Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Technical Issues in NOAA's Nautical Chart Program Committee on Assessment of Technical Issues in the Automated Nautical Chart System (ANCS II) Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Mapping Science Committee Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. · Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also spon- sors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public? and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The program described in this report is supported by interagency cooperative agreement No. DTMA91-94-G-00003 between the Maritime Administration of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion and the National Academy of Sciences. Limited copies are available from: Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF TECHNICAL ISSUES IN THE AUTOMATED NAUTICAL CHART SYSTEM (ANCS II) KENNETH I. DAUGHERTY (chair), E-Systems, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JERRY A. ASPLAND, ARCO Marine, Inc. (retired), Long Beach, California G. ROSS DOUGLAS, Canadian Hydrographic Service (retired), Nepean, Ontario JAMES F. ELLIS, Boat Owners Association of the United States, Alexandria, . . . Virginia DAVID J. GOEHLER, Jeppesen Sanderson, Englewood, Colorado HAUKE KITE-POWELL, Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DUANE R. NIEMEYER, ESRI, Redlands, California SUZANNE L.K. ROUNTREE, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico K. STUART SHEA, TASC, Reston, Virginia Staff SUSAN GARBINI, Project Officer THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Staff Officer MARVIN WEEKS, Administrative Assistant Federal Agency Liaisons DONALD PRYOR, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JAMES R. JANCAITIS, National Mapping Division, U.S. Geological Survey KEITH LITTLEFIELD, Defense Mapping Agency FRANK PARKER, U.S. Coast Guard . . .
MARINE BOARD RICHARD J. SEYMOUR (chairJ, Texas A&M University, College Station, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California BERNARD J. ABRAHAMSS ON, University of Wisconsin, Superior JERRY A. ASPLAND, ARCO Marine, Inc. (retired), Long Beach, California ANNE D. AYLWARD, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts MARK Y. BERMAN, Amoco Corporation, Houston, Texas BROCK B. BERNSTEIN, EcoAnalysis, Ojai, California JOHN W. BOYLSTON, Argent Marine Operations, Inc., Solomons, Maryland SARAH CHASIS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., New York, New York CHRYSSOSTOMOS CHRYSSOSTOMIDIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge BILIANA CICIN-SAIN, University of Delaware, Newark JAMES M. COLEMAN, NAE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge BILLY L. EDGE, Texas A&M University, College Station MARTHA GRABOWSKI, LeMoyne College and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Cazenovia, New York M. ELISABETH PATE-CORNELL, NAE, Stanford University, Stanford, California DONALD W. PRITCHARD, NAE, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Severna Park, Maryland STEPHANIE R. THORNTON, E1 Cerrito, California KARL K. TUREKIAN, NAS, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut ROD VULOVIC, Sea-Land Service, Inc., Elizabeth, New Jersey E.G. "SKIP" WARD, Shell Offshore, Inc., Houston, Texas ALAN G. YOUNG, Fugro-McClelland BV, Houston, Texas Staff CHARLES A. BOOKMAN, Director DONALD W. PERKINS, Associate Director DORIS C. HOLMES, Staff Associate ~v
MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE LARRY J. SUGARBAKER (chair', Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia LAWRENCE F. AYERS (vice chairJ, Intergraph Corporation, Reston, Virginia HUGH N. ARCHER, Kentucky River Authority, Frankfort WILLIAM M. BROWN, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio BARBARA P. BUTTENFIELD, University of Colorado, Boulder MICHAEL W. DOBSON, Rand McNally and Company, Skokie, Illinois FREDERICK J. DOYLE, U.S. Geological Survey (retired), McLean, Virginia MICHAEL J. FOLK, University of Illinois, Urbana LEE C. GERHARD, Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara STANLEY K. HONEY, The News Corporation, Ltd., Los Angeles, California TERRENCE J. KEATING, Lucerne International, Bangor, Maine MICHAEL D. MARVIN, MapInfo Corporation, Troy, New York SARA L. MCLAFFERTY, Hunter College, New York, New York KAREN C. SIDERELIS, North Carolina Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Raleigh ROBERT TUFTS, TASC, Reston, Virginia NANCY VON MEYER, Fairview Industries, Middleton, Wisconsin Staff THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Staff Officer JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant v
