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ESMOND R. LONG Tune ~ 6, ~ 890-November ~ 1, ~ 979 BY PETER C. NOWELL AND LOUIS B. DELPINO ES M O N D ~ O N G successfully combined two chief areas of interest in his lengthy career. In over fifty years of re- search on mycobacterial infections, he made major contri- butions that ranged from the biochemistry of tuberculin to the epidemiology of tuberculosis in (li~erent populations. At the same time he wrote extensively on the history of medicine and biomedical research, including definitive texts on the his- tory of pathology. Esmond Ray Long, known as "Es" to his colleagues, was born on June 16, TS90, in Chicago, not far from Northwest- ern University. His father, John Harper Long, was a profes- sor of chemistry at Northwestern anct, from 19 ~ 3 until a year before his death in 191S, dean of the School of Pharmacy. In 1906, after completing his secondary eclucation at the University of Chicago's Morgan Park Academy, Esmonct Long took a year of private instruction in chemistry from his father and his associates. In 191 ~ he received his A.B. degree from the University of Chicago, majoring in chemistry. Earlier, uncler the influence of his mother's interests. Long hac! developec! an abiding taste for literature, lan- guages, anc! history. He tract once even considered becoming a teacher of Latin. For the moment, however, it was the in- fluence of his father, anct of two distinguished professors of 285
286 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS chemistry, Julius Stieglitz and John U. Nef, that was to pre- vail. Later, the sense of history incuIcatecI by his mother's awareness of culture would surface, as wouIc! his literary bent, in Long's books History of Pathology ( 1928), Selected Read- ings in Pathology from Hippocrates to Virchow (1929), and A His- tory of American Pathology (1962), as well as in his last substan- tial writing effort, Development of the Department of Pathology in School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, privately published in 1977. In 1918 Long received his Ph.D. degree from the Univer- sity of Chicago's School of Medicine. His M.D. clegree, from the Rush Medical College, then a part of the university, was awarded in 1926. The extensive span of time between degrees was clue largely to a prolonged bout with pulmonary tuberculosis whose onset came in 19 ~ 3, when Long was in his second year as a medical student. He coughed up several mouthfuls of blooct while playing tennis, anct that evening he went back to the laboratory, stained his sputum, anct found it full of tu- bercle bacilli. There had been no previous indication of ill health; on the contrary, cluring his premedical clays at the University of Chicago, Long had been a member of the track team, specializing in the mile run. Long spent the next five years undergoing the various forms of tuberculosis therapy then fashionable. These in- cluded cTry-air treatments in a tent in Arizona, programs of modified exercise, nearly a year of bee! rest in Seattle, and superalimentation with a diet rich in cholesterol. This regi men might typically comprise four quarts of milk and as many as a dozen eggs claily in aciclition to three regular meals! Throughout his incapacitation, Long kept abreast of the scientific literature anct even managed to do some laboratory work. Towarc! the enct of this period, in 191S, he worked as
ESMOND R. LONG 287 an assistant uncler Ec~warct R. Baldwin, director of the Sar- anac Laboratory at the renowned tuberculosis center in Sar- anac Lake, New York, and one of Ec~ward Livingston Tru- deau's noteworthy successors. When Long was presented with the GoIct-Heacled Cane of the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists in March 1971, he reflected on the time he tract spent with Baldwin: I had made some preliminary studies, quite independently in a tiny laboratory I constructed in Seattle during my Western migration for the cure, learning the chemical requirements of cultures of a number of bac- teria on chemically defined synthetic media. Baldwin gave me his full ap- proval for proceeding on the same course with the tubercle bacillus. He and staff assistants taught me how to set up cultures of the bacillus, isolate it from patient and laboratory animals, and follow long periods of obser- vation of the disease in guinea pigs and rabbits. He also made me the clinical resident in the Reception Hospital of Saranac Lake, where I ex- amined patients with far advanced disease, flouroscoped them periodically, and gave them pneumothorax refills, for almost a year. I examined spec- imens for doctors in town, and with Baldwin's constant encouragement had a thorough grounding in the day-by-day practical care of tuberculosis patients, as well as in its more theoretical and laboratory aspects. Baldwin proviclect further encouragement by ensuring that Long became acquainted with others who were investi- gating the same or similar problems at Saranac Lake: Lawra- son Brown, Fred Heise, Homer Sampson, S. A. Petroff, Wil- liam Steenken, and Leroy Gardner. "From each of these," Long recalled, "I learned something." The most fruitful mo- ments stemming from Long's associations at Saranac Lake, however, were with Allen K. Krause, a graduate of the tu- berculosis center's school of treatment anct research, who hac! left for the Johns Hopkins University: (, _ _ _ an, Krause pushed forward the researches of Trudeau and Baldwin and developed a concept of tuberculosis that dominated American views of its pathogenesis for years, only to give way in time to more advanced concepts
