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The Earth's Electrical Environment (1986)

Chapter: References

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/898.
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/898.
Page 145
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/898.
Page 146

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MODELS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE OF CLOUDS 144 ure 10.4 (c)]. However, the observations of Williams and Lhermitte (1983) pointed out that the Musser and Krider results can also be explained by the convective charge transport. Their observations showed that falling precipitation may not be the only cause for the electrification of thunderstorms. All the models agree that the inductive process requires higher precipitation rates in order to operate effectively. Some models show that the most effective method to produce strong fields is to let both inductive and noninductive mechanisms operate simultaneously. While noninductive mechanisms can be powerful, particularly early in the development of the electric field, it is difficult to see how one can ignore the inductive process altogether. This process should operate in general whenever an ambient electric field is present. In some cases, it may discharge the particles, while in others it will charge them, but it should always operate. If, on the other hand, its effectiveness is very low, as reported by Illingworth and Caranti (1984), it will not be felt in the cloud. Thus, if a charge greater than that predicted by Eq. (10.1) is found on some of the particles (Christian et al., 1980), the inductive process should have discharged them. Since such charges were observed, it must be concluded that in these cases the inductive process did not effectively operate. Most investigators seem to feel that charge separation through interactions among water drops only is not effective since most collisions result in coalescence, thus limiting the possibilities for charge separation. Nevertheless, laboratory experiments (Levin and Machnes, 1977; Beard et al., 1979) suggest that the coalescence efficiency is far from being understood, so the role of water-drop interactions should not yet be ignored completely. Laboratory measurements of the surface potentials of ice under various growth conditions (Buser and Aufdermaur, 1977; Caranti and Illingworth, 1980) reveal the complexity of the charge-transfer problem. Again, additional experiments are needed to resolve the dependence of charge separation by this process on temperature and on the strength of an external electric field. In spite of the fact that the numerical models thus far rule out convective electrification as an effective mechanism for producing strong fields by itself, it must be emphasized that these models are only quasi-static and contain parameterized dynamics. To simulate this mechanism effectively, more detailed cloud dynamics, ion convection and conduction, and precipitation processes must be included. Thus far, no such model has been developed. Such a detailed model is urgently needed, especially following the recent experiments by Vonnegut et al. (1984) that reversed the polarity of a thundercloud by emitting negative ions from a long cable electrified to 100 kV and suspended below the cloud. Their observations suggest that the negative ions penetrated the cloud, ascended to the cloud top, and attracted positive ions from the free atmosphere above and were carried down by the air currents to the cloud base—thus reversing the previous polarity of the cloud. If the ion concentration was too small to produce this effect, it is still possible that the additional ions changed the initial conditions of the cloud electrification, which led to the reversal in the cloud polarity. With the newly available data and faster computers we can look forward to a new generation of models incorporating cloud microphysics and dynamics together with the convection and precipitation electrification mechanisms. References Al-Saed, S. M., and C. P. R. Saunders (1976). Electric charge transfer between colliding water drops, J. Geophys. Res. 81 , 2650-2654 . Aufdermaur, A. N., and D. A. Johnson (1972). Charge separation due to riming in an electric field, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98 , 369-382 . Beard, K. V., H. T. Ochs III, and T. S. Tung (1979). A measurement of the efficiency for collection between cloud drops, J. Atmos. Sci. 36 , 2479-2483 . Brown, K. A., P. R. Krehbiel, C. B. Moore, and G. N. Sargent (1971). Electrical screening layers around charged clouds, J. Geophys. Res. 76 , 2825-2835 . Buser, O., and A. N. Aufdermaur (1977). Electrification by collisions of ice particles on ice or metal targets, in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres , N. Dolezalek and R. Reiter, eds., Steinkopff, Darmstadt, p. 294 . Caranti, J. M., and A. J. Illingworth (1980). Surface potentials of ice and thunderstorm charge separation, Nature 284 , 44-46 . Caranti, J. M., and A. J. Illingworth (1983). Frequency dependence of the surface conductivity of ice, J. Phys. Chem. 87 , 4078-4083 . Censor, D., and Z. Levin (1974). Electrostatic interaction of axisymmetric liquid and solid aerosols, Atmos. Environ. 8 , 905-914 . Chiu, C. S. (1978). Numerical study of cloud electrification in an axisymmetric liquid and solid aerosols, J. Geophys. Res. 83 , 5025-5049 . Chiu, C. S., and J. N. Klett (1976). Convective electrification of clouds, J. Geophys. Res. 81 , 1111-1124 . Christian, H., C. R. Holmes, J. W. Bullock, W. Gaskell, J. Illingworth, and J. Latham (1980). Airborne and ground-based studies of thunderstorms in the vicinity of Langmuir Laboratory, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106 , 159-174 . Colgate, S. A., Z. Levin, and A. G. Petschek (1977). Interpretation of thunderstorm charging by polarization induction mechanisms, J. Atmos. Sci. 34 , 1433-1443 . Davis, M. H., and J. D. Sartor (1967). Theoretical collision efficiencies for small cloud droplets in Stokes flow, Nature 215 , 1371-1372 . Gaskell, W., A. J. Illingworth, J. Latham, and C. B. Moore (1978). Airborne studies of electric fields and the charge and size of precipitation elements in thunderstorms, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104 , 447-460 . Grenet, G. (1947). Essai d'explication de la charge électrique des nuages d'orages, Ann. Geophys. 3 , 306-310 .

