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APPLICATION OF ADVANCES IN LIGHTNING RESEARCH TO LIGHTNING PROTECTION 69 ground wires above transmission lines should be able to be optimized. More information is needed about the character of lightning currents, particularly those in processes other than return strokes. Is there, for example, an upper limit on the maximum rate of change of current? We need more data on positive lightning to be able to characterize all aspects of it in a statistical way. Only then can it be taken account of properly in protection design. Much work needs to be done on the interaction of lightning currents and fields with objects like aircraft. For example, how are aircraft resonances affected by channel attachment? Computer models are now being developed with which to study these problems even in the presence of nonlinear discharge properties. CONCLUSIONS Basic research over the last decade has made possible impressive improvements in lightning protection. Those related to lightning detection and to the specification of current and electromagnetic-field wave shapes have been discussed in this chapter. As with all research, new discoveries raise new questions. With the present interest in lightning among scientists, due partly to recent successes and partly to the important unsolved problems, we can expect continued progress in lightning protection during the next decade. References Fisher, F. A., and J. A. Plumer (1977). Lightning protection of aircraft, NASA Reference Publication 1008 . Krider, E. P., R. C. Noggle, A. E. Pifer, and D. L. Vance (1980). Lightning direction-finding systems for forest fire detection, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 61 , 980-986 . Nakahori, K., T. Ogawa, and H. Mitani (1982). Characteristics of winter lightning currents in Hokuriku District, IEEE Trans. PAS-101 , 4407-4412 . Orville, R. E., R. W. Henderson, and L. F. Bosart (1983). An east coast lightning detection network, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64 , 1029-1037 . Peckham, D. W., M. A. Uman, C. E. Wilcox, Jr. (1984). Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area, J. Geophys. Res. 89 , 11789-11805 . Uman, M. A. (1971). Understanding Lightning , BEK, Pittsburgh, Pa.