288 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS promulgated by others. I read assiduously everything that Trudeau, Bald- win, and Krause ever wrote, and consciously tried to pattern my own writ- ing on the model set by Krause, who was a highly gifted writer and speaker, with an encvclonedic mind and prodigious memory of the literature on . ~ · T ~ 1 _ _1 ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ do [ Bird ~ t ~17~ t ; ~ tin th ~ tuberculosis. He was a superb eal~oI-, ~ Soots Allele \J1 Wll~lL VV~llL 111~ Belt American Review of Tuberculosis, including what I wrote myself, and alto- gether an ideal to follow. Unfortunately his frail physique, which had car- ried him through illness with cancer of the bowel and pulmonary tuber- culosis, gave way finally, with loss of his mind and spirit. It is a travesty of the times that this highly intelligent man is now almost forgotten.' By 1919 Long had recovered sufficiently to return to Chi- cago, where under Dr. H. Gideon Wells, the acknowlecigecl leader in what was known as "chemical pathology" at that time, he resumes! his thesis work on purine metabolism. Long had initially come under WelIs's teaching in ~ 9 ~ I, when Julius Stieglitz recommender! him as a chemical assistant to Wells. Long later recalled that he, Wells, and another assistant "shared the small quarters customary for a young professor of pathology in those days Wells was only thirty-six, but . ~ ~ seemed old to me and I have been grateful ever since for the intimacy of our crowded room. We became closely ac- quainted without losing the relation of master and pupil." Most leaders in pathology at that time were largely ori- ented toward the morphological aspects of the science. Wells was an excellent pathological anatomist and histologist, a fact often overlooked because of his renown as a chemical pa- thologist and immunologist. Reflecting on his mentor, Long wrote: Wells was jovial, always apt in expression, and witty in his outlook on everything we did. Those were the days of what he called "wash-tub chem- istry." We ground up vast quantities of pathological tissues and analyzed ' Esmond R. Long, "Response to Presentation of the Gold-Headed Cane," Amer- ican Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists, March 1971.
ESMOND R. LONG 289 them by methods that were extremely laborious by comparison with those of today. When we wanted, for example, to find the guanine or adenine content of a tumor, we actually isolated the pure substances and weighed them, verifying them by their melting points. Today we would put a sample in an expensive optical system, press a button, and get a quantitative print- out of almost everything in the sample. All pathologists are chemical pa- thologists now, and it is largely because of the refinements of present ap- paratus, and the relative ease with which facts are learned, that this has come about.2 Long completed his Ph.D. degree under Dr. Ludwig Hek- toen in 1918. He continued his pursuit of the M.D. degree while teaching general and special pathology to secon(l-year medical students. The courses entailed both day ant! night autopsies, conducted at funeral homes as well as at hospitals, and it was this rigorous schedule that gave Long his basic experience in postmortem dissection and microscopic pa- thology. During this same clemanding period, he continuccl his own laboratory research as well as his scholarship in mect- ical history. Long spent the summer of 1921 at the Stanford Univer- sity Medical School, in clinical study related to his protracted quest for the M.D. degree. During his return trip to Chicago in September, he visited Denver, where he renewed his ac- quaintance with a distant relative, Marian Beak Aclams, with whom he shared great-great-grandparents. Esmond Long and Marian Aciams were married in June of ~ 922, and shortly afterward s they sailed for Prague, Czechoslovakia, for a rather unconventional honeymoon. At the German University in Prague, Long spent six months with Anton Ghon, who was well known for his studies on the primary complex of tuberculosis and its relation to the allergy of the disease. Long honed his autopsy dissection 2 Ibid.
290 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS technique, and under Ghon's guidance clevoted special atten- tion to the pathologic lesions of primary tuberculosis infec- tion-the so-callecl "Ghon complex," a localizect parenchymal area of disease and enIargec} hilar or mecliastinal lymph nobles. Of his days in Prague, Long stated: I made an almost ludicrous start with Professor Ghon. America was a little remote to most of the students in the autopsy room. Ghon and the rest of the staff and students crowded around the table to see how an American professor I was an assistant professor by that time made a postmortem examination. I was, to put it mildly, less than an expert by central European standards. Of my performance that day the less said the better. One by one the students drifted away, and at the end Ghon said he thought I would gain if I had a chance to observe their methods for a time. 3 The time, Long noted happily, was brief. He was assignee! the help of Ghon's own assistant, Koene} Terplen, and of an elclerly yet still adept diener named Weicirich, who hac! been the personal diener of Karl Rokitansky in Vienna during the late 1870s. "That those hands helping me hac! done the same for Rokitansky, whom I ranked with Morgagni and Virchow, seemed as great an honor as working with Ghon himself,"4 Long recollectecI. long translated several of Ghon's papers into English. Their acquaintance grew, enduring beyond the visit to Prague, and the two men remained! in touch until Ghon's cleath ironically, of tuberculosis, the field to which he had contributed so brilliantly in 1936. Long resumed his interrupter! Chicago research in 1923, focusing his studies on investigations into the nature of the active principle of tuberculin and on the varying inflamma- tory reactions to tuberculin in both normal anct tuberculous 3 Ibid. 4 ibid.
