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APPLICATION OF ADVANCES IN LIGHTNING RESEARCH TO LIGHTNING PROTECTION 68 circuit is shown for the grounding of a building associated with a communications tower. Figure 5.10b shows an external view of the building after topological shielding, and Figure 5.10c shows a schematic of the topological shielding technique. FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDED FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN PROTECTION The detailed physics of how lightning strikes a structure, power line, or aircraft is still not well understood. The approaching lightning leader is not influenced by the object to be struck until it is perhaps a few tens to hundreds of meters away. At that time, an upward-moving spark leaves the object to be struck eventually and similar sparks may also leave nearby objects. The upward-moving spark connects to the downward-moving leader attaching the leader to ground. (See Krider, Chapter 2, this volume, for a discussion of the attachment process.) When this process is better understood through basic research, we should be able to determine with higher probability what will and what will not be struck and to provide better lightning protection accordingly. For example, the positioning of overhead