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GLOSSARY ACOB ACGIH ACM ACRE Aerosol Air carrier Aircraft Air-cycle machine Air exchange Air-exchange rate Air Carrier Operations Bulletin. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. See Air-cycle machine. Aircraft Radiation Exposure, a model of cosmic-radiation exposure of aircraft passengers. A suspension of liquid droplets or solid particles in a gas. A person or group of persons using aircraft to transport persons, property, and mail. A vehicle designed or used for flight. A turbine-compressor combination used to reduce air temperature by extracting energy from an air stream; part of the environmental control unit. (Abbr. ACM.) Replacement of equivalent air volume in a compartment with fresh air. Number of air exchanges per unit time. Air pack See Environmental control unit. 293
294 Airplane Airworthy Angina pectoris APU ASHRAE Auxiliary power unit Avionics B-747-SP Background radiation Bleed air Bypass ratio CAB A heavier-than-air, power-driven, fixed-wing aircraft that is supported by the dynamic reaction of air against its wings. Suitable for safe flight. Severe restricting pain in the chest, usually caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle. See Auxiliary power unit. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. A power unit that can be used in addition to the main sources of power (Abbr., APU.) Aviation electric and electronic equipment in the cockpit. . Special-performance model of the B-747 that is equipped with a catalytic converter to decompose atmospheric ozone; used for routes through ozone-laden portions of the atmosphere. Natural radiation in the environment, including cosmic radiation and radiation from naturally radioactive elements. Air from the compressor used for cabin ventilation. Flow ratio of low-pressure air in the fan to high-pressure air in the engine core. Civil Aeronautics Board (now defunct).
295 Cabin Cabin crew Carboxyhemo- globin (COHb) Certificated route air carrier Certification cfm CFR CO co2 COHb Commuter airline COPD Cosmic radiation Depressur- ization The sector of an aircraft occupied by passengers. Flight attendants. Combination of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin; at high concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin interferes with the transfer of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood, causing asphyxiation. An air carrier holding a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity from the Department of Transportation, authorized to provide scheduled service over specified routes. The process by which FAA approves all air carriers, pilots, aircraft models etc., to ensure compliance with applicable statutes and regulations. Cubic feet per minute. Code of Federal Regulations. Carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide. See Carboxyhemoglobin. An air carrier that makes at least five scheduled round trips per week with small aircraft. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Energetic particles of extraterrestrial origin that strike the Barth' n atmosphere, as well as secondary particles generated by these interactions. Loss of cabin pressure during flight.
296 Disinsection Use of insecticides to exterminate insect pests. ECAC European Civil Aviation Conference. ECU See Environmental control unit. ECS See Environmental control system. Enplanements The number of times that revenue passengers board flights; a passenger who changes from Flight A to Flight B en route to a destination counts as two enplanements. Environmental The total air-conditioning, heating, control ventilation, and pressurization system system on an aircraft, which provides occupants with a suitably controlled atmosphere to maintain comfort and safety; consists of several environmental control units. (Abbr., ECS.) Environmental Equipment used to condition control unit high-temperature, high-pressure air from a Jet engine before delivery to the cabin; usually consists of an air-cycle machine and one or more heat exchangers. Also called air pack. (Abbr., ECU.) Environmental Total air pollution due to burning of tobacco smoke tobacco products, including sidestream and exhaled smoke. (Abbr., ETS) ETS See Environmental tobacco smoke. FAA Federal Aviation Administration. FAR Federal Air Regulation. FEF See Forced expiratory flow. FEV See Forced expiratory volume. FEV1 Maximal volume of air that can be exhaled in 1 s.
297 Flashover The point during a fire at which the temperature in a compartment becomes high enough for all materials and gases to ignite spontaneously. Flight crew The pilots, navigators, engineers, and others needed to operate the aircraft. Flight deck Cockpit area of an aircraft. Flight level A level of constant atmospheric pressure related to a reference point of 29.92 in. of mercury; stated in digits that represent hundreds of feet, i.e., flight level 255 indicates a Floor proximity escape-route markers Forced expira tory flow barometric altitude of 25,500 ft. Illuminated exit signs near the floor designed to be visible in a smoke emergency. The average flow rate during forced expiration in a designated interval of the expiration period. (Abbr., FEF.) The interval is indicated by a subscript; e.g., FEV25_75% refers to the average flow rate during the middle half of the expiration period. Forced expira- Maximal volume that can be exhaled in a tory volume specific period. (Abbr., FEY.) The period, in seconds, is indicated by a subscript, e.g., FEV1. Galley Food preparation area of an aircraft. GAO U.S. General Accounting Office. Gasper Individual air outlet usually placed in the ceiling above each seat, allowing the passenger to regulate the volume and direction of air flowing from the gasper to the seat.