ESMOND R. LONG 291 subjects. Of particular interest were the heightened re- sponses to tuberculin in such tissues as the testis, kidney, cor- nea, and skin, as well as in a specific cell, the spermatocyte. This lect to the clevelopment of the spermatocyte test. Koch had been the first to record, in 1901, that tuberculin (extracts of the tubercle bacillus and the medium in which the bacillus tract been grown) was toxic for the tuberculous guinea pig anc! nontoxic for the nontuberculous. As a cliag- nostic reagent in the human form of the disease, tuberculin injected subcutaneously has no effect on nontuberculous sub- jects but causes inflammation at the injection site in tuber- culous patients. The problem seen by Long was that no test hacI yet been made with a measured quantity of the active principle of tuberculin. "The reason for this," Long wrote, "is that we do not know what the active principle of tuberculin is. No preparation containing the active principle ant! nothing else has ever been macle. We do not know whether there is a single active prin- ciple or several responsible for the tuberculin reaction. We are far from sure of the general chemical nature of the sub- stance which is active. In gross chemical fractionation of tu- berculin, activity remains with the protein portion. This ctoes not mean that the active substance is necessarily protein. It may be merely absorbed by protein. Furthermore, on finer fractionation protein fractions which are not active can be separated from tuberculin. Hence chemical evaluation . . . is at present an impossibility."5 Long reviewoc! the tuberculin standardization methods then current, noting that in each the disadvantages far outs weighed the advantages. Methods basect on the lethal close of tuberculin for tuberculous guinea pigs were too gross anci, 5"Standardization of Tuberculin," Journal of Infectious Diseases, 37(1925):368-84.
292 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS being quantitative only in a "pass or fail" manner, precluded the establishment of a tuberculin unit. In the method of in- tracutaneous testing, tuberculin was standardized with re- spect to the skin of an allergic animal and later used on the skin of an allergic patient. Long found this method also un- certain, not only because of the great variability in the skin reactivity of tuberculous guinea pigs, but also because in weak concentrations the traumatic reaction could not be distin- guished from the specific reaction. Two other approaches, the complement-fixation and precipitin methods, each fur- nished a unit whereby doses of tuberculin could be mea- sured, but both also shared the serious drawback of complete dissociation between the standardizing test and the use to which the tuberculin was put. Long had earlier observed that whether or not necrosis occurred in tissues injected with tuberculin was dependent on several factors, including the type of tissue and the dose of tuberculin. Skin tissues, for example, were relatively re- sistant; necrosis occurred only with strong doses. By contrast, tuberculin injected into the testes of tuberculous guinea pigs produced a severe reaction characterized by the coagulation of spermatocytes and their derivatives. At least a hundred experiments in Long's laboratory showed tuberculin to be . . nontoxic for the spermatocytes of nontuberculous animals, whereas it never failed to elicit reaction in the testes of tu- berculous guinea pigs. "There can be no question," Long stated in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, "that the reaction just described is a true tuberculin reaction. It is absolutely specific.... Furthermore, preparations of bacteria other than the tubercle bacillus (and other acid-fast bacilli), of which several have been injected, do not elicit the reaction. Finally, the type of reaction is his- tologically identical with that observed in the skin reaction, except that degeneration and necrosis are more pronounced.
ESMOND R. LONG This is to be expla bility of the clelicate germ celIs."6 293 inert as a result of the exquisite suscept The test had several other advantages. It couIcl detect one-tenth of the minimum quantity detectable by the skin test. Reactions were far more constant, and microscopic sec- tions of testes could be preserved as a permanent record of any test. Long concluclecI, "Necrosis and subsequent absorp- tion of the spermatocytes is user! as the basis for recognizing a positive reaction, and the limiting dilution at which this is observed under the conditions outlined above is considered to represent one unit of tuberculin."7 Meanwhile, Long's probing into the active principle of tuberculin continued in collaboration with Dr. Florence Sei- bert, who worked with him as a chemical assistant. Their col laboration ultimately showed the active principle to be pro- tein in nature. In 1926 the findings of these investigations were published in the American Review of Tuberculosis, and in 1932 Long was awarclec! the Trudeau Medal by the National Tuberculosis Association as a result of these studies. The year 1923 saw publication of the first edition of The Chemistry of Tuberculosis, which Long coauthored with H. Gicleon Wells and L. M. DeWitt. Long's History of Pathology was published in 192S, the same year he attained the rank of professor. The following year his Selected Readings in Pathology from Hippocrates to Virchow appeared. Throughout this busy period, and until 1950, Long also server! as the special editor in medicine for Webs - s International Dictionary, defining or approving the definitions of some 15,000 words. In 1932, Long moved with his family to Philadelphia, where he became a professor of pathology at the University of Pennsylvania and the director of laboratories at the Phipps Institute for the Stucly, Treatment, and Prevention of Tuber 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid.
