National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9090.
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The Physics of Materials

How Science Improves Our Lives

Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics

Solid State Sciences Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9090.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-96ER45613, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-9632837, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology under Grant No. 50SBNB5C8819. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

Front Cover: A scanning tunneling microscope image that shows the wave nature of electrons confined in a “quantum corral” of 48 individually positioned atoms. See page 2. (Courtesy of IBM Research.)

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved.

Additional copies of this report are available from:

Board on Physics and Astronomy

National Research Council, HA 562

2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.

Washington, DC 20418

bpa@nas.edu

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9090.
×

COMMITTEE ON CONDENSED-MATTER AND MATERIALS PHYSICS

VENKATESH NARAYANAMURTI,

University of California, Santa Barbara,

Chair

JAMES B. ROBERTO,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,

Vice Chair

GABRIEL AEPPLI,

NEC Research Institute

ARTHUR BIENENSTOCK,

Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory

J. MURRAY GIBSON,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

STEVEN GIRVIN,

Indiana University

MARK KETCHEN,

IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

EDWARD KRAMER,

University of California, Santa Barbara

JAMES S. LANGER,

University of California, Santa Barbara

CHERRY A. MURRAY,

Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories

V. ADRIAN PARSEGIAN,

National Institutes of Health

PAUL S. PEERCY,

SEMI/SEMATECH

JULIA M. PHILLIPS,

Sandia National Laboratories

ROBERT C. RICHARDSON,

Cornell University

FRANS SPAEPEN,

Harvard University

KATEPALLI R. SREENIVASAN,

Yale University

DANIEL F. MORGAN,

Program Officer

SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE

THOMAS P. RUSSELL,

University of Massachusetts at Amherst,

Chair

MYRIAM P. SARACHIK,

City College of New York,

Vice Chair

PAUL A. FLEURY,

University of New Mexico,

Past Chair

GABRIEL AEPPLI,

NEC Research Institute

FRANK S. BATES,

University of Minnesota

JOHN C. BRAVMAN,

Stanford University

DANIEL S. CHEMLA,

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

MARC A. KASTNER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

GERALD MAHAN,

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

DAVID MONCTON,

Argonne National Laboratory

CHERRY A. MURRAY,

Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories

S. THOMAS PICRAUX,

Sandia National Laboratories

JAMES B. ROBERTO,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

JOHN J. RUSH,

National Institute of Standards and Technology

DALE W. SCHAEFER,

University of Cincinnati

DO Y. YOON,

IBM Almaden Research Center

DANIEL F. MORGAN,

Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9090.
×

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

ROBERT C. DYNES,

University of California, San Diego,

Chair

ROBERT C. RICHARDSON,

Cornell University,

Vice Chair

IRA BERNSTEIN,

Yale University

STEVEN CHU,

Stanford University

VAL FITCH,

Princeton University

IVAR GIAEVER,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

JOHN P. HUCHRA,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

ANTHONY C.S. READHEAD,

California Institute of Technology

R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON,

University of Washington

KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR,

GM Research and Development Center

J. ANTHONY TYSON,

Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories

GEORGE WHITESIDES,

Harvard University

DAVID WILKINSON,

Princeton University

DONALD C. SHAPERO,

Director

ROBERT L. RIEMER,

Associate Director

DANIEL F. MORGAN,

Program Officer

NATASHA CASEY,

Senior Administrative Associate

GRACE WANG,

Project Assistant

COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS

ROBERT J. HERMANN,

United Technologies Corporation,

Co-chair

W. CARL LINEBERGER,

University of Colorado,

Co-chair

PETER M. BANKS,

Environmental Research Institute of Michigan

WILLIAM BROWDER,

Princeton University

LAWRENCE D. BROWN,

University of Pennsylvania

RONALD G. DOUGLAS,

Texas A&M University

JOHN E. ESTES,

University of California, Santa Barbara

MARTHA P. HAYNES,

Cornell University

L. LOUIS HEGEDUS,

Elf Atochem North America, Inc.

JOHN E. HOPCROFT,

Cornell University

CAROL M. JANTZEN,

Westinghouse Savannah River Company

PAUL G. KAMINSKI,

Technovation, Inc.

KENNETH H. KELLER,

University of Minnesota

KENNETH I. KELLERMANN,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

MARGARET G. KIVELSON,

University of California, Los Angeles

DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JOHN KREICK,

Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company

MARSHA I. LESTER,

University of Pennsylvania

NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS,

Brookhaven National Laboratory

CHANG-LIN TIEN,

University of California, Berkeley

NORMAN METZGER,

Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9090.
×

Preface

In the spring of 1996, the National Research Council's Board on Physics and Astronomy established the Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics to prepare a scholarly assessment of the field as part of a new decadal physics survey. The work of the committee began with a two-day workshop in Washington in June 1996. This workshop brought together some 60 leading practitioners in the field as well as key policymakers from government, industry, and universities. Since then, the committee has met several times to formulate its report, which is to be completed by June 1998.

This short report, The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives, is an early output of the ongoing study, intended for a broad audience. Based largely on the presentations at the June 1996 workshop, it highlights some of the fundamental science at the forefront of research in the field and demonstrates, through illustrative examples, the field's impact on our everyday lives.

Even though the highlights presented are primarily physics based, the committee would like to emphasize the importance of links with other fields of science and engineering and the inherent interdisciplinary nature and unity of materials research. Important examples of these multidisciplinary links include fullerenes (physics and chemistry), macromolecules (physics and biology), structural alloys (physics and materials engineering), and silicon technology (physics and electrical engineering).

The committee would like to express its gratitude for the interactions it has had with numerous scientists and policy-makers. As it continues its deliberations over the next several months, the committee looks forward to receiving further input from the community.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9090.
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