MODELS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE OF CLOUDS 145 Griffithes, R. F., J. Latham, and V. Myers (1974). The ionic conductivity of electrified clouds, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 100 , 181-190 . Gross, G. W. (1982). Role of relaxation and contact times in charge separation during collision of precipitation particles with ice targets, J. Geophys. Res . 87 , 7170-7178 . Heldson, J. H., Jr. (1980). Chaff seeding effects in a dynamical-electrical cloud model, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19 , 1101-1183 . Illingworth, A. J., and C. M. Caranti (1984). Ice conductivity restraints on the inductive theory of thunderstorm electrification, in Conference Proceedings, VII International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity , American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., pp. 196-201 . Illingworth, A. J. and J. Latham (1975). Calculations of electric field growth within a cloud of finite dimensions, J. Atmos. Sci. 32 , 2206-2209 . Illingworth, A. J., and J. Latham (1977). Calculations of electric field growth, field structure and charge distributions in thunderstorms, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 103 , 231-295 . Kessler, E. (1969). On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulation , Meteorol. Monogr. Vol. 10 , No. 32, American Meteorological Soc., Boston, Mass., 84 pp . Klett, J. D. (1972). Charge screening layers around electrified clouds, J. Geophys. Res. 77 , 3187-3195 . Krehbiel, P. R., M. Brook, and R. A. McCrory (1979). An analysis of the charge structure of lightning discharges to ground , J. Geophys. Res. 84 , 2432-2456 . Krider, E. P., and J. A. Musser (1982). Maxwell currents under thunderstorms, J. Geophys. Res. 87 , 11171-11176 . Kuettner, J., Z. Levin, and J. D. Sartor (1981). Inductive or noninductive thunderstorms electrification, J. Atmos. Sci. 38 , 2470-2484 . Lane-Smith, D. R. (1971). A warm thunderstorm, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 97 , 577-578 . Latham, J. (1981). The electrification of thunderstorms, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 107 , 277-298 . Latham, J., and B. J. Mason (1961). Generation of electric charge associated with the formation of soft hail in thunderclouds, Proc. R. Soc. London A260 , 537-549 . Latham, J., and R. Warwicker (1980). Charge transfer accompanying the splashing of supercooled raindrops on hailstones, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106 , 559-568 . Levin, Z., and B. Machnes (1977). Experimental evaluation of the coalescence efficiencies of colliding water drops, Pure Appl. Geophys. 115 , 845-867 . Marshall, J. S., and W. M. K. Palmer (1948). The distribution of raindrops with size, J. Meteorol. 5 , 165-166 . Martell, E. A. (1984). Ion pair production in convective storms by radon and its radioactive decay products, in Conference Proceedings, VII International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity , American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., pp. 67-71 . Mason, B. J. (1971). The Physics of Clouds , Oxford Univ. Press, Cambridge, 671 pp . Mason, B. J. (1972). The physics of thunderstorms, Proc. R. Soc. London A327 , 433-466 . Phillips, B. B. (1967). Ionic equilibrium and the electrical conductivity in thunderclouds, Mon. Weather Rev. 95 , 854-862 . Pruppacher, H. R., and J. D. Klett (1978). Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation , Reidel, Dordrecht, 714 pp . Pruppacher, H. R., E. H. Steinberger, and T. L. Want (1968). On the electrical effects that accompany the spontaneous growth of ice in supercooled aqueous solutions, J. Geophys. Res. 73 , 571-584 . Rawlins, F. (1982). A numerical study of thunderstorm electrification using a three dimensional model incorporating the ice phase, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 108 , 778-880 . Reynolds, S. E., M. Brook, and M. F. Gourley (1957). Thunderstorm charge separation, J. Meteorol. 14 , 426-436 . Ruhnke, L. H. (1972). Atmospheric electron cloud modeling, Meteorol. Res. 25 , 38-41 . Sartor, J. D. (1967). The role of particle interactions in the distribution of electricity in thunderstorms, J. Atmos. Sci. 24 , 601-615 . Sartor, J. D. (1970). General Thunderstorm Electrification , National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., p. 99 . Schewchuk, S. R., and J. V. Iribarne (1971). Charge separation during splashing of large drops on ice, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 97 , 272-282 . Scott, W. D., and Z. Levin (1975). Stochastic electrical model of an infinite cloud charge generation and precipitation development, J. Atmos. Sci. 32 , 1814-1828 . Takahashi, T. (1978). Riming electrification as a charge generation mechanism in thunderstorms, J. Atmos. Sci. 35 , 1536-1548 . Takahashi, T. (1979). Warm cloud electricity in a shallow axisymmetric cloud model, J. Atmos. Sci. 31 , 2236-2258 . Tzur, I., and Z. Levin (1981). Ions and precipitation charging in warm and cold clouds as simulated in one dimensional time-dependent models, J. Atmos. Sci. 38 , 2444-2461 . Vonnegut, B. (1955). Possible mechanism for the formation of thunderstorms electricity, in Proceedings International Conference Atmospheric Electricity , Geophys. Res. Paper No. 42, Air Force Cambridge Research Center, Bedford, Mass., p. 169 . Vonnegut, B., C. B. Moore, T. Rolan, J. Cobb, D. N. Holden, S. McWilliams, and G. Cadwell (1984). Inverted electrification in thunderclouds growing over a source of negative charge, EOS 65 , 839 . Wahlin, L. (1977). Electrochemical charge separation in clouds, in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres , H. Dolezalek, and R. Reiter, eds., Steinkopff, Darmstadt, p. 384 . Weickmann, H. K., and J. J. Aufm Kampe (1950). Preliminary experimental results concerning charge generation in thunderstorms concurrent with the formation of hailstones, J. Meteorol. 7 , 404-405 . Whelpdale, D. M., and R. List (1971). The coalescence process in rain drop growth, J. Geophys. Res. 76 , 2836-2856 . Williams, E. R., and R. M. Lhermitte (1983). Radar tests of the precipitation hypothesis for thunderstorm electrification, J. Geophys. Res. 88 , 10984-10992 . Wilson, C. T. R. (1929). Some thundercloud problems, J. Franklin Inst. 208 , 1-12 . Winn, W. P., and L. G. Byerly III (1975). Electric field growth in thunderclouds, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 101 , 979-994 . Workman, E. J., and S. E. Reynolds (1948). Suggested mechanism for the generation of thunderstorm electricity, Phys. Rev. 74 , 709 . Wormell, T. W. (1953). Atmospheric Electricity: Some recent trends and problems, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 79 , 3 . Ziv, A., and Z. Levin (1974). Thundercloud electrification cloud growth and electrical development, J. Atmos. Sci. 31 , 1652-1661 .


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This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lightning, cloud, and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind.

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