294 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS culosis, a department of the university. During this period Long continued his collaborative investigations with Florence Seibert into the active principle of tuberculin. Dr. Seibert was eventually able to crystallize and purify the substance, now known ~.s n~rified protein derivative (PPD) and used as a . standard dermal reactivity indicator in diagnosing tubercu- losis. PPD became the tuberculin standard for the U.S. Public Health Service, and in 1952 was adopted as the international standard by the World Health Organization. Long became director of the Phipps Institute in 1935, holding the position until his retirement in 1955. He was chairman of the Division of Medical Sciences of the National Research Council from 1936 to 1939, and president of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology in Philadelphia from ~ 939 to ~ 942. 1 7 A great deal of the research being done at the Phipps Institute involved environmental factors and racial ctiffer- ences in tuberculosis, the experimental pathology of the dis- ease, and approaches to detection, prevention, and control. To this demographic base Long added his own knowledge of the metabolic and anatomic changes occurring in tubercu- losis, thereby achieving a synthesis of the n~tholo~v of the .. . . . . . . . 1 1 . rim a, active disease with its ep~aem~o~ogy. This enhanced under- standing led to Long's appointment as a consultant on tuber- culosis to the U.S. Army Medical Corps, as a lieutenant- colonel, during the Second World War. He was shortly afterwards made deputy chief of the Professional Services Division of the Office of the Surgeon General, with respon- sibilities involving the medical care of recruits, the develop- ment of hospital policies and standards, and other tubercu- losis-related programs. When the war ended, Long's activities shifted focus to the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis among the population of strife-torn Germany. These various efforts led to numerous publications, and to a definitive text,
ESMOND R. LONG 295 with Seymour Jablon, entitled Tuberculosis in the Army of the United States. From 1932 to 194S, Long served as a member of the Ad- visory Medical Board of the Leonard Wood Memorial of the American Leprosy Foundation. His responsibilities cluring part of this time involvecI directing experiments on the sepa- ration of leprosy bacilli from infected tissues. Although Long's interests tract included the mycobacteria in general, this was his first principal involvement with leprosy, a field in which he was to earn further distinction in coming years. In 1963 Dr. H. W. Wacle, editor of the International journal of Leprosy since its inception in 1933, announced his retire- ment. Dr. Chapman H. Binford, medical director of the Leonard Wood Memorial, nominated Long to be Wade's suc- cessor. Long was elected, assuming editorship of the journal in 1964. The journal was a year behind in publication. Long brought it up to date, frequently traveling by train or car from his retirement residence in PecIlar Mills, Virginia, to his editorial quarters at the Leonard Wood Memorial in Wash- ington, D.C., a distance of 200 miles. During the winter months, when travel was uncertain, Esmond and Marion Long closet! their Virginia home ant! liver! in Washington at their own expense. Long was strongly aware of the clependence of progress in leprosy research on advances macle in the stucly of other mycobacterial diseases. In a 1965 editorial in the International Journal of Leprosy, he cited the leacis obtained for the investi- gation of M. leprae through knowledge of the unique growth requirements of the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a (leaclly, chronic mycobacterial enteritis afflicting cattle, sheep, goats, and cleer. Long also notes] the recent identification of M. uicerans ant! M. balneii (later M. marinum) for use in the ctifferential diagnosis of leprosy. These observations, as well as a desire to expand the scope and readership of the journal,
296 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS prompted Long to recommend to the editorial board an ap- propriate subtitle for the publication. Long's suggestion was approved, and the first issue of I... 36 (1966) carried the new heading International journal of Leprosy and Other Myco- bacterial Diseases. In 1966 the Longs returned permanently to Philadelphia, where Esmond, despite his "academic retirement," continued the active pursuit of his many scientific interests. During this period, Long was able to enjoy the renewal of friendship with a fellow scientist whom he had not seen for a quarter of a century. While on assignment with the U.S. Army in Europe following the war, Long had become acquainted with Dr. E. Freerksen of the Borste} Research Institute in Borstel, Ger- many, whom he helped in developing a tuberculosis research program. Early in 1970, Freerksen approached Chapman H. Binford concerning the possibility of the International journal of Leprosy's publishing the proceedings of a colloquium on leprosy research to be conducted at Borste! that August. Bin- ford in turn consulted with Long, who reestablished com- munication with Freerksen and agreed to be the final editor of the proceedings. Long was invited to attend the collo- quium, but was unable to go. In his address at the opening ceremonies, Freerksen stated: lust about 25 years ago iEsmond Long] contributed decidedly to the fact that there exists today a Forschungsinstitute Borstel. With his spirit, combining humanity, loyalty, objectivity, and personal courage, he con- quered all difficulties arising during this particular time and led the plan- ning negotiations with the occupation to a positive conclusion. As editor of this colloquium he is continuing a line not influenced by favor or disfavor which he himself once began.8 The colloquium comprised some seventy-five papers and talks, many of them given informally with lantern slides. ~ Chapman H. Binford, letter to Robert E. Stowell, February 5, 1971.
