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Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects (1986)

Chapter: APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×

Appendix A:
Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Table A-1 gives a series of guidelines for public and industrial populations regarding exposure to chemicals that are also constituents in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Not all of the constituents of ETS thought to be toxic or carcinogenic have had guideline levels established. The values in the table are taken from the fourth edition of the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values, published by the American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (1986). The NIOSH recommendations and OSHA standards can be found in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1981).

Each of these guidelines and standards has been established with different considerations in mind. The EPA standards, which apply to outdoor environments, have been established by law to protect the most susceptible individuals. The OSHA standards and ACGIH, NIOSH, and European guidelines have been established for the normal, healthy adult working populations. These guidelines accept some level of risk to some people. They do not consider children, the elderly, or populations with preexisting health conditions who may be at greater risk for health effects of exposure. The appropriate guidelines for susceptible populations probably would be lower. These industrial guidelines also differ from the environmental standards in that they assume that the exposure is limited to a workday period or a time-limited emergency.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×

TABLE A-1 Some Occupational and Public Standards for Materials That Are Also in Environmental Tobacco Smoke

 

Public

Industrial

 

EPA

ACGIHa

NIOSHb

OSHAc

European Standardsd

Vapor Phase

 

Carbon monoxide

1 mg/m3—max. 8-h

40 mg/m3—max. 1-h

Neither to be exceeded more than once per year

TLVe—50 ppm

STELf—400 ppm

35 ppm—8 h TWAg

200 ppm ceilh (no min time)

50 ppm

West Germany—50 ppm

Sweden—35 ppm

Carbon dioxide

None

TLV—5,000 ppm

STEL—30,000 ppm

10,000 ppm—10-h TWA

30,000 ppm—10-min ceil.

5,000 ppm

Benzene

None

TLV—10 ppm

A2

1 ppm—60-min ceil.

10 ppm

50 ppm—10-min ceil.

Sweden—10 ppm

West Germany—0 ppm

Toluene

None

TLV—100 ppm

STEL—150 ppm

100 ppm—10-h TWA

200 ppm—10-min ceil.

200 ppm

300 ppm ceil.

500 ppm—10-min peak

West Germany—200 ppm

Sweden—100 ppm

Formaldehyde

None

TLV—1 ppm

A2

Lowest feasible limit

3 ppm

5 ppm ceil.

10 ppm—30-min ceil.

Sweden—2 ppm

West Germany—1 ppm

Acrolein

None

TLV—0.1 ppm

STEL—0.3 ppm

None

0.1 ppm

Acetone

None

TLV—750 ppm

STEL—1,000 ppm

250 ppm—10-h TWA

1,000 ppm

Sweden—500 ppm

Germany—1,000 ppm

Pyridine

None

TLV—5 ppm

STEL—10 ppm

None

5 ppm

West Germany, Sweden—5 ppm

Hydrogen cyanide

None

Ceiling limiti—10 ppm

4.7 ppm—10-min ceil.

4.7 ppm

West Germany, Great Britain—10 ppm

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×

Hydrazine

None

TLV—0.1 ppm

A2

0.04 mg/m3—120-min ceil.

1 ppm

Ammonia

None

TLV—25 ppm

STEL—35 ppm

50 ppm—5-min ceil.

50 ppm

West Germany—50 ppm

Sweden—25 ppm

Methylamine

None

TLV—10 ppm

None

10 ppm

Dimethylamine

None

TLV—10 ppm

None

10 ppm

Nitrogen oxide

None

TLV—25 ppm

25 ppm

25 ppm—10-h TWA

Nitrogen dioxide

0.053 ppm—annual arithmetic mean

TLV—3 ppm

STEL—5 ppm

1 ppm—15 min ceil.

5 ppm ceil.

West Germany—5 ppm

Sweden—2 ppm

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

None

A2

None

Listed as a cancer-suspect agent

Formic acid

None

TLV—5 ppm

None

5 ppm

Acetic acid

None

TLV—10 ppm

STEL—15 ppm

None

10 ppm

Participate phase

Participate matter

75 µg/m3—annual geometric mean

260 µg/m3/24-h max

Not to be exceeded more than once per year

TLV—10 mg/m3

None

15 mg/m3

Nicotine

None

TLV—0.5 mg/m3

None

0.5 mg/m3

Phenol

None

TLV—19 mg/m3

20 mg/m3—10-h TWA

60 mg/m3—15-min ceil.

19 mg/m3

West Germany—19 mg/m3

Catechol

None

TLV—5 ppm

None

None

Hydroquinone

None

TLV—2 mg/m3

2 mg/m3—15-min ceil.

2 mg/m3

Aniline

None

TLV—2 ppm

None

5 ppm

2-Toluidine

None

TLV—2 ppm

A2

None

5 ppm

West Germany—5 ppm

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×

 

Public

Industrial

 

EPA

ACGIHa

NIOSHb

OSHAc

European Standardsd

2-Naphthylamine

None

A1b

None

Listed as a cancer-suspect agent

4-Aminobiphenyl

None

A1b

None

Listed as a cancer-suspect agent

aAmerican Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists.

bNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

cOccupational Safety and Health Administration.

dIncludes standards set in Sweden, Great Britain, and West Germany as examples.

eTLV=threshold limit value—time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday, 40-hour week.

fSTEL=short-term exposure limit—15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded.

gTWA=time-weighted average.

hCeil.=ceiling.

iCeiling Limit—concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.

A2—Industrial substance suspect of carcinogenic potential for man; exposure should be avoided.

A1b—Human carcinogen. Substance associated with industrial processes, recognized to have carcinogenic potential without an assigned TLV. For substances of this designation, no exposure or contact by any route—respiratory, skin, or oral, as detected by the most sensitive methods—should be permitted.

NOTE: Materials in ETS for which there are no standards: carbonyl sulfide, 3-methylpyridine, 3-vinylpyridine, anatabine, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, cholesterol, y-butyrolactone, quinoline, harman, N-nitrosonornicotine, NNK, N-nitrosodiethanolamine, zinc, polonium-210.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×

The guidelines are given in terms of cumulative exposure over a period of time or in terms of maximal concentrations. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is the time-weighted average concentration of a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour work week. The Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is defined as a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday, even if the 8-hour time-weighted average is within the TLV. Exposures at the STEL should not be repeated more than four times per day, with at least 60 minutes between successive exposures at the STEL. The ceiling limit is the concentration that should never be exceeded.

Finally, it should be noted that the guidelines are established for individual chemicals, without consideration of complex mixtures that may contain these chemicals. The behavior of the chemicals in a complex mixture over time is likely to be complicated. In summary, the direct comparisons of these guidelines with ambient levels measured in natural or experimental conditions should be made with caution. In some cases, the comparison may be inappropriate.

REFERENCES

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, fifth ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH, 1986. 743 pp.


National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHEW Publ. No. 85–14. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1985. 241 pp.


Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarksyddsstyrelsens). Hygieniska Gransvarden. Stockholm, Sweden: Liber Distribution, 1984. 60 pp.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×
Page 279
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×
Page 280
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×
Page 282
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke." National Research Council. 1986. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/943.
×
Page 283
Next: APPENDIX B: Method of Combining Data From Studies of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Cancer »
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This comprehensive book examines the recent research investigating the characteristics and composition of different types of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and discusses possible health effects of ETS. The volume presents an overview of methods used to determine exposures to environmental smoke and reviews both chronic and acute health effects. Many recommendations are made for areas of further research, including the differences between smokers and nonsmokers in absorbing, metabolizing, and excreting the components of ETS, and the possible effects of ETS exposure during childhood and fetal life.

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