manitoba Regulations 81/73, 82/72, and 76/73. 4. NEW BRUNSWICK No regulations Fish and Wildlife Branch, Natural Resources Department, Fredericton, New Brunswick Reference 2-Revised Statutes of New Brunswick, 6'The Game Act," Gh. 95 (1952) 5. NEWFOUNDLAND No regulations Federal Department of Fisheries, Box 5667, St. Johns, Newfoundland Director of Wildlife, Department of Mines, Agriculture and Resources, St. Johns, Newfoundland Comment Rana clamitans are present on the Island of Newfoundland. Also, frogs and toads exist in Labrador. Reference 4-Revised Statutes of Newfoundland, Ch. 197, Title XX, "The Wildlife Act" (1952) 6. NOVA SCOTIA No regulations Conservation Division, Department of Lands, and Forests, Box 516, Kentville, Nova Scotia 7. ONTARIO Regulations Department of Lands and Forests, Parliament Buildings, Toronto, Ontario Species Rana catesbeiana Season July October 15 Commercial A valid license is required at a fee of $5.00. Take No person other than the holder of a license shall take more than 25 bullfrogs/day. Possession No person other than the holder of a license shall possess more than 25 bullfrogs at one time. Comment The regulations are in force only in the counties of Lanark and Leeds. Reference Regulation 359 under '`The Game and Fish Act," 2-Revised Statutes of Ontario, 186:1, 73, 74, 75, 91, 92 (1970) 8. PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Nor~ulations Fish and Wildlife Division, Department of Fisheries, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island 9. QUEBEC No regulations Department of Tourism, Fish and Game, Quebec City, Quebec Reference Statutes of Quebec, "Wildlife Conservation Act," Ch. 58 (1969) 1Q SASKATCHEWAN No regulations Department of Natural Resources, Regina, Saskatchewan Reference Statutes of Saskatchewan, "The Animal Protection Act," Ch. 5 (1972)