ESMOND R. LONG 297 Rearranging these presentations to comply with the style and format of the journal, as well as coping with problems of language, proved a tedious chore for Long, who customarily was a very swift editor. He spent 800 hours assembling the colloquium material into a well-illustratecI, easily react volume of almost 500 pages entitIe(1 Leprosy Today, which was pub- lished in 1972 as a supplement to I.J.L., 2:39. Long's publications in the late 1960s and early 1970s ex- tenclecI his half-century-Ion" interest in mycobacterial clis- eases and in the history of medicine. He completecI histories of a number of scientific organizations (some of which he tract served earlier as presiclent), including the American Associa tion of Pathologists and Bacteriologists, the American Society for Experimental Pathology, and, as noted previously, a his- tory of the Department of Pathology at the University of Pennsylvania. Long maintained an active interest in many of these or- ganizations, and many of the present generation of experi- mental pathologists (including this writer EP.C.N.~) found in his attendance at meetings of scientific societies and academic councils a living link with the history of the field. Both in conversation and in writing in his later years, Esmond Long (lisplayect a remarkable capacity for placing in perspective the rapid developments of the present clay and the technological advances that made them possible. Altogether, Esmond Long was a member of some twenty scientific societies, and server! as president of at least six. Among the most notable of his many awards were the Phil- aclelphia Bok Award (1954) and the Gold-Headed Cane of the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists (19714. His prolific writings over more than half a century included nearly 300 articles and editorials, and twelve books. He also clelivered at least twenty special lectures and edited three scientific journals. . .
298 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS This brief listing of accomplishments provides some in- clication of the enormous contributions macle by Esmond Long to the study of mycobacterial diseases and to the pres- ervation of the history of medicine. It floes little, however, to convey the type of man who was responsible for such a pro- digious output. All those who knew and have written about Esmond Long have stressed the genuine humanity, kinkiness, and humility of the man. These qualities were evidencecI throughout his long life, and were certainly apparent even to those who met him only in his later years. It is unfortunate that Esmond Long's life ultimately was saddened by the passing in 1974 of his beloved wife Marian, after a long illness with leukemia. Long joiner! her in death on November ~ I, 1979, survived by his son, Esmond R. Long, Jr., his daughter, Judith L. Neal, a sister, Arie] Miller, and five grandchilciren. FO R S O U RC E S U S E D in preparing this biographical memoir ot Esmond Long the authors are indebted to material by Robert E. Stowell, Olaf K. Skinsnes, Chapman H. Binford, and Paul R. cannon. .
ESMOND R. LONG SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 299 1913 With H. G. Wells. The purines and purine metabolism of tumors. and the chemical relations of primary and secondary tumors. Z. Krebsforsch., 12:598. On the presence of adenase in the human body. l. Biol. Chem., 15:449. The purines and purine metabolism in some tumors in domestic animals. J. Exp. Med., 18:512. 1914 With H. G. Wells. Ueber die purinenzyme der pneumonischen lunge. Dtsch. Arch. Klin. Med., 115:377. With E. R. LeCount. The relation between the fat content of the bile and fatty changes in the liver. i. Exp. Med., 19:234. With F. K. Bartless and H. I. Corper. Independence of the lobes of the liver. Am. I. Physiol., 25:36. 1915 Growth and colloid hydration of cacti. Bot. Gaz., 59:491. 1918 Further results in desiccation and respiration of Echinecactus. Bot. Gaz., 65:354. 1919 Artificial pneumothorax in tuberculosis. Am. I. Nurs., 19:265. A study in fundamentals of the nutrition of the tubercle bacillus. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 3:86. 1920 The utilization of amino acids by tubercle bacilli and other acid- fast organisms. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 16:332. 1921 I he purine bases of the tubercle bacillus. Am. Rev. Tuberc.,4:842. A mountain sanitarium in Hawaii. I. Outdoor Life, 18:35.
300 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Democrats and aristocrats in scientific research. Sci. Mon., 12:414. Chemical problems in the bacteriology of the tubercle bacillus. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 5:705. With A. L. Major. A method of following reaction changes in cul- tures of acid-fast bacteria. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 5:715. 1922 The nutrition of acid-fast bacteria. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 5:857. Cultural differences among acid-fast organisms. Trans. Chicago Path. Soc., 11:266. The biochemistry of tuberculosis. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., 33:246. With T. B. Johnson and E. B. Brown. The pyra~nidines of the tu- bercle bacillus. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 18:543. With L. K. Campbell and A. M. Smith. The carbon metabolism of the tubercle bacillus. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 18:545. With L. K. Campbell. The lipin content of acid-fast bacilli. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 6:636. Lipin-protein in relation to acid-fastness. Am. Rev. Tuberc.,6:642. 1923 Specific dietotherapy in tuberculosis. I. Outdoor Life, 20:229. Tuberculosis. Cause and prevention. Hygeia, 1:445. Chemical evidence on the phylogenetic classification of the tu- bercle bacillus. The plant or animal question. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 8:195. Some tuberculosis cures we read about. I. Press exploitation. The Dreyor vaccine. I. Outdoor Life, 20:427. With H. G. Wells and L. M. DeWitt. The Chemistry of Tuberculosis. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 447 pp. 1924 Testicle reinfection in experimental tuberculosis and the testicle tuberculin reaction. Trans. Chicago Path. Soc., 12:10. Studies on the chemical nature of tuberculin. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 20:241. With W. S. Miller. Reinfection and reticulum formation in experi- mental tuberculosis. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 20:285.
