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ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY IN THE PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER 164 tivity has even led to the suggestion that conductivity be used as a monitor of nuclear operations and accidents. The electrical state of the atmosphere depends critically on the ionization profile. Over the ocean ionization is due only to cosmic rays, and oceanic measurement of the electrode effect are in satisfactory agreement with numerical solutions of the governing equations. Over land, the ionization profile is complicated owing to ionization from ground radioactivity and radioactive gases as discussed earlier. Simultaneous measurement of all contributions to the ionization profile has never been accomplished. It is imperative that future studies of atmospheric-electrical profiles in the PBL over land include such measurements. A theoretical explanation is needed for the atmospheric-electric fog effect. This is most likely to be found in the dependence of the conductivity on changes in the aerosol size distribution with changes in relative humidity. Measurements of all pertinent parameters are needed during a fog event to formulate a physical theory that adequately accounts for the observations. The possible usefulness of the observed precursor phenomenon could then be evaluated. Finally it should be mentioned that there are some experimental techniques that do not yet exist in satisfactory form for proper studies of PBL electrical processes. Briefly, these include a continuous measurement of ionospheric potential with fine time resolution, ion-sampling techniques with spatial resolutions suitable for profile determinations in the lowest few centimeters of the PBL (and within the plant canopy), and an adequately instrumented platform for making accurate atmospheric-electrical and micrometeorological profiles throughout the PBL. References Anderson, R. V. (1967). 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A health and safety evaluation of the +400 kV powerline: Report of science advisors to the Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, Saint Paul, Minn. Mohnen, V. A. (1977). Formation, Nature and Mobility of ions of atmospheric importance, in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres , H. Dolezalek and R. Reiter, eds., Steinkopff, Darmstadt, p. 1 . Moses, H., A. F. Stehney, and H. F. Lucas, Jr. (1960). The effect of meteorological variables upon the vertical and temporal distributions of atmospheric radon, J. Geophys. Res. 65 , 1223 . MÃ¼hleisen, R. (1977). The global circuit and its parameters, in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres , H. Dolezalek and R. Reiter, eds., Steinkopff, Darmstadt, p. 467 .
ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY IN THE PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER 165 Nolan, P.J. (1943). The recombination law for weak ionization, Proc. R. Irish Acad. 49 , 67 . Ruhnke, L. H., H. F. Tammet, and M. Arold (1983). Atmospheric electric currents at widely spaced stations, in Proceedings in Atmospheric Electricity , L. H. Ruhnke and J. Latham, eds., A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., p. 76 . Sagalyn, R. C., and G. A. Faucher (1956). Space and time variations of charged nuclei and electrical conductivity of the atmosphere, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 82 , 428 . Serbu, G. P., and E. M. Trent (1958). A study of the use of atmospheric electric measurements in fog forecasting , Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 39 , 1034 . Takagi, M., and N. Toriyama (1978). Short-period fluctuations in the atmospheric electric field over the ocean, Pure Appl. Phys. 116 , 1090 . Torreson, O. W., et al. (1946). Scientific Results of Cruise VII of the Carnegie, Oceanography III, Ocean Atmospheric Electricity Results , Carnegie Institution Publication 568, Washington, D.C. Willett, J. C. (1983). The turbulent electrode effect as influenced by interfacial ion transfer, J. Geophys. Res. 88 , 8453 . Willett, J. C., and W. D. Rust (1981). Direct measurements of atmospheric electric potential using tethered balloons, J. Geophys. Res. 86 , 12139 . Wyngaard, J. C. (1980). Workshop on the Planetary Boundary Layer , American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 322 pp .