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Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects (1986)

Chapter: Appendix A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
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Page 279
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
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Page 280
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
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Page 281
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×
Page 282
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
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Page 283

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APPENDIX A 279 Appendix A Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Table A-1 gives a series of guidelines for public and industrial populations regarding exposure to chemicals that are also constituents in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Not all of the constituents of ETS thought to be toxic or carcinogenic have had guideline levels established. The values in the table are taken from the fourth edition of the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values, published by the American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (1986). The NIOSH recommendations and OSHA standards can be found in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1981). Each of these guidelines and standards has been established with different considerations in mind. The EPA standards, which apply to outdoor environments, have been established by law to protect the most susceptible individuals. The OSHA standards and ACGIH, NIOSH, and European guidelines have been established for the normal, healthy adult working populations. These guidelines accept some level of risk to some people. They do not consider children, the elderly, or populations with preexisting health conditions who may be at greater risk for health effects of exposure. The appropriate guidelines for susceptible populations probably would be lower. These industrial guidelines also differ from the environmental standards in that they assume that the exposure is limited to a workday period or a time-limited emergency.

APPENDIX A 280 TABLE A-1 Some Occupational and Public Standards for Materials That Are Also in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Public Industrial EPA ACGIHa NIOSHb OSHAc European Standardsd Vapor Phase Carbon monoxide 1 mg/m3—max. TLVe—50 ppm 35 ppm—8 h 50 ppm West Germany— 8-h STELf—400 TWAg 50 ppm 40 mg/m3—max. ppm 200 ppm ceilh Sweden—35 ppm 1-h (no min time) Neither to be exceeded more than once per year Carbon dioxide None TLV—5,000 10,000 ppm— 5,000 ppm — ppm 10-h TWA STEL—30,000 30,000 ppm— ppm 10-min ceil. Benzene None TLV—10 ppm 1 ppm—60-min 10 ppm Sweden—10 ppm A2 ceil. 50 ppm—10- West Germany—0 min ceil. ppm Toluene None TLV—100 ppm 100 ppm—10-h 200 ppm West Germany— STEL—150 TWA 300 ppm ceil. 200 ppm ppm 200 ppm—10- 500 ppm—10- Sweden—100 min ceil. min peak ppm Formaldehyde None TLV—1 ppm Lowest feasible 3 ppm Sweden—2 ppm A2 limit 5 ppm ceil. West Germany—1 10 ppm—30- ppm min ceil. Acrolein None TLV—0.1 ppm None 0.1 ppm — STEL—0.3 ppm Acetone None TLV—750 ppm 250 ppm—10-h 1,000 ppm Sweden—500 STEL—1,000 TWA ppm ppm Germany—1,000 ppm Pyridine None TLV—5 ppm None 5 ppm West Germany, STEL—10 ppm Sweden—5 ppm Hydrogen cyanide None Ceiling limiti— 4.7 ppm—10- 4.7 ppm West Germany, 10 ppm min ceil. Great Britain—10 ppm

APPENDIX A 281 Hydrazine None TLV—0.1 0.04 mg/m3 1 ppm — ppm —120-min A2 ceil. Ammonia None TLV—25 50 ppm—5- 50 ppm West Germany ppm min ceil. —50 ppm STEL—35 Sweden—25 ppm ppm Methylamine None TLV—10 None 10 ppm — ppm Dimethylamine None TLV—10 None 10 ppm — ppm Nitrogen oxide None TLV—25 25 ppm 25 ppm—10-h — ppm TWA Nitrogen dioxide 0.053 ppm— TLV—3 ppm 1 ppm—15 5 ppm ceil. West Germany annual arithmetic STEL—5 min ceil. —5 ppm mean ppm Sweden—2 ppm N-Nitrosodimethylamine None A2 None Listed as a — cancer-suspect agent Formic acid None TLV—5 ppm None 5 ppm — Acetic acid None TLV—10 None 10 ppm — ppm STEL—15 ppm Participate phase Participate matter 75 µ g/m3— TLV—10 None 15 mg/m3 — annual geometric mg/m3 mean 260 µ g/m3/24-h max Not to be exceeded more than once per year Nicotine None TLV—0.5 None 0.5 mg/m3 — mg/m3 Phenol None TLV—19 20 mg/m3 — 19 mg/m3 West Germany mg/m3 10-h TWA —19 mg/m3 60 mg/m3 — 15-min ceil. Catechol None TLV—5 ppm None None — Hydroquinone None TLV—2 mg/ 2 mg/m3 — 2 mg/m3 — m3 15-min ceil. Aniline None TLV—2 ppm None 5 ppm — 2-Toluidine None TLV—2 ppm None 5 ppm West Germany A2 —5 ppm

APPENDIX A 282 Public Industrial EPA ACGIHa NIOSHb OSHAc European Standardsd 2-Naphthylamine None A1b None Listed as a cancer-suspect agent — 4-Aminobiphenyl None A1b None Listed as a cancer-suspect agent — aAmerican Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists. b National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. cOccupational Safety and Health Administration. d Includes standards set in Sweden, Great Britain, and West Germany as examples. eTLV=threshold limit value—time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday, 40-hour week. fSTEL=short-term exposure limit—15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded. g TWA=time-weighted average. h Ceil.=ceiling. iCeiling Limit—concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. A2—Industrial substance suspect of carcinogenic potential for man; exposure should be avoided. A1b—Human carcinogen. Substance associated with industrial processes, recognized to have carcinogenic potential without an assigned TLV. For substances of this designation, no exposure or contact by any route—respiratory, skin, or oral, as detected by the most sensitive methods —should be permitted. NOTE: Materials in ETS for which there are no standards: carbonyl sulfide, 3-methylpyridine, 3-vinylpyridine, anatabine, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, cholesterol, y-butyrolactone, quinoline, harman, N-nitrosonornicotine, NNK, N-nitrosodiethanolamine, zinc, polonium-210.

APPENDIX A 283 The guidelines are given in terms of cumulative exposure over a period of time or in terms of maximal concentrations. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is the time-weighted average concentration of a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour work week. The Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is defined as a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday, even if the 8-hour time-weighted average is within the TLV. Exposures at the STEL should not be repeated more than four times per day, with at least 60 minutes between successive exposures at the STEL. The ceiling limit is the concentration that should never be exceeded. Finally, it should be noted that the guidelines are established for individual chemicals, without consideration of complex mixtures that may contain these chemicals. The behavior of the chemicals in a complex mixture over time is likely to be complicated. In summary, the direct comparisons of these guidelines with ambient levels measured in natural or experimental conditions should be made with caution. In some cases, the comparison may be inappropriate. REFERENCES American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, fifth ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH, 1986. 743 pp. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHEW Publ. No. 85–14. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1985. 241 pp. Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarksyddsstyrelsens). Hygieniska Gransvarden. Stockholm, Sweden: Liber Distribution, 1984. 60 pp.

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This comprehensive book examines the recent research investigating the characteristics and composition of different types of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and discusses possible health effects of ETS. The volume presents an overview of methods used to determine exposures to environmental smoke and reviews both chronic and acute health effects. Many recommendations are made for areas of further research, including the differences between smokers and nonsmokers in absorbing, metabolizing, and excreting the components of ETS, and the possible effects of ETS exposure during childhood and fetal life.

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