ESMOND R. LONG 1925 301 Segregating the leper. Hygeia, 3: 149. With F. B. Seibert. The interfering effect of glycerol on the Beirut reaction. i. Biol. Chem., 64:229. With F. B. Seibert. Tuberculin. Chemical composition of the active principle and the nature of the tuberculin reaction. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 85:650. Standardization of tuberculin. Assay on the basis of the spermato- cyte reaction. i. Infect. Dis., 37:368. 1926 The search for a cure for tuberculosis. Hygeia, 4:150. Experimental infection: Immunization against tuberculosis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 1 :918. Is the vaccination of cattle against tuberculosis a practical possibil- ity? Ill. Health News, New Ser., 12:252. Protective vaccination of children against tuberculosis. A review. i. Prev. Med., 1 :31. With F. B. Seibert. The chemical nature of the active principle of tuberculin. Tubercle, 8: 111. With F. B. Seibert. Purified active substances in tuberculin and the nature of the allergic reaction they cause. Assoc., 22:270. 1927 . Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Adenoma of the hypophysis without acromegaly, hypopituitarism, or visual disturbances, terminating in sudden death. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry. 18:576. With L. L. Finner. Relation of glycerol in culture media to the growth and chemical composition of the tubercle bacilli. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 16:523. 1928 With P. R. Cannon. Fulminant epidemic meningitis with death in nine hours. Trans. Chicago Path. Soc., 13:18. Allergic reactions in the kidney and testis. i. Urol., 20:565. Tuberculin and the tuberculin reaction. In: The Newer Knowledge of Bacteriology and Immunology, by E. O. Jordan and I. S. Falk, p. 1016. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
302 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With L. L. Finner. Experimental glomerulonephritis produced by intrarenal tuberculin reactions. Am. I. Pathol., 4:571. Some factors in native immunity to tuberculosis. Arch. Pathol., 6: 1138. (Also in: Trans. Chicago Path. Soc., 13 :69.) A History of Pathology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 291 pp. 1929 With F. B. Seibert. The protein of the tubercle bacillus and its effect on normal and tuberculous animals. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. As- soc., 25:187. Selected Readiness in Pathology from Hippocrates to Virchow. Springfield, Ill., and Baltimore, Md.: Charles C Thomas. 301 pp. 1930 The first text of pathology published in America: The "Treatise on Pathological Anatomy" by William Edmonds Homer, 1829. Arch. Pathol., 9:898. With C. B. Huggins and A. I. Vorwald. Results following intrarenal arterial tuberculin infections in normal and tuberculous mon- keys, goats, and swine. Am. ]. Pathol., 6:449. 1931 A chemical view of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. In: The Harvey Lectures 1929-1930, Ser. 25:144. (Also in: Am. Rev. Tuberc., 22:467.) With A. Larson. Experimental tuberculin pneumonia. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 23:41. With A. l. Vorwald and L. Donaldson. Early cellular reaction to tubercle bacilli. A comparison of this reaction in normal and tuberculous guinea-pigs and in guinea-pigs immunized with dead bacilli. Arch. Pathol., 12:956. 1932 With A. J. Vorwald. A comparison of tissue reaction to testicular inoculation of acid-fast bacilli. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 25:614. With H. G. Wells. The Chemistry of Tuberculosis, 2d ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 481 pp. 1933 . . Microincineration of tubercles. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 30: 1090.
ESMOND R. LONG 303 With S. W. Holley and A. }. Vorwald. A comparison of the cellular reaction in experimental tuberculosis of the cornea of animals of varying resistance. Am. J. Pathol.. 9:329. With S. W. Holley. The origin of the epithelioid cell in experimen- tal tuberculosis of the cornea. Am. I. Pathol., 9:337. The inflammatory reaction in tuberculosis. Am. I. Med. Sci., 185:750. With F. B. Seibert and N. Morley. Two avian tubercle bacillus dis- sociants and two human tubercle bacillus strains of different virulence.~. Infect. Dis., 53:175. The development of our knowledge of arteriosclerosis. In: Arter- iosclerosis: A Survey of the Problem, ed. E. V. Cowdry, p. 19. New York: Macmillan. 1934 Tuberculin. I. Lancet, 54:247. Tuberculin: Proposal of a standard substance for uniformity in diagnosis and epidemiology. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 30:105. The pathogenesis of chronic ulcerative pulmonary tuberculosis. P. R. i. Public Health Trop. Med., 9:365. With I. D. Aronson and F. B. Seibert. Tuberculin surveys with the purified protein derivative. The determination of optimum dosage. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 30:733. The purified protein derivative as a standard tuberculin. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 30:757. 1935 Tuberculosis through fifty years. I. Outdoor Life, 32:47. Thomas Addison and his discovery of idiopathic anemia. Ann. Med. Hist., New Ser., 7: 130. Metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma from the wrist to the axilla without demonstrable intervening growth. Am. i. Cancer, 23:797. Tuberculous cavities. Some features in the genesis, development, and healing. i. Lancet, 55: 191. Tuberculosis in college students, with special reference to tuber- culin testing. J. Lancet, 55:201. From pathology to epidemiology in tuberculosis. l. Am. Med. As- soc., 104: 1883.
