Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
COMPUTER INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERING DESIGN AND PRODUCTION: A NATIONAL OPPORTUNITY Committee on the CAD/CAM Interface Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRES S Washington, D. C . 1984
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. J The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. ~ This study was supported by Contract NASW-3811 between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Academy of Sc fences . A limited number of copies are available from: Manufacturing Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
COMMITTEE ON THE CAD/CAM INTERFACE . ARTHUR R. THOMSON, Chairman, Professor of Industrial Engineering, Fenn College of Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio HARVEY E. BUFFED, Retired Director of Operations Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Washington SHAUN S. DEVLIN, Electronic Systems Department Research Staff, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan W. PAUL FRECH, President, Lockheed Corporation, Marietta, Georgia JAMES M. HARDY, Director, New Business Projects, TRW, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio JOSEPH HARRINGTON, JR., Consulting Engineer, Wenham, Massachusetts GEORGE K. HUTCHINSON, Professor of Management Information Systems, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee CHRISTOPH W. KLOMP, Director, Engineering Computing Systems, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Washington MARTIN J. McHALE, Vice President, Systems Operations, Control Data Corporation, Bloomington, Minnesota MICHEL A. MELKANOFF, Director, Manufacturing Engineering Program, University of California at Los Angeles M. EUGENE MERCHANT, Director, Advanced Manufacturing Research, fletcut Research Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio R. W. VAN SANT, President, Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, Kansas . . .
MANUFACTURING STUDIES BOARD GEORGE S. ANSELL, Chairman, Dean of Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York **ERICH BLOCH, Vice Chairman, Vice President, Technical Personnel Development, IBM Corporation, White Plains, New York ANDERSON ASHBURN, Editor, AMERICAN MACHINIST, New York, New York AVAK AVAKIAN, Vice President, GTE Sylvania Systems Group, Waltham, Massachusetts **DANIEL BERG, Provost, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York IRVING BLUESTONE, Professor of Labor Studies, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan BARBARA A. BURNS, Manager, Applications & Project Engineering, Robot Systems Incorporated, Norcross, Georgia ROBERT H. ELMAN, Group Vice President, AMCA International Corporation, Hanover, New Hampshire ELLIOTT M. ESTES, Retired President, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan DAVID C. EVANS, President & Chairman of the Board, Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp., Salt Lake City, Utah W. PAUL FRECH, President, Lockheed Georgia Company, Marietta, Georgia BELA GOLD, Fletcher Jones Professor of Technology and Management, Claremont Graduate School of Business Administration, Claremont, California DALE B. HARTMAN, Director of Manufacturing Technology, Hughes Aircraft Company, E1 Segundo, California *MICHAEL HUMENIK, JR., Director, Manufacturing Process Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, Detroit, Michigan ROBERT B. KURTZ, Retired Vice President, General Electric Corporation, Fairfield, Connecticut M. EUGENE MERCHANT, Director, Advanced Manufacturing Research, Metcut Research Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio ROY MONTANA. General Manager, Bethpage Operation Center, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, New York THOMAS J. MURRIN, President, Energy and Advanced Technology Group, Westinghouse Electric Group, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROGER NAGEL, Director, Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania PETER G. PETERSON, Peterson, Jacobs & Co., New York, New York RAJ REDDY, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WICKHAM SKINNER, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts BRUCE THRASHER, Director, District 35, United Steelworkers of America, Atlanta, Georgia EDWIN M. ZIMMERMAN, Member, D.C. Bar, Washington, D.C. *deceased **resigned 1V
PREFACE The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as a purchaser or a variety of manufactured products, including complex space vehicles and systems, clearly has a stake in the advantages of computer-integrated manufacturing. Two major NASA objectives are to launch a Manned Space Station by 1992 with a budget of $8 billion, and to be a leader in the development and application of productivity- enhancing technology. NASA's major effort in integration has been the Integrated Program for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD), directed at computer-aided design. To extend its work into the broader arena of computer- integrated manufacturing, NASA asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct an investigation using case studies as the basis for recommendations designed to: · clarify the data management requirements in computer- integrated manufacturing, and · correct deficiencies in current efforts that address the interaction between the engineering design of a product and its production. The NRC, through its Manufacturing Studies Board, formed the Committee on the CAD/CAM Interface in September 1983 to respond to NASA's request. The Committee comprises 12 members from industry and academia with experience in research, design, production, computers, and management. The Committee met four times during a one-year period. In addition, it conducted five site visits to industry and met with the program staffs of the three major federal programs involved in computer-integrated manufacturing. For case studies, the Committee selected five companies that have made significant progress toward integration. These leading companies hosted two-day site visits by three to five Committee members. The Committee developed a questionnaire (Appendix A) to solicit from the companies their definitions of integration and information on the planning process, execution of the integration plan, contents of the data base, effects of integration on the organization, and measures of progress. These case studies: v
· identified the data flows and data management required for effective integration of computer-aided engineering design with computer-aided production, and · evaluated significant problem areas or trends in integrating CAD and CAM. The insights gained from the five companies, combined with the Committee members' own experience and information on federal programs, are the basis for the site visit report in Chapter 2 and the analysis of issues in Chapter 3. These, in turn, lead to the recommendations in Chapter 4 for specific actions by NASA, other federal agencies, and U.S. manufacturing companies. The Committee on the CAD/CAM Interface is solely responsible for this report. A number of others, though, have made invaluable contributions. First of all, the report would not have been possible without the help of Deere and Company, General Motors Corporation, Ingersoll Milling Machine Company, McDonnell Aircraft Company, Westinghouse Defense and Electronics Center, the IPAD program staff at the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, the Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing program, and the National Bureau of Standards Automated Manufacturing Research Facility. At all these places, Committee members were welcomed by many people who gave generously of their time, insights, and knowledge. In addition, Samuel Venneri and Harry Sonnemann of NASA gave important guidance to the Comm~ttee's work. Staff Officer Janice Greene was primarily responsible for the management of the study and participated in the analysis and writing. George Kuper, Executive Director of the Manufacturing Studies Board, contributed much to the substance and process of the Committee's discussions. Jozsef Hatvany of the Computer and Automation Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, contributed Appendix C, on CAD/CAM outside the United States. Consultant Harold Davidson provided information on federal programs. Kenneth Reese edited this report. George Krumbhaar, Gerald Susman, and Margaret Dewar reviewed the draft and suggested improvements. Georgene Menk was responsible for the administrative work of the Committee, and Lucy Fusco and Donna Reifsnider provided administrative support and typed this report. V1
TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.... 1. MANUFACTURING, COMPUTERS, AND INTEGRATION 8 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 8 The Consequences of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 9 A Glimpse at the Integrated Factory of the Future, 10 Getting to CIM, 12 2. SUMMARY OF SITE VISITS. e e e ~ e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e · e e · e e e e e e e e e e e e Definition of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 14 Incentives for Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 15 Planning for Integration, 15 What Level of CAD/CAM Integration Will Be Achieved?, 18 Starting a CAD/CAM Integration Effort, 19 Federally Funded CAD/CAM Programs, 20 ...14 3. ISSUES THAT INFLUENCE COMPUTER INTEGRATION 26 Technical Issues, 26 Organizational Issues, 30 Financial and Accounting Issues, 35 Government Issues, 37 4. RECOMMENDATIONS...... Table 1, Guidelines for CIM, 45 APPENDIXES.............. A. Interview Questionnaire, 47 B. CIM Today, 49 C. Integration in Manufacturing Systems Abroad, 55 GLOSSARY.......... TABLE OF ACRONYMS ~ .40 -.47 @ . V11