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PAPERS COMMISSIONED FOR A WORKSHOP ON THE FEDERAL ROLE 1~ RESEARCH AND DEVEI~OPNENT November 19 8 5 Sponsored by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy and the Academy Indus try Pro gram National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine Supported by the Office of Energy Research U. S . Department of Energy and the Academy Industry Program
GENERAL O N T E N T S A Historical Overview of the Evolution of Federal Investment 1 in Research and Development Since World War II Nathan Rosenberg Federal Support of Applied Research: A Review of the United States Experience Albert H. Teich 31 . Economics, Politics, and Government Research' and l:)e~relopment 5 Roger G. Noll and Linda R. Cohen lithe Government Ro le in Res earch and Deve lopment: the European Co~nmutlity Frangais Lafontaine ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Economic Measures of the Returns deco Federal Research and Development Peter C. Reiss Assessing the Impact of Federal Industrial Research and Development Expandi~re on Private Research and Deere lopment Acti~rit~r Frank R. Lichtenberg The Case of 7: ,~ _ ~ , 113 Measuring Economic Effects of Federal Research and Development 149 Expenditures: Recent History with Special Emphasis on Federal R&D Performed in Industry Nes tor E . Teriecky] SELECTED SECTORS Returns on Federal Investments: Harvey Brooks Biomedical Research and Development: on Investment Jeffrey E. Harris Energy Research and Development John F. Ahearne lithe Physical Sciences 171 Measuring the Returns 19 5 211 . . . 111 -
Impact of Defense Research and Development Inves cements on the 243 Civilian Sector George Gamota Measuring the Economic Impact of Federal Research and Development Investment in Civilian Space Activities Henry R. Hertzfeld 251 Federal Funding of Research and Development in Transportation: 301 Lee Case of Aviation Da~rid C. Mowery Federal Research and Development and U.S. Agriculture An Assessment of Role and Productivity Effects Robert D. Wearer TV 347
I N T R O ~ U C T I O N These papers were commissioned as background materials for a workshop on the federal role in research and development, which was held in November 1985. The workshop was organized as the result of a request by the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy to examine existing methods for measuring ache economic returns of federal investments in research and desire lopment . Workshop participants reviewed two topics: (~) measuring economy c returns on federal investments in research and development, and ~ 2 ~ policies relating to the support of applied research . The conclus ions reached are given in a report entitled The Federal Rol e in Research and Developmenc. While supplies last, copies of ache report can be obtained, free of charge, from Ms . Audrey Pendergast, Room NAS 342, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D. C. 20418. In this set , the papers are divided into three sections: ~ 1) general. containing historical and background information, (2) economic analysis and ~ 3 ~ selected sectors covered. However' copies of the papers can be purchased individually, as well as in a set, from the National Academy Press, at the address given in the preceding paragraph. Prices, order. information, and an order form are included herein. or
THE FEDERAL ROLE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Papers Commissioned for a Workshop in November 19 8 5 . Fourteen papers were commits toned for the above workshop . They are available singly and as a set from the Publications-on-Demand service of the National Academy Press. Their titles, authors, and prices are lis ted on the attached sheet . Reques ts for papers are to be mailed, together with an institutional purchase order or p repayment, to: Pub l ications - on- Demand National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N. W. Washington, D. C. 20418 A purchase order or prepayment must accompany all orders. Prepayment can be in the fores of: check, payable to National Academy Press money order, payable to National Academy Press credit card: American Express, VISA, and Mastercard are accep~ced; card number, validity and expiration dates, - signature9 and telephone number must be included with all credit card sales There are no discounts or returns on publications-on-demand. Taxes, shipping, and handling charges are included in the price of each paper. Orders will be received one deco two weeks after they have been pl aced. .
THE FEDERAL ROLE IN RESEARCH AND DENIELOP=NT Papers Commissioned for the Woricshop in November 1985 Title _ Author and Affiliation Price Er.ergy Research and Deve lopmenc Returns on Federal Invesemen es: The Physical Sciences Impac t of Defense Researc.h and Develop - ment Investments on the Civilian Sec tor Biomedical Research and Development: Measuring the Returns on Investment Measuring the Economic Impac ~ of Federal Research and Development Investment in Civilian Space act:xrit~es The Governmen ~ Rol e in Resea -c]2 and Developruenc: The Case of the European Gommuni by Assessing Age Impact of Federal Industrial Research and Level opulent Expendi Cure on Preface Research and Development Activity Federal Funding of Research and Develop- men ~ in Transportation: The Case of Aviation Economics, Poll tics, and Government Research and Development Economic Measures of the Returns co Federal Research and Development A Historical Overview of the Evolution of Federal Investment In Research and Developmene Since World Ear II John F. Ahearne, ResQurces $8~50 for the Future Harvey Brooks 9 . $7 . 00 Harvard University George Gamota, 1 $7 . 00 Univers ity of Michigan Jeffrey E. Harris, Massachusetts Institute of Technology $7.00 Henry R. Hertzfeld, $8 . 50 Consultant Frangois Lafontaine, Delega- $7.00 tion of the Commission of the European Communities Frank R. Lichtenberg, $8.50 Columbia University David C. Mowery, $8. 50 Carnegie-Mellon University2 Roger G. Noll, Stanford University, and Linda R. Cohen, University of Washington Peter Ce Reiss, Stanford University Nathan Rosenberg, Stanford University $7.00 $8 50 $8.50 iNow affiliated with Thermal Electron. 2Now affiliated with the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. ~ ix
to - =d ra ~ ~ U-Dort or Applied Research: A Review of the United S rates E"Ype~i ence Measuring Economic Effects of Federal Research and Development Expenditures: Recenc History Hi to Special Emphasis on Federal R&D Performed in Industry Federal Research and Dexrelopment and U O S · Agr~cul sure: An Assessmer:e of Rot e and Produc tiers cy Effec es S e t containing all of the above papers Albert H . Te ich, American Association for the Advanc ement 0 f S c i enc e Nestor E. Terleclcyj, National Planning As sociation Robert O. heaver, Me Pennsylvania S tate Uni~rersiq $7.00 $7.00 $~.50 $29.50 ORDER FORM Detach and returns to: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N. W. Washington, D. C. 20418 Please print: N~rne Address S tate Please send the following: Quantitv Title Please check one 10/8 6 Zip code . I enclose ~ check or money order. I enclose purchase order no. Charge my American Express/NJISA/MasterCard account no: Price Card valid: S ignature: Expires: Tel. no. ( )
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