304 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Acquired and constitutional factors in resistance to tuberculosis. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 31:308. 1936 With H. W. Hetherington. A tuberculosis survey in the Papago In- dian area of southern Arizona. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 33:407. Concepts of cardiac pathology before Morgagni. Ann. Med. Hist., New Ser., 8:442. 1937 A brief comparison of tuberculosis in the White, Indian, and Ne- gro races. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 35:1. With F. B. Seibert. Further studies on purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Its diagnostic value and keeping qualities in dilutions. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 35:181. With F. B. Seibert. The incidence of tuber~ulous infection in col- lege students. Determination by standardized tuberculin (pur- ified protein derivative) on 18,744 college students in 1935-36. }. Am. Med. Assoc., 108: 1761. With W. E. Nelson and F. B. Seibert. Technical factors affecting the tuberculin test. i. Am. Med. Assoc., 108:2179. With M. G. Hayes, J. Rodriguez-Pastor, L. R. Gaetan, and R. A. S. Cory. Tuberculin skin sensitivity in chronic tuberculosis in the course of hospital treatment. Am. I. Med. Sci., 194:220. 1938 Tuberculosis, leprosy, and allied mycobacterial diseases. Sympo- sium Series, Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1:123. (Also in: Science, 37:23.) The incidence and prevention of tuberculosis in American schools and colleges. Tubercle, 19:241. Trends in statistics on the causes of death in Philadelphia. A brief analysis for the century 1836-1936. Arch. Pathol., 25:918. The purification of tuberculin. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 38:523. 1939 With M. V. Seibert and L. M. Gonzalez. Tuberculosis of the tonsils. Its incidence and origin. Arch. Intern. Med., 63:609. Tuberculin energy and the variability of tuberculins. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 39:551.
ESMOND R. LONG 305 Accepted and disputed concepts in the pathology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Arch. Pathol., 28:719. The tuberculin test. Its value and its limitations. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 40:607. 1940 With S. Chiyute, C. B. Lara, et al. Skin reaction tests with tuber- culin-type extracts of leprous spleens. Int. I. Lepr., 8:263. The decline of tuberculosis with special reference to its generalized form. Bull. Hist. Med., 8:819. Pathogenesis of primary and reinfection types of pulmonary tu- berculosis. N. Engl. i. Med., 223:656. 1941 With H. i. Henderson. Effect of chlorin-o-rhodin-g on experimen- tal tuberculosis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 46:a35. With H. L. Israel. Primary tuberculosis in adolescents and young adults. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 43:42. Penetration of pathological anatomy in the first half of the six- teenth century as illustrated by the Medicina of Iran Fernel. Trans. Coll. Physicians Philadelphia., 4th ser., 8:228. The problem of tuberculosis in military service. I. Am. Med. As- soc., 117:264. Constitution and related factors in resistance to tuberculosis. Arch. Pathol., 32:122, 286. With R. Faust. The spread of tubercle bacilli by sputum, blood, and lymph in pulmonary tuberculosis. Am. I. Pathol., 17:697. 1942 The war and tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 45:616. The present status of the tuberculin test. }. Lancet, 62:376. 1943 The relationship between the National Research Council and the medical services. Dis. Chest., 9:284. With W. H. Stearns. Physical examination at induction. Standards with respect to tuberculosis and their application as illustrated by a review of 53,440 x-ray films of men in the army of the United States. Radiology, 41:114.
306 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1944 With C. F. Behrens, R. A. Wolford, et al. Military mobilization and tuberculosis control. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 124:990. Tuberculosis and war. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 40:1. (Also in: Am. Rev. Tuberc., 50:401.) 1945 Tuberculosis as a military problem. Proc. Inst. Med. Chicago, 15:241. (Also in: Am. Rev. Tuberc., 51:489.) With E. A. Lew. Tuberculosis in the armed forces. Am. I. Public Health, 35:469. TB in German prison camps. Bull. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 31:149. (Also in: Mill Surg., 97 :449.) 1946 Tuberculosis in a screened population. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 54:319. 1947 The tuberculosis experience of the United States Army in World War II. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 55:28. With E. L. Hamilton. A review of induction and discharge exami- nations for tuberculosis in the army. Am. I. Public Health, 37:412. 1948 Medical science and the longer life. Science, 107:305. Tuberculosis control in the army. Dis. Chest, 14:190. Tuberculosis in Europe. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 57:420. Tuberculosis in Germany. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 34:271. The decline of tuberculosis as the chief cause of death. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 92: 139. 1949 With P. E. Sartwell and C. H. Moseley. Tuberculosis in the German population, United States Zone of Germany. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 59:481. With T. A. Koerner and H. R. Getz. Experimental studies on nu- trition in tuberculosis. The role of protein in resistance to tu- berculosis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 71:154.