Preface BACKGROUND The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is autho- rized by law to "provide charts and related information for the safe navigation of marine and air commerce." (33 U.S.C. 883A).i The primary role of nautical charts is to help assure safety of navigation and to support a wide range of maritime enterprises such as commercial transport, naval operations, fishing, and recre- ational boating; however, nautical information is of increasing importance to coastal land development, research, conservation, and coastal zone planning. A previous report of the National Research Council (NRC, 1994a) documents the expanding community of users for this information. The process of creating nautical charts is undergoing a technological revolu- tion. Map and chart information has been traditionally provided in the form of paper products. The expanded use of computers and electronic display systems is creating a demand for digital data. In the near future, professional mariners and others will increasingly rely on electronic navigation information systems. The international legal requirements that ships carry paper charts are being modified to allow for the use of certified electronic chart systems in place of paper charts. At the same time, many other mariners will continue to depend on traditional paper products. Because of the growth of electronic navigation systems, the nau- tical charting mission of NOAA is evolving from a mission of solely producing a one-product paper chart series to creating and maintaining a digital database from which many products, analyses, and services could flow to customers. NOAA is limited to production of charts of waters of the United States, its territories, and posses- sions. It may conduct hydrographic surveys of foreign waters, however. . . Vil
. . . V111 PREFACE The Automated Nautical Charting System (ANCS II) has been developed by NOAA as a way to automate the production of paper chart products from a digital database. Design requirements established in 1988 called for ANCS II to be responsive to user requirements for advanced digital products (e.g., data sets for electronic charts). Digital product capabilities, however, have not been imple- mented. ANCS II is a computer system to automate the production of updated paper chart products from a database known as the nautical information data- base. Compared to current methods, the use of digital data to produce paper chart products can be a more efficient way to implement, produce, and maintain the process. At NOAA's request, this study was undertaken with the oversight of the Marine Board of the National Research Council Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems and the Mapping Science Committee of the National Research Council Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources to identify and appraise technical and management issues for the future of NOAA's nautical charting mission during the transition to a digital system. The focus of the study was the ANCS II system and other systems currently used by NOAA to produce digital charts. A more extensive examination of associated issues (users' needs, collection of source data from hydrographic surveys, the emergence of a nautical geographic information system, private sector partnerships, and other topics) can be found in an earlier report by the Marine Board (NRC, 1994a). COMMITTEE COMPOSITION AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY A committee of nine members was convened by the National Research Coun- cil to undertake the present study. Biographies of committee members are pro- vided in appendix A. Committee member expertise included chart production technology and management, geographic information systems development and applications, navigation technology, and systems engineering for information technology. Committee members also included individuals with experience in overseeing transitions from old to new technology in federal or national agencies. Care was taken to include experts from the topographic mapping and aeronautical charting communities, as well as experts on nautical charting, and to incorporate those with knowledge of the international context of the change to digital nautical charts. The committee also included members familiar with the needs of the ship- ping industry and the recreational boating community. The committee was asked to assess the current and planned capabilities of the Automated Nautical Charting System (ANCS II) and its role in meeting the nation' s needs for nautical information. The committee reviewed the findings of earlier studies and acquired additional information through interviews, briefings, a technical review commissioned by NOAA, and an internal U.S. Department of Commerce program review. Based on the findings from these activities, which included technical and programmatic issues, the committee prepared this report
PREFACE ix on the requirements for improving nautical charts and inflation. The objective of this assessment was to delineate the most effective approach to the digital nautical information era. The report provides guidance to NOAA on priorities that target limited resources for nautical charting and recommends management strategies for a smooth, effective transition. HOW THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED The committee initiated the study with an overview of the current status and capabilities of the program with briefings provided by NOAA personnel. The background information for this study included a system review by the U.S. De- partment of Commerce and a technical review and evaluation by an outside group of experts (IRM, 1995; Goodchild et al., 1995~. During the course of the study, the NOAA Office of Coast Survey provided a comprehensive modernization plan for nautical charting services (NOS, 1995), which