298 Ground fumes Airport pollution, including emission from aircraft on the ground, maintenance vehicles, and airport transportation vehicles. HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. Hypoxia A condition resulting from a decrease in oxygen tension in the inspired air or a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Load factor See Passenger load factor. Lower lobe The part of an aircraft below the main floor of the cabin. Mainstream Smoke that a smoker inhales directly smoke from a cigarette, or other tobacco product. Makeup air Outside (fresh) air that is used in aircraft ventilation, which must be conditioned by heating, cooling, filtering, etc., before being delivered to occupied spaces. Microbial A suspension of microorganisms in air. aerosols mrem Myocardial infarction Narrow-body aircraft NO2 Millirem, 0.001 rem. Sudden heart failure caused by interruption of blood supply to the heart muscle due to blockage of blood vessels or necrosis (death) of tissue in part of the heart due to this blockage. An airplane with only one pass-anger aisle and generally fewer than 200 seats, e.g., B-727, B-737, B-757, DC-9-80, and BAE-146. Nitrogen dioxide.
299 Nonscheduled Air carriers that provide charter carriers services. NTSB National Transportation Safety Board. Offgassing Emission of low-vapor-pressure volatile organic vapors into the air, e.g., release of formaldehyde from urea-formaldehyde resin used to glue plywood OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Administration. Outside air Air from outside the aircraft; outside air is mixed with air inside the aircraft, thereby diluting or "flushing" stale air to the outside. Pack See Environmental control unit. Part 121 Certificated-route air carriers that airlines operate under the rules of Title 14, Part 121, of the Code of Federal Regulations. Part 135 Air carriers, primarily commuter airlines airlines and air taxis, that operate under the rules of Title 14, Part 135, of the Code of Federal Regulations. Partial Pressure exerted by a single gas in a pressure mixture of gases; commonly expressed in millimeters of mercury. Passenger The number of passengers multiplied by flight hours the flight duration in hours. Passenger load Percentage of aircraft seating capacity factor that is sold and used. Microorganism capable of causing disease. pCO2 Partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
300 PEER Peak expiratory flow rate. Plenum A common chamber in which air from different sources is mixed before being distributed to the cabin; the air can come from heating units, from the outside (fresh air), and from inside the aircraft (recirculated air). Pneumothorax Presence of gas in the chest cavity outside the lungs. PO2 Partial pressure of oxygen. ppm Parts per million. Pressurization The part of an aircraft's environmental system control system that keeps cabin pressure relatively constant, not exceeding the legal maximal equivalent altitude of 8,000 ft. Protective A device worn over the nose and/or breathing mouth that allows the wearer to breathe device relatively clean air for a short time in the presence of smoke and toxic fumes. Rad The unit of absorbed dose of radiation equal to 100 ergs/g. Recirculation Air that is reused for aircraft air ventilation after being removed from the cabin; it is usually filtered to remove particles, aerosols, and gaseous tars from tobacco smoke and is usually diluted with fresh air before being returned to the cabin. Relative The amount of moisture in air compared humidity with the maximal amount that the air could contain at the same temperature; expressed as a percentage. (Abbr., RH.)
301 rem Roentgen equivalent man; unit of dose of ionizing radiation that produces in man the same biologic effect as 1 roentgen of x rays or gamma rays. Respirable Airborne material--e."., dusts, mists, suspended smoke, and fumes--that is small enough particles (approximately 2.5 Am or less) to penetrate the lungs on inhalation. (Abbr., RSP.) Revenue Passengers who purchase tickets. passengers Revenue One revenue passenger transported 1 passenger mile mile. RH See Relative humidity. RSP See Respirable suspended particles. Sarcoidosis A chronic disease of unknown cause characterized by widespread lesions, usually in the lungs and also in the lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, fingers, and parotid salivary glands. Scheduled An airline that operates according to a airline published flight schedule specifying times, days of the week, and points between which flights are performed. Seat hours The number of seats installed multiplied by the flight duration in hours. Sidestream Aerosol emitted into the air from a smoke smoldering cigarette. Smoke hood A type of protective breathing device that covers the head and face, to protect the wearer from breathing smoke and toxic fumes.
302 Smoke mask A type of protective breathing device that covers the mouth, to protect the wearer from breathing smoke and toxic fumes. Stratosphere The atmospheric region above the tropopau~e, having an upper limit of approximately 260,000 ft (80 km); it has very little moisture; its temperature increases with altitude. "Stretched" An aircraft in which seating capacity aircraft has been increased beyond the designed capacity. Total suspended Total mass of particles suspended in particles air; includes particles smaller than or equal to 10 ~m. (Abbr., TSP.) Transport Aircraft intended for use in category transportation of passengers; these aircraft aircraft must meet design, structural, and performance requirements of 14 CFR 25. Tropopause The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Troposphere The atmospheric region in which all weather phenomena occur, from the surface of the earth up to an altitude of approximately 26,200 It (8 km) above the poles of the earth-- at midlatitudes approximately 36,000 it (11 km) and over the equator approximately 52,500 ft (16 km); temperature steadily decreases as altitude increases. TSP See Total suspended particles. Type Approval by FAA of a new aircraft certification design, or significant modification of an existing design, to ensure compliance with all applicable statutes and regulations.
303 Vapor pressure The pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid form. Ventilation The process of supplying and removing air mechanically to and from occupied spaces of an aircraft; air might or might not be conditioned. Ventilation Amount of fresh air (outside air) rate supplied to occupants; measured in cubic feet per minute per occupant. Wide-body An aircraft with two passenger aisles, aircraft seats for 7-11 passengers in each row (in coach), and usually a total of 200 or more seats, e.g., B-747, B-767, DC-10, L-1011, and A-300.