ESMOND R. LONG 307 1950 Harry Gideon Wells (1875-19431. In: Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 26, p. 233. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. With Shirley H. Ferebee. A controlled investigation of streptomy- cin treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 46:50. (Also in: Public Health Rep., 65:1421.) Resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis to streptomycin. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc., 20:268. The streptomycin resistance of tubercle bacilli. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc., 21:3. 1951 The specificity of the tuberculin reaction. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 63:355. The hazard of acquiring tuberculosis in the laboratory. Am. I. Pub- lic Health, 41:782. With Horace R. Getz and Howard i. Henderson. A study of the relation of nutrition to the development of tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 64:381. 1952 Immunity in tuberculosis. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc., 23:406. The changing problem of tuberculosis in a city clinic. Minn. Med., 35:1111. 1953 With S. H. Ferebee. Isoniazid in the treatment of tuberculosis, with a review of recent experience in the United States. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc., 23:50. Tuberculosis in modern society. Bull. Hist. Med., 27:301. A minimum basic clinical classification of tuberculosis. Tuberc. In- dex Abstr. Curr. Lit., 8:709. 1954 Medical research on tuberculosis. Bull. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 40:130. The decline of chronic infectious disease and its social implications. Bull. Hist. Med., 28:368.
308 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BUG vaccination. Ann. Intern. Med., 41 :647. A half century of medical progress in the control of tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 70:383. 1955 With R. H. Anderson, D. Rittenberg, M. L. Karnovsky, and H. I. Henderson. The carbon metabolism of the tubercle bacillus. Studies with isotropic carbon. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 71:609. The germ of tuberculosis. Sci. Am., June: 102. Research in tuberculosis. Am. I. Occup. Ther., 9:236. With Seymour Jablon. Tuberculosis in the Army of the United States. An Epidemiological Study with an Evaluation of X-Ray Screening. Vet- erans Administration Medical Monograph. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 88 pp. 1956 Old and new concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary tubercu- losis. Proc. Inst. Med. Chicago, 21:3. With S. C. Stein and H. I. Henderson. Experiences with dual read- ~ng of chest photoroentgenograms. U.S. Armed Forces Med. I., 7:493. A History of the Therapy of Tuberculosis and the Case of Frederic Chopin. Logan Clandening Lectures on the History and Philosophy of Medicine. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 71 pp. 1957 barcoidosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc. Pulm. Dis., 75:852. With R. I. Dubos, H. Hilleboe, H. L. Hodes, et al. Report of Ad Hoc Advisory Committee on BCG to the surgeon general of the United States Public Health Service. Am. Rev. Tuberc. Pulm. Dis., 76:726. 1958 Frederick G. Novy and some origins of American bacteriology. Trans. Coll. Physicians Philadelphia, 4th ser., 26:34. The supporting structure of immunity in the therapy of tubercu- losis. Am. Rev. Tuberc. Pulm. Dis., 78:499. The Chemistry and Chemotherapy of Tuberculosis, 3d ed. Baltimore: Wil- liams and Wilkins. 450 pp.
ESMOND R. LONG 1959 309 The pathologists Morgagni, Rokitansky, and Virchow. J. Int. Coll. Surg., 32:333. With Virginia Cameron. Tuberculosis Medical Research. National Tu- berculosis Association, 1904-1955. New York: National Tubercu- losis Assoc. 325 pp. 1960 With W. B. Tucker, R. i. Anderson, et al. Recommendations of Ar- den House Conference on tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Resp. Dis., 81:481. American textbooks of pathology. Arch. Pathol., 70:647. 1961 A pathologist's recollections of the treatment, investigation, and control of tuberculosis. Perspect. Biol. Med., 5:24. Environment in relation to health and disease. Arch. Environ. Health, 3:545. Selected Readings in Pathology, 2d ed. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 306 pp. 1962 Paul R. Cannon. Arch. Pathol., 74:263. A History of American Pathology. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 460 pp. 1963 Tuberculosis in the army. In: Internal Medicine in World War II, vol. 2, Activities of Medical Consultants, p. 329. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. The Army Medical Museum. Mill Med., 128:367. 1964 Tuberculosis and leprosy. Lancet, 84:395. 1965 A History of Pathology, 2d ed. New York: Dover. 199 pp.
310 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1966 Development of our knowledge of arteriosclerosis. In: Cowdrys Arteriosclerosis, 2d ea., ed. H. T. Blumenthal. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas. 1967 Forty years of leprosy research. History of the Leonard Wood Memorial (American Leprosy Foundation), 1928-1967. Int. }. Lepr., 35:239. Leprosy. Some analogies and contrasts with tuberculosis. Arch. En- viron. Health, 14:242. Mycobacterial skin tests. Arch. Environ. Health, 14:513. 1968 Some early American pathologists. Trans. Coll. Physicians Phila- delphia, 4th ser., 36:22. A retrospective review of mycobacteria and the diseases they cause Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 154:8.