served as a basis for the committee's description of the present status of the ANCS II and other digital nautical chart production and updating systems and as a basis for assessment of related management issues. Committee members visited NOAA's chart produc- tion facilities and received comprehensive demonstrations of the full suite of tech- nical capabilities for the production of the current range of chart information products. The primary focus of the study was to assess the results of the technical review, examine the technical issues identified in the review, evaluate prior stud- ies on management issues, and recommend steps for completion of the develop- ment, operation, and technical management of a nautical information database. This committee took the findings of an earlier Marine Board report (NRC, 1994a) as the starting point for their assessment. ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT An Executive Summary provides a synopsis of the report. Chapter 1 pro- vides the background and context for the study and includes a discussion of pre- vious reports on NOAA's nautical charting activities and ANCS II. Chapter 1 also describes the status of NOAA's chart production activities and plans for modernization. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the existing and future need for nautical information data and efforts by NOAA to meet those needs. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss the technical considerations and programmatic requirements neces- sary for an effective and efficient digital production system. Alternatives are pre- sented to illustrate the tradeoffs and analyses that must be considered as NOAA moves ahead. The findings, conclusions, and recommendations derived from the com- mittee's investigation are presented in chapter 5. Appendices are included to provide detailed technical and programmatic information relevant to the more
x PREFACE general discussion found in the body of the report. Appendix A contains biogra- phies of committee members Appendix B presents a summary of the Nautical Charting Services Production Modernization Plan. Appendix C provides a primer on the best available management principles and practices gleaned from gener- ally recognized business practices and academic research in systems engineering and management disciplines. Appendix D defines for the general reader the tech- nical dimensions of the data formats and chart systems that are currently avail- able for creating an electronic database. Appendix E is an analysis of costs asso- ciated with building a nautical information database. This analysis takes into consideration comparable efforts by other agencies and costs associated with NOAA's efforts to date. This report is intended to serve as a guide to NOAA in making decisions on the appropriate allocation of resources available for a nautical charting mission and to the private sector and other agencies in stimulating thought and action to forge formal and informal sharing of resources and ideas to meet the need for nautical information products in the future. \
Acknowledgments The committee extends particular appreciation to Donald Pryor, federal liai- son from the National Ocean Service, for his assistance during the course of the study. Other federal agency liaisons to the study were James Jancaitis from the U.S. Geological Survey, Keith Littlefield from the Defense Mapping Agency, and Frank Parker from the U.S. Coast Guard, who also provided invaluable infor- mation on agency activities and perspectives on the issues under examination in this study. Staff members from the Office of Coast Survey at NOAA and the Defense Mapping Agency made timely and enthusiastic contributions to the com- mittee. Xl
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 OVERVIEW OF THE NAUTICAL CHARTING MISSION Automated Nautical Charting System (ANCS II) and Super Computer-Assisted Revision SystemlComputer-Assisted Compilation (SCARS/CAC), 5 Concerns about Nautical Charting Activities, 6 Era of Change, 8 2 EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION NEEDS AND PRODUCTS Customers and Their Needs, 10 Digital Chart Systems, 12 Database Requirements, 14 3 TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS Paper and Raster Charts, 18 Populating the Vector Database, 18 Data Perishability, 20 Data Standards, 20 Commercial Off-the-Shelf and Open Systems, 21 System Development and Engineering and Management Capabilities, 24 TECHNICAL PATH TO AN OPEN SYSTEM Current Software Tools, 25 Path Forward, 27 Examples of Alternative Systems, 29 Comments on the NOAA Modernization Plan, 33 . . . x''~ 1 4 10 18 25
XIV CONTENTS FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 34 Summary, 34 Findings, 35 Conclusions, 35 Recommendations, 36 APPENDICES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members B Production Modernization Plan C Management Guidelines for Future System Development Projects D Data Fo:~ats and Chart Systems E Estimate of Costs for Building a Database REFERENCES 41 45 47 52 57 59
List of Figures 2-1 Future View of Shared Responsibilities to Meet Nautical Information Needs, 15 4-1 ANCS II as Envisioned, 30 4-2 Partial ANCS II with SCARS/CAC, 31 4-3 SCARS/CAC Plus COTS, No ANCS II, 32 xv